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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#1
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517235/new-psychoactive-substances-purchasing-and-supply-patterns-in-australia
#2
Rachel Sutherland, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Peacock, Paul Dietze, Courtney Breen, Lucinda Burns, Monica J Barratt
OBJECTIVE: To examine the purchasing and supply patterns of new psychoactive substance (NPS) consumers in Australia. METHOD: Data were obtained from a self-selected sample of 296 past-year NPS consumers, with comparisons made across dimethyltryptamine (n = 104), 2C-x (n = 59), NBOMe (n = 27), and synthetic cannabinoid (n = 22) users. RESULTS: Most consumers (58%) nominated a friend as their main NPS source, and almost half (46%) reported that they had supplied NPS to others in the past year (predominantly "social supply")...
May 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406320/underestimated-impact-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-laboratory-confirmation-of-recreational-drug-toxicity-in-oslo-norway
#3
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Per Sverre Persett, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut Erik Hovda
CONTEXT: Recreational drug toxicity is frequent. Availability of new psychoactive substances is steadily increasing. However, data with verified analyses from clinical settings are limited. To evaluate the impact of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) on recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway, we analysed samples from a selection of patients. METHODS: All the patients presenting with recreational drug toxicity at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) and at the Oslo University Hospital (OUH) were registered from April through September 2014...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378435/a-single-administration-of-the-hallucinogen-4-acetoxy-dimethyltryptamine-prevents-the-shift-to-a-drug-dependent-state-and-the-expression-of-withdrawal-aversions-in-rodents
#4
Hector Vargas-Perez, Taryn E Grieder, Ryan Ting-A-Kee, Geith Maal-Bared, Michal Chwalek, Derek van der Kooy
Despite several studies suggesting the therapeutic use of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors type 2A (5-HT2A ) agonists in the treatment of substance use disorders, the neurobiological basis accounting for such effects are still unknown. It has been observed that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse produces molecular and cellular adaptations in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These BDNF-induced adaptations in the VTA are associated with the establishment of aversive withdrawal motivation that leads to a drug-dependent state...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315276/the-sigma-1-receptor-a-therapeutic-target-for-the-treatment-of-als
#5
Timur A Mavlyutov, Erin M Baker, Tasher M Losenegger, Jaimie R Kim, Brian Torres, Miles L Epstein, Arnold E Ruoho
The membrane bound 223 amino acid Sigma-1 Receptor (S1R) serves as a molecular chaperone and functional regulator of many signaling proteins. Spinal cord motor neuron activation occurs, in part, via large ventral horn cholinergic synapses called C-boutons/C-terminals. Chronic excitation of motor neurons and alterations in C-terminals has been associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS ). The S1R has an important role in regulating motor neuron function. High levels of the S1R are localized in postsynaptic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subsurface cisternae within 10-20 nm of the plasma membrane that contain muscarinic type 2 acetylcholine receptors (M2AChR), calcium activated potassium channels (Kv2...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105971/determination-of-tryptamines-and-%C3%AE-carbolines-in-ayahuasca-beverage-consumed-during-brazilian-religious-ceremonies
#6
Mônica Cardoso Santos, Sandro Navickiene, Alain Gaujac
Ayahuasca is a potent hallucinogenic beverage prepared from Banisteriopsis caapi in combination with other psychoactive plants. N,N-dimethyltryptamine, tryptamine, harmine, harmaline, harmalol, and tetrahydroharmine were quantified in ayahuasca samples using a simple and low-cost method based on SPE and LC with UV diode-array detection. The experimental variables that affect the SPE method, such as type of solid phase and nature of solvent, were optimized. The method showed good linearity (r > 0.9902) and repeatability (RSD < 0...
May 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900674/serotonergic-hallucinogen-induced-visual-perceptual-alterations
#7
Michael Kometer, Franz X Vollenweider
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference")...
November 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896660/ayahuasca-exposure-descriptive-analysis-of-calls-to-us-poison-control-centers-from-2005-to-2015
#8
C William Heise, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709018/development-of-a-mechanism-based-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-to-characterize-the-thermoregulatory-effects-of-serotonergic-drugs-in-mice
#9
Xi-Ling Jiang, Hong-Wu Shen, Donald E Mager, Stephan Schmidt, Ai-Ming Yu
We have shown recently that concurrent harmaline, a monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor (MAOI), potentiates serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)-induced hyperthermia. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to characterize and predict the thermoregulatory effects of such serotonergic drugs in mice. Physiological thermoregulation was described by a mechanism-based indirect-response model with adaptive feedback control...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683542/the-endogenous-hallucinogen-and-trace-amine-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-dmt-displays-potent-protective-effects-against-hypoxia-via-sigma-1-receptor-activation-in-human-primary-ipsc-derived-cortical-neurons-and-microglia-like-immune-cells
#10
Attila Szabo, Attila Kovacs, Jordi Riba, Srdjan Djurovic, Eva Rajnavolgyi, Ede Frecska
N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a potent endogenous hallucinogen present in the brain of humans and other mammals. Despite extensive research, its physiological role remains largely unknown. Recently, DMT has been found to activate the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), an intracellular chaperone fulfilling an interface role between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. It ensures the correct transmission of ER stress into the nucleus resulting in the enhanced production of antistress and antioxidant proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471468/a-model-for-the-application-of-target-controlled-intravenous-infusion-for-a-prolonged-immersive-dmt-psychedelic-experience
#11
Andrew R Gallimore, Rick J Strassman
The state of consciousness induced by N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is one of the most extraordinary of any naturally-occurring psychedelic substance. Users consistently report the complete replacement of normal subjective experience with a novel "alternate universe," often densely populated with a variety of strange objects and other highly complex visual content, including what appear to be sentient "beings." The phenomenology of the DMT state is of great interest to psychology and calls for rigorous academic enquiry...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470427/measuring-the-subjective-revisiting-the-psychometric-properties-of-three-rating-scales-that-assess-the-acute-effects-of-hallucinogens
#12
José Carlos Bouso, Eduardo José Pedrero-Pérez, Sam Gandy, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we explored the psychometric properties of three widely used questionnaires to assess the subjective effects of hallucinogens: the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). METHODS: These three questionnaires were administered to a sample of 158 subjects (100 men) after taking ayahuasca, a hallucinogen whose main active component is N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435062/ayahuasca-enhances-creative-divergent-thinking-while-decreasing-conventional-convergent-thinking
#13
K P C Kuypers, J Riba, M de la Fuente Revenga, S Barker, E L Theunissen, J G Ramaekers
INTRODUCTION: Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390204/-the-potential-use-of-ayahuasca-in-psychiatry
#14
Ede Frecska, Petra Bokor, Gabor Andrassy, Attila Kovacs
Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives...
June 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348465/application-of-ambient-ionization-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-to-determination-of-the-botanical-provenance-of-the-constituents-of-psychoactive-drug-mixtures
#15
Ashton D Lesiak, Rabi A Musah
A continuing challenge in analytical chemistry is species-level determination of the constituents of mixtures that are made of a combination of plant species. There is an added urgency to identify components in botanical mixtures that have mind altering properties, due to the increasing global abuse of combinations of such plants. Here we demonstrate the proof of principle that ambient ionization mass spectrometry, namely direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS), and statistical analysis tools can be used to rapidly determine the individual components within a psychoactive brew (Ayahuasca) made from a mixture of botanicals...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320963/what-is-the-contribution-of-human-fmo3-in-the-n-oxygenation-of-selected-therapeutic-drugs-and-drugs-of-abuse
#16
Lea Wagmann, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
Little is known about the role of flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) in the metabolism of xenobiotics. FMO3 is the isoform in adult human liver with the highest impact on drug metabolism. The aim of the presented study was to elucidate the contribution of human FMO3 to the N-oxygenation of selected therapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse (DOAs). Its contribution to the in vivo hepatic net clearance of the N-oxygenation products was calculated by application of an extended relative activity factor (RAF) approach to differentiate from contribution of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms...
September 6, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230395/effects-of-ayahuasca-and-its-alkaloids-on-drug-dependence-a-systematic-literature-review-of-quantitative-studies-in-animals-and-humans
#17
Amanda A Nunes, Rafael G Dos Santos, Flávia L Osório, Rafael F Sanches, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak
Recently, the anti-addictive potential of ayahuasca, a dimethyltryptamine(DMT)- and β-carboline-rich hallucinogenic beverage traditionally used by indigenous groups of the Northwest Amazon and currently by syncretic churches worldwide, has received increased attention. To better evaluate this topic, we performed a systematic literature review using the PubMed database to find quantitative studies (using statistical analysis) that assessed the effects of ayahuasca or its components in drug-related symptoms or disorders...
July 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216487/receptor-interaction-profiles-of-novel-psychoactive-tryptamines-compared-with-classic-hallucinogens
#18
Anna Rickli, Olivier D Moning, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
The present study investigated interactions between the novel psychoactive tryptamines DiPT, 4-OH-DiPT, 4-OH-MET, 5-MeO-AMT, and 5-MeO-MiPT at monoamine receptors and transporters compared with the classic hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and mescaline. We investigated binding affinities at human monoamine receptors and determined functional serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Binding at and the inhibition of human monoamine uptake transporters and transporter-mediated monoamine release were also determined...
August 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160185/sigma-1-receptors-modulate-neonatal-nav1-5-ion-channels-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#19
Ebru Aydar, Dan Stratton, Scott P Fraser, Mustafa B A Djamgoz, Christopher Palmer
The main aim of this study was to investigate a possible functional connection between sigma-1 receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in human breast cancer cells. The hypothesis was that sigma-1 drugs could alter the metastatic properties of breast cancer cells via the VGSC. Evidence was found for expression of sigma-1 receptor and neonatal Nav1.5 (nNav1.5) expression in both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Sigma-1 drugs (SKF10047 and dimethyltryptamine) did not affect cell proliferation or migration but significantly reduced adhesion to the substrate...
October 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127466/dimethyltryptamine-dmt-a-biochemical-swiss-army-knife-in-neuroinflammation-and-neuroprotection
#20
Attila Szabo, Ede Frecska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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