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epilepsy pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346658/potential-for-diet-to-prevent-and-remediate-cognitive-deficits-in-neurological-disorders
#1
Heather M Francis, Richard J Stevenson
The pathophysiology of many neurological disorders involves oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is now substantial evidence that diet can decrease these forms of pathophysiology, and an emerging body of literature relatedly suggests that diet can also prevent or even remediate the cognitive deficits observed in neurological disorders that exhibit such pathology (eg, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, age-related cognitive decline, epilepsy). The current review summarizes the emerging evidence in relation to whole diets prominent in the scientific literature-ketogenic, caloric restriction, high polyphenol, and Mediterranean diets-and provides a discussion of the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344465/grey-and-white-matter-alterations-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-a-comprehensive-review
#2
REVIEW
Ji Hyun Kim
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been classified as a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is characterized by a strong genetic basis, age-specific onset of seizures, specific types of seizures, generalized spike-wave discharges on electroencephalography, and a lack of focal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, a wide range of advanced neuroimaging techniques have been utilized to elucidate the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying JME...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331287/characterizing-the-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-with-magnetoencephalography-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Irene E Harmsen, Nathan C Rowland, Richard A Wennberg, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the literature related to the use of MEG to characterize the effects of DBS...
January 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329108/cracking-novel-shared-targets-between-epilepsy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-need-of-the-hour
#4
Nitika Garg, Rupa Joshi, Bikash Medhi
Epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are interconnected. It is well known that seizures are linked with cognitive impairment, and there are various shared etiologies between epilepsy and AD. The connection between hyperexcitability of neurons and cognitive dysfunction in the progression of AD or epileptogenesis plays a vital role for improving selection of treatment for both diseases. Traditionally, seizures occur less frequently and in later stages of age in patients with AD which in turn implies that neurodegeneration causes seizures...
January 12, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327337/generalized-nonmotor-absence-seizures-what-do-absence-generalized-and-nonmotor-mean
#5
REVIEW
Iris Unterberger, Eugen Trinka, Peter W Kaplan, Gerald Walser, Gerhard Luef, Gerhard Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Clinical absences are now classified as "generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures" by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The aim of this paper is to critically review the concept of absences and to put the accompanying focal and motor symptoms into the context of the emerging pathophysiological knowledge. METHODS: For this narrative review we performed an extensive literature search on the term "absence," and analyzed the plethora of symptoms observed in clinical absences...
January 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317612/gamma-oscillatory-activity-in-vitro-a-model-system-to-assess-pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-comorbidity-between-autism-and-epilepsy
#6
D Subramanian, E Pralong, R T Daniel, A G Chacko, R Stoop, K S Babu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit remarkable comorbidity, but for reasons not clearly understood. To reveal a common pathophysiological mechanism, we here describe and characterize an in vitro epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampus that exhibits common features with in vivo activity in rodent ASD models. We discovered the development of this activity in the CA1 region of horizontal slices after prolonged interictal-like epileptiform activity in the CA3 region that was provoked by incubation in high potassium artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315734/molecular-characteristics-of-long-term-epilepsy-associated-tumours-leats-and-mechanisms-for-tumour-related-epilepsy-tre
#7
Thomas J Stone, Rachel Rowell, Bodiabaduge Ashan Prasanna Jayasekera, Mark O Cunningham, Thomas S Jacques
Brain tumours are the second most common cause of seizures identified in epilepsy surgical series. While any tumour involving the brain has the potential to cause seizures, specific subtypes are more frequently associated with epilepsy. Tumour-related epilepsy has a profound impact on patients with brain tumours and these seizures are often refractory to anti-epileptic treatments, resulting in long-term disability and patient morbidity. Despite the drastic impact epilepsy-associated tumours have on patients, they have not traditionally enjoyed as much attention as more malignant neoplasms...
January 6, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301484/editorial-recent-advances-in-pathophysiological-studies-and-treatment-of-epilepsy
#8
EDITORIAL
Guanghao Yin, Gang Yao, Kun Zhang, Bingjin Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288994/detecting-sub-second-changes-in-brain-activation-patterns-during-interictal-epileptic-spike-using-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#9
Epifanio Bagarinao, Satoshi Maesawa, Yuji Ito, Naotaka Usui, Jun Natsume, Hirohisa Watanabe, Minoru Hoshiyama, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Gen Sobue, Shinji Naganawa, Haruo Isoda
OBJECTIVE: Epileptic spikes are associated with rapidly changing brain activation involving the epileptic foci and other brain regions in the "epileptic network". We aim to resolve these activation changes using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings. METHODS: Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings from 9 patients with epilepsy were used in the analysis. Our method employed the whole scalp EEG data to generate regressors for the analysis of fMRI data using the general linear model...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282779/dynamics-underlying-interictal-to-ictal-transition-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-insights-from-a-neural-mass-model
#10
Xiaoya Fan, Nicolas Gaspard, Benjamin Legros, Federico Lucchetti, Rudy Ercek, Antoine Nonclercq
We propose an approach that combines a neural mass model and clinical intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings to explore the potential pathophysiological mechanisms (at the neuronal population level) of ictogenesis. Thirty iEEG recordings from ten temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients around seizure onset were investigated. Physiologically meaningful parameters (average excitatory [Ae], slow [B] and fast [G] inhibitory synaptic gain) were identified during interictal to ictal transition. Four ratios (Ae/G, Ae/B, Ae/(B+G) and B/G) were derived from these parameters and their evolution over time were analyzed...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277263/genetics-of-human-epilepsies-continuing-progress
#11
Pierre Szepetowski
Numerous epilepsy genes have been identified in the last years, mostly in the (rare) monogenic forms and thanks to the increased availability and the decreased cost of next-generation sequencing approaches. Besides the somehow expected group of epilepsy genes encoding various ion channel subunits (e.g. sodium or potassium channel subunits, or GABA receptors, or glutamate-gated NMDA receptors), more diversity has emerged recently, with novel epilepsy genes encoding proteins playing a wide range of physiological roles at the cellular and molecular levels, such as synaptic proteins, members of the mTOR pathway, or proteins involved in chromatin remodeling...
December 22, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274950/knowledge-about-epilepsy-in-university-health-students-a-multicenter-study
#12
Priscila Souza, Leslie A Portes, Robert K Thomas, Jorge R Bonito, Marilia Rua, Fabio J Pacheco, Phillip Plaatjes, Natalia C Oliveira
Even with economic development and improvements in health care around the world, it is estimated that nowadays, 50 million people have epilepsy. It is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases, yet it is still surrounded by prejudice, stigma, lack of awareness, and wrong attitudes of the population towards the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge about epilepsy in health students from different countries: Brazil, Argentina, Portugal, United States, and South Africa...
December 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273305/the-production-of-il-6-in-acute-epileptic-seizure-a-video-eeg-study
#13
Tiina Alapirtti, Kai Lehtimäki, Riina Nieminen, Riikka Mäkinen, Jani Raitanen, Eeva Moilanen, Jussi Mäkinen, Jukka Peltola
Experimental and clinical reports highlight the role of cytokines in pathophysiological processes in underpinning epilepsy, but the clinical data remains somewhat limited. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6 were measured in serum from 49 patients with refractory epilepsy [temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n=23), extratemporal lobe epilepsy (XLE, n=22), and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, n=4)] before and after the first verified seizure (IS; index seizure) during inpatient video-electroencephalographic (VEEG) monitoring...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261713/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-provides-novel-clues-for-associated-epilepsy-and-cardiac-conduction-disorder-sudep
#14
Monica Coll, Pasquale Striano, Carles Ferrer-Costa, Oscar Campuzano, Jesús Matés, Bernat Del Olmo, Anna Iglesias, Alexandra Pérez-Serra, Irene Mademont, Ferran Picó, Antonio Oliva, Ramon Brugada
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is an unpredicted condition in patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy, and autopsy does not conclusively identify cause of death. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie this entity remain unknown, the fact that epilepsy can affect cardiac function is not surprising. The genetic factors involving ion channels co-expressed in the heart and brain and other candidate genes have been previously described. In the present study, 20 epilepsy patients with personal or family history of heart rhythm disturbance/cardiac arrhythmias/sudden death were sequenced using a custom re-sequencing panel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249513/cognitive-outcome-after-epilepsy-surgery-in-children
#15
Ahsan N V Moosa, Elaine Wyllie
Cognitive dysfunction in children with epilepsy is primarily contributed by etiology, seizures, frequency of interictal epileptiform discharges, and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. The direct effect of epilepsy surgery on cognitive outcome depends on two key factors: the function that is present in the epileptogenic zone to be removed, and the dysfunction outside the epileptogenic zone caused by epilepsy. Studies on cognitive outcome in children after various types of epilepsy surgery estimate "no significant change" in about 70% of children, improvement in cognition in 10%-15%, and decline in 10%-15%...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249509/what-is-the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-epilepsy
#16
Roberto Tuchman
The association of epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is best understood by examining the relationship between social cognition, nonsocial cognition, and epilepsy. The relationship between ASD and epilepsy is bidirectional and is strongly linked to intellectual disability (ID). The risk of developing ASD in children with epilepsy is highest in children with early onset seizures, with a high prevalence in children with infantile spasms. The risk of developing epilepsy in children first diagnosed with ASD is highest in those with ID...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214587/rare-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-and-genetic-update
#17
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204347/impairment-of-consciousness-induced-by-bilateral-electrical-stimulation-of-the-frontal-convexity
#18
Imran H Quraishi, Christopher F Benjamin, Dennis D Spencer, Hal Blumenfeld, Rafeed Alkawadri
We report a case of impairment of consciousness (IOC) induced by electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) of homologous regions within the lateral frontal convexities in a patient with medically intractable epilepsy. The patient had mixed features of idiopathic generalized and focal epilepsy. On intracranial EEG recording, interictal and ictal discharges showed a high degree of synchrony across widespread bilateral fronto-parietal areas. We identified regions in the lateral frontal lobes that reliably and produced loss of consciousness by ECS...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204314/the-effect-of-botulinum-toxin-on-network-connectivity-in-cervical-dystonia-lessons-from-magnetoencephalography
#19
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Abdullah Alshammaa, Andrew Zillgitt, Susan M Bowyer, Peter LeWitt, Patricia Kaminski, Christos Sidiropoulos
Background: Pharmacological management of cervical dystonia (CD) is considered to be symptomatic in effect, rather than targeting the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetoencephalography (MEG), a direct measure of neuronal activity, while accepted as a modality for pre-surgical mapping in epilepsy, has never been used to explore the effect of pharmacotherapy in movement disorders. Methods: Resting state MEG data were collected from patients with CD, pre- and post-botulinum toxin injections...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200116/paraneoplastic-disorders
#20
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes target specific areas of the nervous system with pathogenic autoantibodies or T-cell responses. Each syndrome conveys a risk of particular tumors. Expanded paraneoplastic antibody testing has led to improved diagnosis but created challenges involving appropriate interpretation of test results. RECENT FINDINGS: Peripheral nervous system paraneoplastic disorders such as myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome involve pathogenic autoantibodies...
December 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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