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use of cryotherapy in acute sports injuries

M Point, G Guilhem, F Hug, A Nordez, A Frey, L Lacourpaille
Although cold application (ie, cryotherapy) may be useful to treat sports injuries and to prevent muscle damage, it is unclear whether it has adverse effects on muscle mechanical properties. This study aimed to determine the effect of air-pulsed cryotherapy on muscle stiffness estimated using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Myoelectrical activity, ankle passive torque, shear modulus (an index of stiffness), and muscle temperature of the gastrocnemius medialis were measured before, during an air-pulsed cryotherapy (-30°C) treatment of four sets of 4 minutes with 1-minute recovery in between and during a 40 minutes postcryotherapy period...
January 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Dimitrios Stasinopoulos, Costas Papadopoulos, Dimitrios Lamnisos, Ioannis Stasinopoulos
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Bioptron light therapy for the treatment of acute ankle sprains. Method A parallel group, single-blind, controlled study was carried out in patients with grade II acute ankle sprains. Patients were randomly allocated into two treatment groups (n = 25 for each). Both groups received cryotherapy, and the test group also received Bioptron light therapy. All treatments were performed daily for 5 d. Evaluations included self-reported pain via a visual analogue scale, degree of ankle edema, and ankle range of motion via goniometry carried out before the treatment and at the end of the treatment...
March 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Diego Costa Astur, João Vitor Novaretti, Renato Kalil Uehbe, Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani, Eduardo Ramalho Moraes, Alberto de Castro Pochini, Benno Ejnisman, Moises Cohen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the management, procedures and perspectives of sports physicians and orthopedists in Brazil with regard to diagnosing and treating muscle injuries. METHODS: A questionnaire containing 20 questions relating to the topic of muscle injury was applied to sports physicians and orthopedists during the Second Brazilian Congress of Arthroscopy and Sports Traumatology, in 2013. RESULTS: Completely answered questionnaires were received from 168 sports physicians and orthopedists...
November 2014: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
C Huber, J Swanenburg, M Leusch, P M Tscholl
BACKGROUND: The application of ice or other forms of cooling represent a common method to treat acute musculoskeletal injuries during sporting events in order to reduce pain. Often athletes return to competition immediately after cooling. It is not known if short-term cryotherapy in the form of ice spray has an influence on the joint's dynamic stability. The aim of this study was to investigate if application of ice spray to the ankle has an effect on the dynamic stability of the joint in healthy participants...
June 2015: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Peter K Thain, Christopher M Bleakley, Andrew C S Mitchell
CONTEXT: Cryotherapy is used widely in sport and exercise medicine to manage acute injuries and facilitate rehabilitation. The analgesic effects of cryotherapy are well established; however, a potential caveat is that cooling tissue negatively affects neuromuscular control through delayed muscle reaction time. This topic is important to investigate because athletes often return to exercise, rehabilitation, or competitive activity immediately or shortly after cryotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, and an untreated control condition on peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain...
July 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
Jeffrey D Tiemstra
Ankle sprains are a common problem seen by primary care physicians, especially among teenagers and young adults. Most ankle sprains are inversion injuries to the lateral ankle ligaments, although high sprains representing damage to the tibiofibular syndesmosis are becoming increasingly recognized. Physicians should apply the Ottawa ankle rules to determine whether radiography is needed. According to the Ottawa criteria, radiography is indicated if there is pain in the malleolar or midfoot zone, and either bone tenderness over an area of potential fracture (i...
June 15, 2012: American Family Physician
Chris M Bleakley, Joseph T Costello
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of thermal agents on the range of movement (ROM) and mechanical properties in soft tissue and to discuss their clinical relevance. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from their earliest available record up to May 2011 using Medical Subjects Headings and key words. We also undertook related articles searches and read reference lists of all incoming articles...
January 2013: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
F A Kaempffe
Cryotherapy is widely used as standard therapy in the initial management of acute musculoskeletal injuries. Early and more complete recovery in certain acute soft tissue injuries is accomplished through a reduction in inflammation, edema, hematoma formation, and pain. The effectiveness of cryotherapy in acutely casted extremity injuries is unknown. This single subject study demonstrates that a reduction in skin surface temperature occurs after the application of cryotherapy to a casted upper extremity. Conventional short arm plaster and fiberglass casts were fabricated...
1989: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Chris M Bleakley, Seán O'Connor, Mark A Tully, Laurence G Rocke, Domnhall C Macauley, Suzanne M McDonough
BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy (the application of ice for therapeutic purposes) is one of the most common treatment modalities employed in the immediate management of acute soft tissue injury. Despite its widespread clinical use, the precise physiological responses to therapeutic cooling have not been fully elucidated, and effective evidence-based treatment protocols are yet to be established. Intermittent ice applications are thought to exert a significant analgesic effect. This could facilitate earlier therapeutic exercise after injury, potentially allowing for a quicker return to activity...
December 19, 2007: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Ron Clijsen, Jan Taeymans, Peter Clarys, Jan Cabri
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological data show a high injury incidence of the lateral capsular ankle ligaments. About half of the ankle injuries occur during sporting activities, due to an inversion trauma. Although inversion injuries of the ankle are a common problem in physical therapy, there is a converse variety of treatment strategies and differences in therapy outcome. There still seems to be a lack of evidence-based physical therapy strategies for this problem. The aim of this study was to scrutinize literature for the effectiveness of the physical therapy in patients with ankle sprain...
June 2007: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Craig A Wassinger, Joseph B Myers, Joseph M Gatti, Kevin M Conley, Scott M Lephart
CONTEXT: Application of cryotherapy modalities is common after acute shoulder injury and as part of rehabilitation. During athletic events, athletes may return to play after this treatment. The effects of cryotherapy on dominant shoulder proprioception have been assessed, yet the effects on throwing performance are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a cryotherapy application on shoulder proprioception and throwing accuracy. DESIGN: Single-group, pretest-posttest control session design...
January 2007: Journal of Athletic Training
Patria A Hume, Duncan Reid, Tony Edwards
Epicondylar injuries in sports with overhead or repetitive arm actions are frequent and often severe. Acute injury that results in inflammation should be termed epicondylitis and is usually the result of large valgus forces with medial distraction and lateral compression. Epicondylosis develops over a longer period of time from repetitive forces and results in structural changes in the tendon. Epicondylalgia refers to elbow pain at either the medial or lateral epicondyl of the elbow related to tendinopathy of the common flexor or extensor tendon origins at these points...
2006: Sports Medicine
Tricia J Hubbard, Craig R Denegar
REFERENCE: Bleakley C, McDonough S, MacAuley D. The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Sport Med. 2004; 32:251-261. CLINICAL QUESTION: What is the clinical evidence base for cryotherapy use? DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases: MEDLINE, Proquest, ISI Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) on Ovid, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) on Ovid, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Central)...
September 2004: Journal of Athletic Training
Tricia J. Hubbard, Stephanie L. Aronson, Craig R. Denegar
OBJECTIVE: To search the English-language literature for original research addressing the effect of cryotherapy on return to participation after injury. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, SPORT Discus, the Cochrane Reviews database, and CINAHL from 1976 to 2003 to identify randomized clinical trials of cryotherapy. Key words used were cryotherapy, return to participation, cold treatment, ice, injury, sport, edema, and pain. DATA SYNTHESIS: Original research, including outcomes-assessment measures of return to participation of injured subjects, was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale...
March 2004: Journal of Athletic Training
Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, Albert J. Petitpas, Joseph H. Sklar, Mark H. Pohlman, Robert J. Krushell, Terry D. Ditmar
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the relationships between psychological factors and rehabilitation adherence after knee surgery differ as a function of age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Participants completed inventories of self-motivation, social support, athletic identity, and psychological distress before anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. After surgery, participants recorded their completion of home rehabilitation exercises and cryotherapy, and the sport rehabilitation professionals providing their treatment reported on the patients' attendance at, and adherence during, rehabilitation sessions...
June 2003: Journal of Athletic Training
D C Mac Auley
Ice, compression and elevation are the basic principles of acute soft tissue injury. Few clinicians, however, can give specific evidence based guidance on the appropriate duration of each individual treatment session, the frequency of application, or the length of the treatment program. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the original literature on cryotherapy in acute soft tissue injury and produce evidence based guidance on treatment. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, SportDiscus and the database of the National Sports Medicine Institute (UK) using the key words ice, injury, sport, exercise...
July 2001: International Journal of Sports Medicine
D MacAuley
OBJECTIVE: To study ice therapy guidance in sports medicine textbooks. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of a convenience sample of textbooks. STUDY SELECTION: 45 general sports medicine texts were included in the study. DATA EXTRACTION: The indices and chapter headings of each text were searched using key words "ice," "cryotherapy," "soft tissue injury," "muscle," and "bruise." DATA SYNTHESIS: In 17 of the textbooks, there was no guidance on the duration, frequency, or length of ice treatment or on the use of barriers between ice and the skin...
April 2001: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
A Andrén-Sandberg, O Thorsson
The reason for an athlete to consult a physician is almost always pain in some form. Several non-pharmacological alternative remedies are practised in sports medicine, which may be worth knowing about and even of use in other fields of medicine. Such practices include compression treatment, body part elevation, and cryotherapy, which have precise indications but also important limitations. The use of analgesia to mask sports injuries is not only ethically dubious, but also difficult practically as it is seldom possible to obtain adequate pain relief without significantly impairing performance...
February 3, 1999: Läkartidningen
W Zarzycki, A Lorczyński, W Ziółkowski
Complete acromioclavicular separation is frequent injury during practice of judo. Fourteen athletes aged 17-33 (mean 23) were treated non-operatively. All patients received cryotherapy and Velpeau bandage for two weeks, intensive rehabilitation of the shoulder followed. The patients were reviewed after mean 4.5 years (range 3-7 years). A 100-point scale designed specifically for this study, inclusive of pain, function, strength, range of motion and return to preinjury level of sports activity was used for clinical assessment...
1998: Chirurgia Narzadów Ruchu i Ortopedia Polska
C Swenson, L Swärd, J Karlsson
The use of cryotherapy, i.e. the application of cold for the treatment of injury or disease, is widespread in sports medicine today. It is an established method when treating acute soft tissue injuries, but there is a discrepancy between the scientific basis for cryotherapy and clinical studies. Various methods such as ice packs, ice towels, ice massage, gel packs, refrigerant gases and inflatable splints can be used. Cold is also used to reduce the recovery time as part of the rehabilitation programme both after acute injuries and in the treatment of chronic injuries...
August 1996: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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