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epilepsy pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104639/hippocampal-atrophy-is-associated-with-altered-hippocampus-posterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#1
Y C Shih, C E Tseng, F-H Lin, H H Liou, W Y I Tseng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis have structural and functional abnormalities in the mesial temporal regions. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of the epileptic network in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, we aimed to clarify the relationships between hippocampal atrophy and the altered connection between the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate cortex in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis...
January 19, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104433/micrornas-in-the-pathophysiology-of-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Gary P Brennan, David C Henshall
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common and often drug-resistant seizure disorder. The underlying pathological processes which give rise to the development of spontaneous seizures include neuroinflammation, cell loss, neurogenesis and dendritic abnormalities and many of these are driven by insult-induced changes in gene expression and gene expression regulation. MicroRNAs are powerful modulators of post-transcriptional gene expression which are dysregulated during epileptogenesis. The advent of locked nucleic acid (LNA) based inhibitory methods and mimic technology has facilitated in vivo functional assessment of these molecules in epilepsy...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101769/childhood-absence-epilepsy-and-benign-epilepsy-with-centro-temporal-spikes-a-narrative-review-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Alberto Verrotti, Renato D'Alonzo, Victoria Elisa Rinaldi, Sara Casciato, Alfredo D'Aniello, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown a possible coexistence of absence seizures with other forms of epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the possible contemporary or subsequent presence of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) in pediatric epileptic patients. METHODS: A PubMed systematic search indexed for MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBASE was undertaken to identify studies in children including articles written between 1996 and 2015...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093211/pharmacological-properties-of-sak3-a-novel-t-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channel-enhancer
#4
Yasushi Yabuki, Kazuya Matsuo, Hisanao Izumi, Hidaka Haga, Takashi Yoshida, Minoru Wakamori, Akira Kakehi, Kenji Sakimura, Takaichi Fukuda, Kohji Fukunaga
T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (T-VGCCs) function in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, pain and sleep. However, their role in cognitive function remains unclear. We previously reported that the cognitive enhancer ST101, which stimulates T-VGCCs in rat cortical slices, was a potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic. Here, we introduce a more potent T-VGCC enhancer, SAK3 (ethyl 8'-methyl-2',4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2'H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo [1,2-a]pyridin]-2-ene-3-carboxylate), and characterize its pharmacological properties in brain...
January 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092848/the-initial-use-of-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-and-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-in-the-diagnosis-of-nonconvulsive-partial-status-epileptics
#5
Takafumi Shimogawa, Takato Morioka, Tetsuro Sayama, Sei Haga, Yuka Kanazawa, Kei Murao, Shuji Arakawa, Ayumi Sakata, Koji Iihara
BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), capture of ongoing ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings is the gold standard; however, this is practically difficult without continuous EEG monitoring facilities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion MRI with arterial spin labeling (ASL), have been applied mainly in emergency situations. Recent reports have described that ictal MRI findings, including ictal hyperperfusion on ASL and cortical hyperintensity of cytotoxic edema on DWI, can be obtained from epileptically activated cortex...
December 21, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090678/the-epileptic-and-nonepileptic-spectrum-of-paroxysmal-dyskinesias-channelopathies-synaptopathies-and-transportopathies
#6
REVIEW
Roberto Erro, Kailash P Bhatia, Alberto J Espay, Pasquale Striano
Historically, the syndrome of primary paroxysmal dyskinesias was considered a group of disorders as a result of ion channel dysfunction. This proposition was primarily based on the discovery of mutations in ion channels, which caused other episodic neurological disorders such as epilepsy and migraine and also supported by the frequent association between paroxysmal dyskinesias and epilepsy. However, the discovery of the genes responsible for the 3 classic forms of paroxysmal dyskinesias disproved this ion channel theory...
January 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087439/cerebrovascular-heterogeneity-and-neuronal-excitability
#7
REVIEW
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078313/unilobar-surgery-for-symptomatic-epileptic-spasms
#8
Carmen Barba, Roberto Mai, Laura Grisotto, Francesca Gozzo, Simona Pellacani, Laura Tassi, Stefano Francione, Flavio Giordano, Francesco Cardinale, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with favorable seizure outcome after surgery for symptomatic epileptic spasms and improve knowledge on pathophysiology of this seizure type. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: (1) age between 6 months and 15 years at surgery; (2) active epileptic spasms; (3) follow-up after surgery >1 year. RESULTS: We retrospectively studied 80 children (aged 1.3 ± 2 years at seizure onset; 5.8 ± 4 years at surgery, 11...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067060/update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-myoclonic-seizures
#9
Pasquale Striano, Vincenzo Belcastro
Myoclonic seizures are brief, involuntary muscular jerks arising from the central nervous system that can occur in different epilepsy syndromes, including idiopathic generalized epilepsies or the most severe group of epileptic encephalopathies. Valproate is commonly the first choice alone or in combination with some benzodiazepines or levetiracetam. However, more treatment options exist today as there is emerging evidence to support the efficacy of some newer antiepileptic drugs. In addition, of major importance remains avoidance of medications (e...
January 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057450/antiepileptic-drugs-prevent-seizures-in-hyperbaric-oxygen-a-novel-model-of-epileptiform-activity
#10
Ivan T Demchenko, Sergei Yu Zhilyaev, Alexander N Moskvin, Alexander I Krivchenko, Claude A Piantadosi, Barry W Allen
Breathing oxygen at sufficiently elevated pressures can trigger epileptiform seizures. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with FDA-approved antiepileptic drugs could prevent seizure onset in hyperoxia at 5 atmospheres absolute. We selected drugs from two putative functional categories, Na(+)-channel antagonists and GABA enhancers, each administered intraperitoneally at four doses in separate groups of C57BL/6 mice. The drugs varied in efficacy at the doses used. Of the five tested Na(+)-channel antagonists, carbamazepine and lamotrigine more than tripled seizure latency compared to values seen in vehicle controls...
January 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053010/mutations-in-gabrb3-from-febrile-seizures-to-epileptic-encephalopathies
#11
Rikke S Møller, Thomas V Wuttke, Ingo Helbig, Carla Marini, Katrine M Johannesen, Eva H Brilstra, Ulvi Vaher, Ingo Borggraefe, Inga Talvik, Tiina Talvik, Gerhard Kluger, Laurence L Francois, Gaetan Lesca, Julitta de Bellescize, Susanne Blichfeldt, Nicolas Chatron, Nils Holert, Julia Jacobs, Marielle Swinkels, Cornelia Betzler, Steffen Syrbe, Marina Nikanorova, Candace T Myers, Line H G Larsen, Sabina Vejzovic, Manuela Pendziwiat, Sarah von Spiczak, Sarah Hopkins, Holly Dubbs, Yuan Mang, Konstantin Mukhin, Hans Holthausen, Koen L van Gassen, Hans A Dahl, Niels Tommerup, Heather C Mefford, Guido Rubboli, Renzo Guerrini, Johannes R Lemke, Holger Lerche, Hiltrud Muhle, Snezana Maljevic
OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of mutations in GABRB3 encoding the β3 subunit of the GABAA receptor in individual patients with epilepsy with regard to causality, the spectrum of genetic variants, their pathophysiology, and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We performed massive parallel sequencing of GABRB3 in 416 patients with a range of epileptic encephalopathies and childhood-onset epilepsies and recruited additional patients with epilepsy with GABRB3 mutations from other research and diagnostic programs...
January 4, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043066/thalamic-hypoperfusion-and-disrupted-cerebral-blood-flow-networks-in-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-arterial-spin-labeling-and-graph-theoretical-analysis
#12
Daichi Sone, Masako Watanabe, Miho Ota, Yukio Kimura, Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Tomoko Maekawa, Mariko Okura, Mikako Enokizono, Etsuko Imabayashi, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate interictal cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions and graph theoretical networks in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging and anatomical covariance methods of graph theoretical analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We recruited 19 patients with IGE and 19 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. Their CBF images were obtained by pseudo-continuous ASL imaging and compared using statistical parametric mapping 8 software (SPM8) and Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT)...
December 14, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031853/lithium-therapy-in-comorbid-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-cycloid-psychosis
#13
Paul Brown, Sridhar Kashiviswanath, Alison Huynh, Naveen Allha, Ken Piaggio, Saddichha Sahoo, Ankur Gupta
The treatment of post-ictal psychosis has foundered on uncertainty in diagnosis of psychotic phenotypes, and equivocal efficacy of first and second generation antipsychotics. This article presents a case history of comorbid temporal lobe epilepsy and psychosis, suggests the applicability of the continental, cycloid psychosis diagnostic conceptualization to post-ictal psychoses, and demonstrates the efficacy of lithium in their treatment. Clinical studies of comorbidity of epilepsy and psychosis offer great potential as a basis for modelling brain-mind relationships, and neuropsychiatric nosology, pathophysiology and treatment...
December 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029552/epilepsia-partialis-continua-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Rūta Mameniškienė, Peter Wolf
Epilepsia partialis contina (EPC) in a narrow definition is a variant of simple focal motor status epilepticus in which frequent repetitive muscle jerks, usually arrhythmic, continue over prolonged periods of time. In a broader definition (used in this review) it also includes non-motor manifestations otherwise known as aura continua. EPC may occur as a single episode, repetitive episodes, it may be chronic progressive or non-progressive. It appears as an unusual manifestation of epilepsy in which more typical paroxysmal events are partly or entirely replaced by the sustained repetition of seizure fragments in rapid succession...
October 18, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017580/functional-mri-based-connectivity-analysis-a-promising-tool-for-the-investigation-of-the-pathophysiology-and-comorbidity-of-epilepsy
#15
Fenglai Xiao, Dongmei An, Dong Zhou
Epilepsy has been recognized as a brain network disorder. Therefore, functional MRI (fMRI)-based connectivity is an ideal technique for exploring the complex effects of epilepsy on the brain. Functional connectivity studies have provided insights into the physiopathogenesis of the epileptic network underlying focal epilepsies, genetic generalized epilepsy, and specific epileptic syndromes. An increasing number of studies have focused on the deleterious effects of epilepsy on other brain networks to help to explain cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms...
October 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017578/drug-development-for-refractory-epilepsy-the-past-25-years-and-beyond
#16
Ambica Golyala, Patrick Kwan
Despite the exponential growth of approved antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) over the past 25 years, epilepsy remains uncontrolled in approximately a third of patients. This article summarises the clinical trials and properties of the AEDs developed over this period, and reviews the pre-clinical and clinical development paradigms of modern AEDs. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent failure to develop more efficacious compounds. We also review the current regulatory frameworks for drug approval in the United States and Europe, and the changes on the horizon...
December 6, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017318/defective-interhemispheric-inhibition-in-drug-treated-focal-epilepsies
#17
Gionata Strigaro, Erica Matino, Lina Falletta, Chiara Pizzamiglio, Giacomo Tondo, Radwa Badawy, Roberto Cantello
BACKGROUND: Focal epilepsies (FEs) arise from a lateralized network, while in generalized epilepsies (GEs) there is a bilateral involvement from the outset. Intuitively, the corpus callosum is the anatomical substrate for interhemispheric spread. OBJECTIVE: We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore whether there are any physiological differences in the corpus callosum of drug-treated patients with FE and those with genetic GE (GGE), compared to healthy subjects (HS)...
December 9, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013000/galanin-contributes-to-monoaminergic-dysfunction-and-to-dependent-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy
#18
Jesus-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
Status epilepticus (SE) in rats, along with chronic epilepsy, leads to the development of behavioral impairments resembling depressive disorder and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thus reflecting respective comorbidities in epilepsy patients. Suppressed neurotransmitter tone in the raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) serotonergic pathway and in the locus coeruleus (LC)-PFC noradrenergic pathway underlies depressive- and impulsive-like behavioral deficits respectively. We examined possible mechanisms leading to the monoamine dysfunction in brainstem efferents, namely modulatory effects of the neuropeptide galanin on serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012173/trpc3-channels-play-a-critical-role-in-the-theta-component-of-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#19
Kevin D Phelan, U Thaung Shwe, Michael A Cozart, Hong Wu, Matthew M Mock, Joel Abramowitz, Lutz Birnbaumer, Fang Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels constitute a family of cation channels that exhibit a regional and cell-specific expression pattern throughout the brain. It has been reported previously that TRPC3 channels are effectors of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/trkB signaling pathway. Given the long postulated role of BDNF in epileptogenesis, TRPC3 channels may be a critical component in the underlying pathophysiology of seizure and epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the precise role of TRPC3 channels in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
December 24, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011391/pathophysiology-of-status-epilepticus
#20
REVIEW
Matthew C Walker
Status epilepticus (SE) is the maximal expression of epilepsy with a high morbidity and mortality. It occurs due to the failure of mechanisms that terminate seizures. Both human and animal data indicate that the longer a seizure lasts, the less likely it is to stop. Recent evidence suggests that there is a critical transition from an ictal to a post-ictal state, associated with a transition from a spatio-temporally desynchronized state to a highly synchronized state, respectively. As SE continues, it becomes progressively resistant to drugs, in particular benzodiazepines due partly to NMDA receptor-dependent internalization of GABA(A) receptors...
December 20, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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