keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

epilepsy pathophysiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937639/sleep-disorders-in-childhood-neurological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Abdullah Tolaymat, Zhao Liu
Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes...
September 22, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934527/proton-mr-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-she-evidence-of-altered-cingulate-cortex-metabolism
#2
Ilaria Naldi, Francesca Bisulli, Claudia Testa, Giovanni Rizzo, Lorenzo Ferri, Laura L Gramegna, Laura Licchetta, Raffaele Lodi, Caterina Tonon, Paolo Tinuper
Study Objectives: To identify structural and/or metabolic alterations in patients with sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen SHE patients (seven males; 34.7 ± 9.7 years, mean age ± standard deviation) and 17 matched healthy volunteers (seven males; 34.0 ± 8.9 years) were included in the study. In all patients, the diagnosis of SHE was confirmed by video-polysomnographic recording of seizures...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931825/disrupted-topological-organization-of-structural-brain-networks-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#3
Wenchao Qiu, Chuanyong Yu, Yuan Gao, Ailiang Miao, Lu Tang, Shuyang Huang, Wenwen Jiang, Jintao Sun, Jing Xiang, Xiaoshan Wang
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is the most common paediatric epilepsy syndrome and is characterized by frequent and transient impairment of consciousness. In this study, we explored structural brain network alterations in CAE and their association with clinical characteristics. A whole-brain structural network was constructed for each participant based on diffusion-weighted MRI and probabilistic tractography. The topological metrics were then evaluated. For the first time, we uncovered modular topology in CAE patients that was similar to healthy controls...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928712/metabolomics-as-a-tool-for-the-characterization-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#4
Federica Murgia, Antonella Muroni, Monica Puligheddu, Lorenzo Polizzi, Luigi Barberini, Gianni Orofino, Paolo Solla, Simone Poddighe, Francesco Del Carratore, Julian L Griffin, Luigi Atzori, Francesco Marrosu
PURPOSE: Drug resistance is a critical issue in the treatment of epilepsy, contributing to clinical emergencies and increasing both serious social and economic burdens on the health system. The wide variety of potential drug combinations followed by often failed consecutive attempts to match drugs to an individual patient may mean that this treatment stage may last for years with suboptimal benefit to the patient. Given these challenges, it is valuable to explore the availability of new methodologies able to shorten the period of determining a rationale pharmacologic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920067/a-history-of-dystonia-ancient-to-modern
#5
REVIEW
Rachel E Newby, Deborah E Thorpe, Peter A Kempster, Jane E Alty
Before 1911, when Hermann Oppenheim introduced the term dystonia, this movement disorder lacked a unifying descriptor. While words like epilepsy, apoplexy, and palsy have had their meanings since antiquity, references to dystonia are much harder to identify in historical documents. Torticollis is an exception, although there is difficulty distinguishing dystonic torticollis from congenital muscular torticollis. There are, nevertheless, possible representations of dystonia in literature and visual art from the pre-modern world...
July 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917501/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-i-clinical-and-network-analysis-approaches
#6
REVIEW
Felix Rosenow, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Sebastian Bauer
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917498/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-ii-experimental-and-translational-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Sebastian Bauer, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Felix Rosenow
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914733/metabolic-connectivity-methods-and-applications
#8
Igor Yakushev, Alexander Drzezga, Christian Habeck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic connectivity modelling aims to detect functionally interacting brain regions based on PET recordings with the glucose analogue [F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Here, we outline the most popular metabolic connectivity methods and summarize recent applications in clinical and basic neuroscience. RECENT FINDINGS: Metabolic connectivity is modelled by various methods including a seed correlation, sparse inverse covariance estimation, independent component analysis and graph theory...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913167/ictal-conduction-aphasia-and-ictal-angular-gyrus-syndrome-as-rare-manifestations-of-epilepsy-the-importance-of-ictal-testing-during-video-eeg-monitoring
#9
Johann Philipp Zöllner, Anja Haag, Anke Hermsen, Sebastian Bauer, Friederike Stahl, Karina Wulf, Katja Menzler, Philipp S Reif, Marlies Wagner, Axel Pagenstecher, Ulrich Sure, Susanne Knake, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk
The aim of these two case reports is to demonstrate that a predefined, structured, multimodal clinical bed-side testing during seizures in a long-term video-EEG monitoring setting facilitates diagnosis of complex neuropsychological syndromes. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of conduction aphasia as the sole ictal semiology, and a patient with focal seizures producing an angular gyrus syndrome in the speech dominant hemisphere. The relevance of diagnosing ictal aphasic and angular gyrus syndromes and localizing the symptomatogenic zone is discussed...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904824/a-case-of-unruptured-aneurysm-of-the-internal-carotid-artery-presenting-as-olfactory-hallucinations
#10
Jiro Akimoto, Norio Ichimasu, Rei Haraoka, Shinjiro Fukami, Michihiro Kohno
BACKGROUND: Olfactory hallucination, a symptom of medial temporal lobe epilepsy, is rarely associated with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. CASE DESCRIPTION: We encountered this situation in a 70-year-old woman with an unruptured aneurysm at the bifurcation of the internal carotid and posterior communicating artery. We were able to achieve epileptic control by craniotomy clipping and medial temporal lesionectomy. CONCLUSION: According to our knowledge, previous reports are limited to cases of large middle cerebral artery aneurysms compressing the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and this is apparently the first report of a case where olfactory hallucinations occurred from direct stimulation of the entorhinal cortex by an internal carotid and posterior communicating artery bifurcation aneurysm...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888969/mtor-related-neuropathology-in-mutant-tsc2-zebrafish-phenotypic-transcriptomic-and-pharmacological-analysis
#11
Chloë Scheldeman, James D Mills, Aleksandra Siekierska, Ines Serra, Daniëlle Copmans, Anand M Iyer, Benjamin J Whalley, Jan Maes, Anna C Jansen, Lieven Lagae, Eleonora Aronica, Peter A M de Witte
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, genetic disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. Patients with TSC are neurologically characterized by the presence of abnormal brain structure, intractable epilepsy and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. Given the lack of effective long-term treatments for TSC, there is a need to gain greater insight into TSC-related pathophysiology and to identify and develop new treatments. In this work we show that homozygous tsc2(-/-) mutant zebrafish larvae, but not tsc2(+/-) and WT larvae, display enlarged brains, reduced locomotor behavior and epileptiform discharges at 7dpf...
September 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887093/repeated-restraint-stress-increases-seizure-susceptibility-by-activation-of-hippocampal-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#12
Xinjian Zhu, Jingde Dong, Zhengrong Xia, Aifeng Zhang, Jie Chao, Honghong Yao
A growing body of evidence suggests that stress triggers a variety of pathophysiological responses. Recent studies show that stress produces enduring effects on structure and function of hippocampus, which is one of the most important structures involved in epilepsy. In the present study, we determined the effect of repeated restraint stress exposure on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and the possible mechanisms involved using a rodent model. Our results show that mice subjected to repeated restraint stress exhibited shorter latency to PTZ-induced tonic-clonic seizures and higher seizure severity, suggesting chronic restraint stress increases seizure susceptibility...
September 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880996/dravet-syndrome-and-its-mimics-beyond-scn1a
#13
REVIEW
Dora Steel, Joseph D Symonds, Sameer M Zuberi, Andreas Brunklaus
OBJECTIVE: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by the onset of prolonged febrile and afebrile seizures in infancy, and evolving to drug-resistant epilepsy with accompanying cognitive, behavioral, and motor impairment. Most cases are now known to be caused by pathogenic variants in the sodium channel gene SCN1A, but several other genes have also been implicated. This review examines current understanding of the role of non-SCN1A genes in DS, and what is known about phenotypic similarities and differences...
September 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875535/disrupted-intrinsic-and-remote-functional-connectivity-in-heterotopia-related-epilepsy
#14
W Liu, X Hu, D An, Q Gong, D Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Several neuroimaging studies have examined neural interactions in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH). However, features of the underlying functional network remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined alterations in the local (regional) and remote (interregional) cerebral networks in this disorder. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects all having suffered from PNH with epilepsy, as well as 28 age- and sex- matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study...
September 6, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868116/bio-effectiveness-of-the-main-flavonoids-of-achillea-millefolium-in-the-pathophysiology-of-neurodegenerative-disorders-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Fatemeh Ayoobi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Iman Fatemi, Alireza Vakilian, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi
The Achillea millefolium L. (Yarrow) is a common herb which is widely being used, worldwide. Achillea is being used for treatment of many disorders since centuries. It is considered safe for supplemental use and flavonoids such as kaempferol, luteolin and apigenin are of main constituents present in Achillea. Most of both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this herb have been attributed to its flavonoid content. Oxidative and inflammatory processes play important roles in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866333/epilepsy-may-cause-increased-pain-sensitivity-evidence-from-absence-epileptic-wag-rij-rats
#16
Sibel K Velioglu, Oznur Gedikli, Mehmet Yıldırım, Ahmet Ayar
OBJECTIVE: The comorbidity of epilepsy and pain disorders as well as effectiveness of certain therapeutic approaches in both conditions attracted attention to epilepsy-pain interactions. This lead to the discovery of significantly shared pathophysiological mechanisms although many aspects remain largely unknown. To test the hypothesis that epilepsy may be associated with altered pain sensitivity, we analyzed interictal pain sensitivity using epilepsy prone WAG/Rij rats, a genetic model exhibiting age-related-onset absence epilepsy...
August 31, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844439/comorbidities-and-risk-factors-associated-with-newly-diagnosed-epilepsy-in-the-u-s-pediatric-population
#17
Ahyuda Oh, David J Thurman, Hyunmi Kim
Neurobehavioral comorbidities can be related to underlying etiology of epilepsy, epilepsy itself, and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. We examined the relationship between neurobehavioral comorbidities and putative risk factors for epilepsy in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of children aged ≤18years in 50 states and the District of Columbia, using the Truven Health MarketScan® commercial claims and encounters database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013...
August 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838789/long-term-memory-deficits-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
E Tramoni-Negre, I Lambert, F Bartolomei, O Felician
Memory complaints and deficits are common in patients with epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), where memory-related brain structures are directly involved in the epileptic process. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in delineating memory impairment in TLE, challenging the traditional neuropsychological approach of the disorder. In particular, several lines of evidence have suggested that, beyond the apparent deficit demonstrable by standardized neuropsychological evaluations, TLE may also negatively interact with long-term memory, producing considerable loss of information of the patient's autobiographical history and an inability to maintain newly acquired information over a period of time...
August 21, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833036/treatment-with-lacosamide-impedes-generalized-seizures-in-a-rodent-model-of-cortical-dysplasia
#19
Ashley D Nemes, Rebecca O'Dwyer, Imad M Najm, Zhong Ying, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Andreas V Alexopoulos
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder resulting in spontaneous, recurrent seizures. About 30-40% of patients are not responsive to pharmacologic therapies. This may be due to the differences between individual patients such as etiology, underlying pathophysiology, and seizure focus, and it highlights the importance of new drug discovery and testing in this field. Our goal was to determine the efficacy of lacosamide (LCM), a drug approved for the treatment of focal seizures, in a model of generalized epilepsy with cortical dysplasia (CD)...
August 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828609/glial-gaba-transporters-as-modulators-of-inhibitory-signalling-in-epilepsy-and-stroke
#20
Maria E K Lie, Anas Al-Khawaja, Maria Damgaard, Anne S Haugaard, Arne Schousboe, Andrew N Clarkson, Petrine Wellendorph
Imbalances in GABA-mediated tonic inhibition are involved in several pathophysiological conditions. A classical way of controlling tonic inhibition is through pharmacological intervention with extrasynaptic GABAA receptors that sense ambient GABA and mediate a persistent GABAergic conductance. An increase in tonic inhibition may, however, also be obtained indirectly by inhibiting glial GABA transporters (GATs). These are sodium-coupled membrane transport proteins that normally act to terminate GABA neurotransmitter action by taking up GABA into surrounding astrocytes...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
keyword
keyword
77708
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"