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epilepsy pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776417/sinomenine-exerts-anticonvulsant-profile-and-neuroprotective-activity-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats-involvement-of-inhibition-of-nlrp1-inflammasome
#1
Bo Gao, Yu Wu, Yuan-Jian Yang, Wei-Zu Li, Kun Dong, Jun Zhou, Yan-Yan Yin, Da-Ke Huang, Wen-Ning Wu
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and is not well controlled by available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Inflammation is considered to be a critical factor in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Sinomenine (SN), a bioactive alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effect, exerts neuroprotective activity in many nervous system diseases. However, little is known about the effect of SN on epilepsy. METHODS: The chronic epilepsy model was established by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766384/increased-functional-meg-connectivity-as-a-hallmark-of-mri-negative-focal-and-generalized-epilepsy
#2
Yiwen Li Hegner, Justus Marquetand, Adham Elshahabi, Silke Klamer, Holger Lerche, Christoph Braun, Niels K Focke
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases with a high morbidity. Accumulating evidence has shown that epilepsy is an archetypical neural network disorder. Here we developed a non-invasive cortical functional connectivity analysis based on magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess commonalities and differences in the network phenotype in different epilepsy syndromes (non-lesional/cryptogenic focal and idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy). Thirty-seven epilepsy patients with normal structural brain anatomy underwent a 30-min resting state MEG measurement with eyes closed...
May 15, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753575/quantitative-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-mapping-may-predict-seizure-onset-in-children-with-sturge-weber-syndrome
#3
Anna L R Pinto, Yangming Ou, Mustafa Sahin, P Ellen Grant
BACKGROUND: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is often accompanied by seizures, stroke-like episodes, hemiparesis, and visual field deficits. This study aimed to identify early pathophysiologic changes that exist before the development of clinical symptoms and to evaluate if the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map is a candidate early biomarker of seizure risk in patients with SWS. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study using quantitative ADC analysis to predict onset of epilepsy...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750337/lamotrigine-resistant-corneal-kindled-mice-a-model-of-pharmacoresistant-partial-epilepsy-for-moderate-throughput-drug-discovery
#4
Zachery Koneval, Kevin M Knox, H Steve White, Melissa Barker-Haliski
OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous treatments for epilepsy, over 30% of patients remain resistant to available antiseizure drugs (ASDs). Thus, there is a strong need for more effective ASDs for these individuals. Early ASD discovery has historically relied on acute in vivo seizure models (maximal electroshock, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol, 6 Hz), which lack the pathophysiology that defines chronic epilepsy. Etiologically relevant rodent models of pharmacoresistant epilepsy exist (eg, phenytoin (PHT)- and lamotrigine (LTG)-resistant amygdala-kindled rat and focal kainic acid mouse), but these models are resource- and labor-intensive and thus unsuitable for frontline ASD discovery...
May 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745347/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-an-overview-of-treatment-and-recent-patents
#5
Kam Lun E Lun Hon, Alexander K C Leung, Alcy R Torres
BACKGROUND: New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) refers to a clinical presentation in a patient without active epilepsy or other existing relevant neurological disorder, with new onset of refractory status epilepticus in the absence of a clear acute or active structural, metabolic, or toxic cause. Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a subset of NORSE that requires a febrile infection between 24 hours and 2 weeks prior to the onset of refractory status epilepticus, with or without fever at the onset of status epilepticus, and with no restriction to the age of the patient...
May 8, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740948/astrocytes-an-active-player-in-aicardi-gouti%C3%A3-res-syndrome
#6
Sunetra Sase, Asako Takanohashi, Adeline Vanderver, Akshata Almad
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an early-onset, autoimmune and genetically heterogeneous disorder with severe neurologic injury. Molecular studies have established that autosomal recessive mutations in one of the following genes are causative: TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR1 and IFIH1/MDA5. The phenotypic presentation and pathophysiology of AGS is associated with over-production of the cytokine Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and its downstream signaling, characterized as type I interferonopathy...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739759/reflex-anoxic-seizures-ras-in-an-adult-patient-a-separate-entity-from-epilepsy
#7
Laith Cebe, Harpreet Singh
Reflex anoxic seizures (RAS) are essential in the differential diagnosis of non-epileptic paroxysmal seizures. They are precipitated by vagally mediated brief cardiac asystole, which in turn leads to transient cerebral ischaemia. RAS are usually seen in infants and preschool children, but in this case happened in a middle-aged man. Our patient is a 61-year-old man who presented with sudden, repeated contractions of his left upper arm and urine incontinence, followed by loss of consciousness for about 30 s...
May 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728616/the-role-of-kainate-receptors-in-the-pathophysiology-of-hypoxia-induced-seizures-in-the-neonatal-mouse
#8
Denise K Grosenbaugh, Brittany M Ross, Pravin Wagley, Santina A Zanelli
Kainate receptors (KARs) are glutamate receptors with peak expression during late embryonic and early postnatal periods. Altered KAR-mediated neurotransmission and subunit expression are observed in several brain disorders, including epilepsy. Here, we examined the role of KARs in regulating seizures in neonatal C57BL/6 mice exposed to a hypoxic insult. We found that knockout of the GluK2 subunit, or blockade of KARs by UBP310 reduced seizure susceptibility during the period of reoxygenation. Following the hypoxic insult, we observed an increase in excitatory neurotransmission in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells, which was blocked by treatment with UBP310 prior to hypoxia...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722352/epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
Orrin Devinsky, Annamaria Vezzani, Terence J O'Brien, Nathalie Jette, Ingrid E Scheffer, Marco de Curtis, Piero Perucca
Epilepsy affects all age groups and is one of the most common and most disabling neurological disorders. The accurate diagnosis of seizures is essential as some patients will be misdiagnosed with epilepsy, whereas others will receive an incorrect diagnosis. Indeed, errors in diagnosis are common, and many patients fail to receive the correct treatment, which often has severe consequences. Although many patients have seizure control using a single medication, others require multiple medications, resective surgery, neuromodulation devices or dietary therapies...
May 3, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709878/genetic-polymorphisms-of-the-5ht-receptors-are-not-related-with-depression-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-caused-by-hippocampal-sclerosis
#10
Silvia Vincentiis, Juliana Alcantara, Patricia Rzezak, Daniel S Kerr, Wagner F Gattaz, Helio van der Linden, Bernardo Dos Santos, Sebastiao E Melo-Souza, Francisco Arruda, Paulo Ragazzo, Tiffany Chaim-Avancini, Mauricio H Serpa, Fernando Fernandes, Ricardo A Moreno, Geraldo Busatto, Ruda Alessi, Renata Demarque, Kette D Valente
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) is the most frequent form of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults. Mood disorders are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidities observed in these patients. Common pathophysiological mechanisms of epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities include abnormalities in the serotonin pathway. The primary goal of this study was to determine the possible association between polymorphisms of genes encoding the serotonin receptors 5HT1A (rs6295), 5HT1B (rs6296), and 5HT2C (rs6318) and the presence of mood disorders in patients with TLE-HS...
April 27, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692972/postictal-neurogenic-pulmonary-edema-case-report-and-brief-literature-review
#11
Oscar Mauricio Romero Osorio, Juan Felipe Abaunza Camacho, Diana Sandoval Briceño, Pieralessandro Lasalvia, Daniel Narino Gonzalez
Cardiopulmonary complications associated with epilepsy are generally associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, as a consequence of systemic adrenergic discharge and release of inflammatory mediators. We present a case of a 34-year-old woman with a history of Focal epilepsy since adolescence, who presented self-limited pulmonary edema following a focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure with subsequent resolution of the symptoms. We also made a brief review of neurogenic pulmonary edema, its proposed pathophysiology, treatment and its relation with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP)...
2018: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681801/anatomy-based-networks-and-topology-alteration-in-seizure-related-cognitive-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Qian Wu, Charlie W Zhao, Zhe Long, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Epilepsy is a paroxysmal neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. Cognitive dysfunction induced by seizures is a severe comorbidity of epilepsy and epilepsy syndromes and reduces patients' quality of life. Seizures, along with accompanying histopathological and pathophysiological changes, are associated with cognitive comorbidities. Advances in imaging technology and computing allow anatomical and topological changes in neural networks to be visualized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678455/different-behavioral-and-pathological-changes-between-epilepsy-associated-depression-and-primary-depression-models
#13
Wei-Feng Peng, Fan Fan, Xin Li, Qian-Qian Zhang, Jing Ding, Xin Wang
PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in patients with epilepsy. However, the epilepsy-associated depression is generally atypical and has not been fully recognized by neurologists. This study aimed to compare the behavioral and pathological changes between the chronic lithium chloride-pilocarpine rat epilepsy model (Licl-pilocarpine model) and the Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress rat depression model (CUMS model), to evaluate for differences between epilepsy-associated depression and primary depression...
April 17, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674629/genetic-idiopathic-epilepsy-with-photosensitive-seizures-includes-features-of-both-focal-and-generalized-seizures
#14
Jiao Xue, Pan Gong, Haipo Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Yuwu Jiang, Yuehua Zhang, Zhixian Yang
Clinically, some patients having genetic (idiopathic) epilepsy with photosensitive seizures were difficult to be diagnosed. We aimed to discuss whether the genetic (idiopathic) epilepsy with photosensitive seizures is a focal entity, a generalized entity or a continuum. Twenty-two patients with idiopathic epilepsies and photoconvulsive response (PCR) were retrospectively recruited. In the medical records, the seizure types included "generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS)" in 15, "partial secondarily GTCS (PGTCS)" in 3, partial seizures (PS) in 3, myoclonic seizures in 2, eyelid myoclonus in one, and only febrile seizures in one...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672844/longitudinal-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-toward-identification-of-optimal-treatment-windows
#15
Duc-Loc Nguyen, Catriona Wimberley, Charles Truillet, Benoit Jego, Fabien Caillé, Géraldine Pottier, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Viviane Bouilleret
OBJECTIVE: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of drug-resistant partial epilepsy, with a specific history that often begins with status epilepticus due to various neurological insults followed by a silent period. During this period, before the first seizure occurs, a specific lesion develops, described as unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). It is still challenging to determine which drugs, administered at which time point, will be most effective during the formation of this epileptic process...
April 19, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667458/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-ongoing-challenges-in-finding-mechanisms-and-prevention
#16
Doungporn Ruthirago, Parunyou Julayanont, Amputch Karukote, Mohamed Shehabeldin, Kenneth Nugent
Patients with epilepsy have a significantly higher risk of death than the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of sudden death among patients with epilepsy. Despite on-going research, there are still deficits in our knowledge about the mechanisms, genetic factors, and prevention of SUDEP. Current evidence suggests that cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory dysfunction, and brainstem arousal system dysfunction are the major mechanisms of SUDEP, and animal models support the role of neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and adenosine, in pathophysiology of SUDEP...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659809/a-new-mouse-model-of-arx-dup24-recapitulates-the-patients-behavioural-and-fine-motor-alterations
#17
Aline Dubos, Hamid Meziane, Giovanni Iacono, Aurore Curie, Fabrice Riet, Christelle Martin, Nadège Loaëc, Marie-Christine Birling, Mohammed Selloum, Elisabeth Normand, Guillaume Pavlovic, Tania Sorg, Henk G Stunnenberg, Jamel Chelly, Yann Humeau, Gaëlle Friocourt, Yann Hérault
The Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) transcription factor is involved in the development of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. ARX mutations have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, among which the most frequent, a 24bp duplication in the polyalanine tract 2 (c.428_451dup24), gives rise to intellectual disability, fine motor defects with or without epilepsy. To understand the functional consequences of this mutation, we generated a partially humanized mouse model carrying the c...
April 5, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623857/the-large-conductance-calcium-and-voltage-activated-potassium-channel-bk-and-epilepsy-a-short-review
#18
Kai Zang, Yuwen Zhang, Jie Hu, Yun Wang
The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK) are a kind of widely distributed channel proteins which exist in virtually every cell type of mammals and function to influence membrane excitability and Ca2+ signaling. BK channels can be activated by the increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, a consequence of neuronal excitation, and then terminate the action potential with the outward K+ flux. Moreover, after-hyperpolarization induced by BK channels closes Cav channels and thus precludes excessive Ca2+ influx...
April 3, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616471/a-review-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-for-focal-onset-seizures-in-pediatrics-role-of-extrapolation
#19
REVIEW
Alexis Arzimanoglou, O'Neill D'Cruz, Douglas Nordli, Shlomo Shinnar, Gregory L Holmes
Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) receive regulatory approval for children years after the drug is available in adults, encouraging off-label use of the drug in children and hindering attempts to obtain quality pediatric data in controlled trials. Extrapolating adult efficacy data to pediatrics can reduce the time between approval in adults and that in children. To extrapolate efficacy from adults to children, several assumptions must be supported, such as (1) a similar disease progression and response to interventions in adults and children, and (2) similar exposure response in adults and children...
April 3, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610762/hippocampal-pathophysiology-commonality-shared-by-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-psychiatric-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Soichiro Nakahara, Megumi Adachi, Hiroyuki Ito, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Katsunori Tajinda, Theo G M van Erp
Accumulating evidence points to the association of epilepsy, particularly, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Among these illnesses, the hippocampus is considered the regional focal point of the brain, playing an important role in cognition, psychosis, and seizure activity and potentially suggesting common etiologies and pathophysiology of TLE and schizophrenia. In the present review, we overview abnormal network connectivity between the dentate gyrus (DG) and the Cornus Ammonis area 3 (CA3) subregions of the hippocampus relative to the induction of epilepsy and schizophrenia...
2018: Neuroscience Journal
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