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epilepsy pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145182/pathological-yawning-laughing-and-crying
#1
Olivier Walusinski
Yawning, laughing, and crying are normal physiological behaviors of humans in good health. As with all physiological behaviors, their deregulation can reveal disorders. Pathological yawning occurs in salvos of 10-20 successive yawns, and the number of yawns per day can exceed one hundred. After listing the functional etiologies, we will give the clinical keys for differentiating the most serious causes: iatrogenic, tumors, strokes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and intracranial hypertension. Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of emotional display involving pathological laughing and crying (PLC) may be encountered in various neurological diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy (cerebellar), cerebrovascular disease, traumatic brain injuries, mass lesions in the cerebellopontine junction, and epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143800/hungry-neurons-metabolic-insights-on-seizure-dynamics
#2
REVIEW
Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Azin Ebrahim Amini, Iliya Weisspapir, Bojana Stefanovic, Peter L Carlen
Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dys)function and extracellular ionic species (dys)regulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilization) of seizures pathophysiology revealing (in most cases) reduced metabolism in the inter-ictal period and increased metabolism in the seconds preceding and during the appearance of seizures...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141532/seizures-and-antiepileptic-drugs-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-practice
#3
Nihan CarCaka, Cigdem Ozkara
Recurrent, spontaneous seizure activity caused by abnormal neuronal firing in the brain is a hallmark of epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder. Recent research that has expanded the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that modulate neuronal excitability and network activity in the brain provides the development and discovery of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AED therapy starts with the selection of the most appropriate drug for individual patient on the basis of strategic decision of the risk-benefit ratio...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129776/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-and-neurotransmitters-signaling-in-epilepsy-an-insight-review
#4
REVIEW
Prashant Koshal, Sumit Jamwal, Puneet Kumar
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorder affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested that an imbalance in glutamatergic (excitatory) and GABAergic (inhibitory) neurotransmitter system is one of the dominating pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of seizures. Further, this alteration in GABAergic and glutamatergic system disrupts the delicate balance of other neurotransmitters system in the brain. Emerging strides have documented the protective role of GLP-1 signaling on altered neurotransmitters signaling in Epilepsy and associated co-morbidities...
November 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129678/pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-migraine-and-epilepsy-similarities-and-differences
#5
REVIEW
Massimo Mantegazza, Sandrine Cestèle
Migraine and epilepsy are episodic disorders with distinct features, but they have some clinical and pathophysiological overlaps. We review here clinical overlaps between seizures and migraine attacks, activities of neuronal networks observed during seizures and migraine attacks, and molecular and cellular mechanisms of migraine identified in genetic forms, focusing on genetic variants identified in hemiplegic migraine and their functional effects. Epilepsy and migraine can be generated by dysfunctions of the same neuronal networks, but these dysfunctions can be disease-specific, even if pathogenic mutations target the same protein...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123470/regulation-of-ampa-receptor-trafficking-by-protein-ubiquitination
#6
REVIEW
Jocelyn Widagdo, Sumasri Guntupalli, Se E Jang, Victor Anggono
The molecular mechanisms underlying plastic changes in the strength and connectivity of excitatory synapses have been studied extensively for the past few decades and remain the most attractive cellular models of learning and memory. One of the major mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity is the dynamic adjustment of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor content on the neuronal plasma membrane. The expression of surface AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is controlled by the delicate balance between the biosynthesis, dendritic transport, exocytosis, endocytosis, recycling and degradation of the receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115470/dimethylation-of-histone-3-lysine-9-is-sensitive-to-the-epileptic-activity-and-affects-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-potassium-channel-kcnj10-gene-in-epileptic-rats
#7
Shao-Ping Zhang, Man Zhang, Hong Tao, Yan Luo, Tao He, Chun-Hui Wang, Xiao-Cheng Li, Ling Chen, Lin-Na Zhang, Tao Sun, Qi-Kuan Hu
Potassium channels can be affected by epileptic seizures and serve a crucial role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and its enzyme euchromatic histone‑lysine N‑methyltransferase 2 (G9a) are the major epigenetic modulators and are associated with gene silencing. Insight into whether H3K9me2 and G9a can respond to epileptic seizures and regulate expression of genes encoding potassium channels is the main purpose of the present study. A total of 16 subtypes of potassium channel genes in pilocarpine‑modelled epileptic rats were screened by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and it was determined that the expression ATP‑sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 10 (Kcnj10) increased in hippocampus and insular cortex, while the expression of most of the other subtypes decreased...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095389/paroxysmal-tonic-upgaze-in-children-three-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
Ayse Kartal
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, nonepileptic paroxysmal events during infancy and childhood are common reasons for parents and caregivers to seek for medical advice. These events are mostly unrecognized and considered as an epileptic seizure because of the clinical features resembling an epileptic seizure. Paroxysmal tonic upgaze, which consists of recurrent episodes of sustained upward deviation of the eyes and incomplete downward saccades, and normal horizontal eye movements without impairment of consciousness, is a diagnostic challenge for the pediatrician and pediatric neurologist...
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090925/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-to-identify-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-the-myocardium-of-epilepsy-using-itraq-coupled-with-nano-lc-ms-ms
#9
Peng Zhang, Li Zhang, Yongguo Li, Shisheng Zhu, Minzhu Zhao, Shijia Ding, Jianbo Li
Epilepsy is a difficult-to-manage neurological disease that can result in organ damage, such as cardiac injury, that contributes to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Although recurrent seizure-induced cardiac dysregulation has been reported, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. We established an epileptic model with Sprague-Dawley rats, applying isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in myocardial tissue...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076408/role-of-histone-deacetylases-hdacs-in-epilepsy-and-epileptogenesis
#10
Rita Citraro, Antonio Leo, Andrew Constanti, Emilio Russo
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in different brain functions such as the development of the nervous system and normal neuronal function. At the same time, it has been proposed that several neurological diseases are in part, caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying pathological alterations in the brain genome are not completely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Post-transcriptional histone acetylation is a major mechanism of chromatin remodeling, contributing to epigenetic regulation of gene transcription...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074125/status-epilepticus-triggers-long-lasting-activation-of-complement-c1q-c3-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-that-correlates-with-seizure-frequency-in-experimental-epilepsy
#11
Nicole D Schartz, Season K Wyatt-Johnson, Lauren R Price, Samantha A Colin, Amy L Brewster
Status epilepticus (SE) triggers a myriad of neurological alterations that include unprovoked seizures, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and cognitive deficits. Although SE-induced loss of hippocampal dendritic structures and synaptic remodeling are often associated with this pathophysiology, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Recent evidence points to the classical complement pathway as a potential mechanism. Signaling through the complement protein C1q to C3, which is cleaved into smaller biologically active fragments including C3b and iC3b, contributes to the elimination of synaptic structures in the normal developing brain and in models of neurodegenerative disorders...
October 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069823/microrna-134-plasma-levels-before-and-after-treatment-with-valproic-acid-for-epilepsy-patients
#12
Xiaofeng Wang, Yifeng Luo, Shuangxi Liu, Liming Tan, Sanhu Wang, Rongyong Man
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorders characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures. MicroRNAs play a vital role in regulating synaptic plasticity, brain development and post-transcriptional expression of proteins. In both animal models of epilepsy and human patients, miR-134, a brain-specific microRNA has recently been identified as a potential regulator of epileptogenesis. METHODS: microRNA identified as targets for the actions of valproic acid (VPA) are known to have important effects in brain function...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066951/connexin43-and-pannexin-based-channels-in-neuroinflammation-and-cerebral-neuropathies
#13
REVIEW
Denis Sarrouilhe, Catherine Dejean, Marc Mesnil
Connexins (Cx) are largely represented in the central nervous system (CNS) with 11 Cx isoforms forming intercellular channels. Moreover, in the CNS, Cx43 can form hemichannels (HCs) at non-junctional membrane as does the related channel-forming Pannexin1 (Panx1) and Panx2. Opening of Panx1 channels and Cx43 HCs appears to be involved in inflammation and has been documented in various CNS pathologies. Over recent years, evidence has accumulated supporting a link between inflammation and cerebral neuropathies (migraine, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061647/pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy-in-zebrafish-caused-by-aldh7a1-deficiency
#14
Izabella A Pena, Yann Roussel, Kate Daniel, Kevin Mongeon, Devon Johnstone, Hellen Weinschutz Mendes, Marjolein Bosma, Vishal Saxena, Nathalie Lepage, Pranesh Chakraborty, David A Dyment, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Nanda Verhoeven-Duif, Tuan Vu Bui, Kym M Boycott, Marc Ekker, Alex MacKenzie
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare disease characterized by mutations in the lysine degradation gene ALDH7A1 leading to recurrent neonatal seizures which are uniquely alleviated by high doses of pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B6 vitamers). Despite treatment, neurodevelopmental disabilities are still observed in most PDE patients underlining the need for adjunct therapies. Over 60 years after the initial description of PDE, we report the first animal model for this disease: an aldh7a1-null zebrafish (Danio rerio) displaying deficient lysine metabolism and spontaneous and recurrent seizures in the larval stage (10 dpf)...
October 23, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057860/resting-state-fmri-findings-in-patients-with-first-episode-idiopathic-epilepsy-before-and-after-treatment
#15
Peng-Fei Qiao, Guang-Ming Niu
OBJECTIVE: To detect resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) changes and their relationships with the clinical curative effect of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for complex partial seizures (CPS) in epilepsy patients using the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF). METHODS: rfMRI data from 14 CPS patients enrolled between June 2015 and June 2016 in Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University were retrospectively investigated and compared with findings from 14 healthy age-, gender-, handedness-, and education-matched subjects...
October 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054433/epilepsy-advances-in-genetics-and-pathophysiology
#16
EDITORIAL
Massimo Mantegazza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054038/epileptic-headache-a-rare-form-of-painful-seizure
#17
REVIEW
Carlo Cianchetti, Filippo Dainese, Maria Giuseppina Ledda, Giuliano Avanzini
PURPOSE: To describe the concept, features and mechanisms of epileptic headache (EH). METHODS: Analysis of all published articles concerning EH and related subjects. RESULTS: There are more than 30 published case studies of patients with headache as the only manifestation of a seizure, a condition that has been variously called "EH", "ictal epileptic headache", "hemicrania epileptica", "cephalic pain seizure". It is necessary to differentiate EH from "migralepsy" and "ictal non-epileptic headache"...
October 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040672/unsupervised-learning-of-spatiotemporal-interictal-discharges-in-focal-epilepsy
#18
Maxime O Baud, Jonathan K Kleen, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Liberty S Hamilton, Yee-Leng Tan, Robert Knowlton, Edward F Chang
BACKGROUND: Interictal epileptiform discharges are an important biomarker for localization of focal epilepsy, especially in patients who undergo chronic intracranial monitoring. Manual detection of these pathophysiological events is cumbersome, but is still superior to current rule-based approaches in most automated algorithms. OBJECTIVE: To develop an unsupervised machine-learning algorithm for the improved, automated detection and localization of interictal epileptiform discharges based on spatiotemporal pattern recognition...
October 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034451/cortical-light-scattering-during-interictal-epileptic-spikes-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-in-children-a-fast-optical-signal-and-electroencephalographic-study
#19
Mana Manoochehri, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Emilie Bourel-Ponchel, Fabrice Wallois
OBJECTIVE: Interictal epileptic spikes (IES) represent a signature of the transient synchronous and excessive discharge of a large ensemble of cortical heterogeneous neurons. Epilepsy cannot be reduced to a hypersynchronous activation of neurons whose functioning is impaired, resulting on electroencephalogram (EEG) in epileptic seizures or IES. The complex pathophysiological mechanisms require a global approach to the interactions between neural synaptic and nonsynaptic, vascular, and metabolic systems...
October 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033811/altered-local-spatiotemporal-consistency-of-resting-state-bold-signals-in-patients-with-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures
#20
Shuai Ma, Sisi Jiang, Rui Peng, Qiong Zhu, Hongbin Sun, Jianfu Li, Xiaoyan Jia, Ilan Goldberg, Liang Yu, Cheng Luo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatiotemporal Consistency of spontaneous activities in local brain regions in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The resting-state fMRI data were acquired from nineteen patients with GTCS and twenty-two matched healthy subjects. FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) metric was used to analyze the spontaneous activity in whole brain. The FOCA difference between two groups were detected using a two sample t-test analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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