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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314980/ex-post-assessment-of-genetically-modified-low-level-presence-in-canadian-flax
#1
Helen M Booker, Eric G Lamb, Stuart J Smyth
Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of flaxseed. In 2009, DNA from deregistered genetically modified (GM) CDC Triffid was detected in a shipment of Canadian flaxseed exported to Europe, causing a large decrease in the amount of flax planted in Canada and a major shift in export markets. The flax industry in Canada undertook major changes to ensure the removal of transgenic flax from the supply chain. To demonstrate compliance, Canada adopted a protocol involving testing grain samples (post-harvest) using an RT-PCR test for the construct found in CDC Triffid...
March 17, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299328/mir319-mir390-and-mir393-are-involved-in-aluminum-response-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l
#2
Alexey A Dmitriev, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Nadezhda L Bolsheva, Alexander V Zyablitsin, Tatiana A Rozhmina, Natalya V Kishlyan, George S Krasnov, Anna S Speranskaya, Anastasia A Krinitsina, Asiya F Sadritdinova, Anastasiya V Snezhkina, Maria S Fedorova, Olga Yu Yurkevich, Olga V Muravenko, Maxim S Belenikin, Nataliya V Melnikova
Acid soils limit agricultural production worldwide. Major reason of crop losses in acid soils is the toxicity of aluminum (Al). In the present work, we investigated expression alterations of microRNAs in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plants under Al stress. Flax seedlings of resistant (TMP1919 and G1071/4_k) and sensitive (Lira and G1071/4_o) to Al cultivars and lines were exposed to AlCl3 solution for 4 and 24 hours. Twelve small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced using Illumina platform. In total, 97 microRNAs from 18 conserved families were identified...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277078/the-use-of-phosphomannose-isomerase-selection-system-for-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-of-tobacco-and-flax-aimed-for-phytoremediation
#3
Jitka Hilgert, Martina Sura-De Jong, Jiří Fišer, Kateřina Tupá, Miroslava Vrbová, Miroslav Griga, Tomáš Macek, Jana Žiarovská
A plant selection system based on the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker is often used to avoid selection using antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, pmi gene is endogenous in several plant species and therefore difficult to use in such cases. Here we evaluated and compared Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Linum usitatissimum breeding line AGT-952 (without endogenous pmi gene) and Nicotiana tabacum var. WSC-38 (with endogenous pmi gene). Transformation was evaluated for vectors bearing transgenes that have the potential to be involved in improved phytoremediation of contaminated environment...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262560/bliss-a-bioorthogonal-dual-labeling-strategy-to-unravel-lignification-dynamics-in-plants
#4
Cedric Lion, Clémence Simon, Brigitte Huss, Anne-Sophie Blervacq, Louis Tirot, Djadidi Toybou, Corentin Spriet, Christian Slomianny, Yann Guerardel, Simon Hawkins, Christophe Biot
A better in vivo understanding of lignin formation within plant cell walls will contribute to improving the valorization of plant-derived biomass. Although bioorthogonal chemistry provides a promising platform to study the lignification process, methodologies that simultaneously detect multiple chemical reporters in living organisms are still scarce. Here, we have developed an original bioorthogonal labeling imaging sequential strategy (BLISS) to visualize and analyze the incorporation of both p-hydroxyphenyl (H) and guaiacyl (G) units into lignin in vivo with a combination of strain-promoted and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions...
March 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188068/ssr-and-morphological-trait-based-population-structure-analysis-of-130-diverse-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-accessions
#5
Shashi Bhushan Choudhary, Hariom Kumar Sharma, Arroju Anil Kumar, Rangappa Thimmaiah Maruthi, Jiban Mitra, Isholeena Chowdhury, Binay Kumar Singh, Pran Gobinda Karmakar
A total of 130 flax accessions of diverse morphotypes and worldwide origin were assessed for genetic diversity and population structure using 11 morphological traits and microsatellite markers (15 gSSRs and 7 EST-SSRs). Analysis performed after classifying these accessions on the basis of plant height, branching pattern, seed size, Indian/foreign origin into six categories called sub-populations viz. fibre type exotic, fibre type indigenous, intermediate type exotic, intermediate type indigenous, linseed type exotic and linseed type indigenous...
February 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159890/multiple-functional-self-association-interfaces-in-plant-tir-domains
#6
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Maud Bernoux, Adam R Bentham, Toby E Newman, Thomas Ve, Lachlan W Casey, Tom M Raaymakers, Jian Hu, Tristan I Croll, Karl J Schreiber, Brian J Staskawicz, Peter A Anderson, Kee Hoon Sohn, Simon J Williams, Peter N Dodds, Bostjan Kobe
The self-association of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domains has been implicated in signaling in plant and animal immunity receptors. Structure-based studies identified different TIR-domain dimerization interfaces required for signaling of the plant nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) L6 from flax and disease resistance protein RPS4 from Arabidopsis Here we show that the crystal structure of the TIR domain from the Arabidopsis NLR suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1 (SNC1) contains both an L6-like interface involving helices αD and αE (DE interface) and an RPS4-like interface involving helices αA and αE (AE interface)...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118137/effect-of-source-of-dna-on-the-quantitative-analysis-of-genetically-engineered-traits-using-digital-pcr-and-real-time-pcr
#7
Tigst Demeke, Jemima Malabanan, Michelle Holigroski, Monika Eng
Seven commercially available DNA extraction kits were compared with a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method to determine the suitability of the extracted DNA for RainDrop digital PCR (dPCR) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) quantification of OXY235 canola, FP967 flax, and DP305423 soybean (spiked at the 0.1% level). For the kits, the highest amount of DNA extracted from a 0.2 g sample was obtained using OmniPrep for Plant for flax and DNeasy <em>mericon</em> Food for canola and soybean. For canola, DNA extracted with the Fast ID Genomic DNA Extraction Kit, FastDNA Spin Kit, GM Quicker 2, NucleoSpin Food, and DNeasy <em>mericon</em> Food was suitable for dPCR and RT-PCR...
December 22, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105944/gene-expression-profiling-of-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-under-edaphic-stress
#8
Alexey A Dmitriev, Anna V Kudryavtseva, George S Krasnov, Nadezhda V Koroban, Anna S Speranskaya, Anastasia A Krinitsina, Maxim S Belenikin, Anastasiya V Snezhkina, Asiya F Sadritdinova, Natalya V Kishlyan, Tatiana A Rozhmina, Olga Yu Yurkevich, Olga V Muravenko, Nadezhda L Bolsheva, Nataliya V Melnikova
BACKGROUND: Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1) is the most studied modification...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024547/metrics-of-rhamnogalacturonan-i-with-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-4-linked-galactan-side-chains-and-structural-basis-for-its-self-aggregation
#9
Olga N Makshakova, Tatyana A Gorshkova, Polina V Mikshina, Yuriy F Zuev, Serge Perez
Within the family of plant cell wall polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonans I are the most diverse and structurally complex members. In present study we characterize the 3-dimensional structures and dynamic features of the constituents of RG-I along MD trajectories. It is demonstrated that extended threefold helical structure of the rhamnogalacturonan linear backbone is the most energetically favorable motif. Branching helps to stabilize a conformer of the backbone twisted along 1→2 glycosidic linkage triggering the orientation of long side chains without altering the extended overall backbone chain conformation...
February 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008335/structure-and-function-of-the-tir-domain-from-the-grape-nlr-protein-rpv1
#10
Simon J Williams, Ling Yin, Gabriel Foley, Lachlan W Casey, Megan A Outram, Daniel J Ericsson, Jiang Lu, Mikael Boden, Ian B Dry, Bostjan Kobe
The N-terminal Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domain has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for defense signaling in the model plants flax and Arabidopsis. In examples from these organisms, TIR domain self-association is required for signaling function, albeit through distinct interfaces. Here, we investigate these properties in the TIR domain containing resistance protein RPV1 from the wild grapevine Muscadinia rotundifolia. The RPV1 TIR domain, without additional flanking sequence present, is autoactive when transiently expressed in tobacco, demonstrating that the TIR domain alone is capable of cell-death signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987846/differential-growth-of-bowel-commensal-bacteroides-species-on-plant-xylans-of-differing-structural-complexity
#11
Manuela Centanni, Jennifer C Hutchison, Susan M Carnachan, Alison M Daines, William J Kelly, Gerald W Tannock, Ian M Sims
Alterations to the composition of the bowel microbiota (dysbioses) are associated with particular diseases and conditions of humans. There is a need to discover new, indigestible polysaccharides which are selective growth substrates for commensal bowel bacteria. These substrates (prebiotics) could be added to food in intervention studies to correct bowel dysbiosis. A collection of commensal bacteria was screened for growth in culture using a highly-branched xylan produced by New Zealand flax. Two, Bacteroides ovatus ATCC 8483 and Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 18836 grew well on this substrate...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981388/transcriptome-portrait-of-cellulose-enriched-flax-fibres-at-advanced-stage-of-specialization
#12
Oleg Gorshkov, Natalia Mokshina, Vladimir Gorshkov, Svetlana Chemikosova, Yuri Gogolev, Tatyana Gorshkova
Functional specialization of cells is among the most fundamental processes of higher organism ontogenesis. The major obstacle to studying this phenomenon in plants is the difficulty of isolating certain types of cells at defined stages of in planta development for in-depth analysis. A rare opportunity is given by the developed model system of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) phloem fibres that can be purified from the surrounding tissues at the stage of the tertiary cell wall deposition. The performed comparison of the whole transcriptome profile in isolated fibres and other portions of the flax stem, together with fibre metabolism characterization, helped to elucidate the general picture of the advanced stage of plant cell specialization and to reveal novel participants potentially involved in fibre metabolism regulation and cell wall formation...
March 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933082/rna-seq-transcriptome-response-of-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-to-the-pathogenic-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lini
#13
Leonardo Galindo-González, Michael K Deyholos
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776375/investigation-of-the-lignan-content-in-extracts-from-linum-callitris-and-juniperus-species-in-relation-to-their-in-vitro-antiproliferative-activities
#14
Joël Doussot, Véronique Mathieu, Cyril Colas, Roland Molinié, Cyrielle Corbin, Josiane Montguillon, Laeticia Moreno Y Banuls, Sullivan Renouard, Frédéric Lamblin, Patricia Dupré, Benoit Maunit, Robert Kiss, Christophe Hano, Eric Lainé
Podophyllotoxin, a lignan still extracted from the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae), is the starting molecule for the semisynthesis of widely used anticancer drugs such as etoposide. However, this source is threatened by the over-collection of P. hexandrum. Plants belonging to the Linaceae and Cupressaceae families could be attractive alternative sources with species that contain the lignan podophyllotoxin or its precursors and derivatives. Wild flax species, such as Linum flavum, as well as some Juniperus and Callitris species were investigated for their lignan content, and the in vitro antiproliferative capacity of their extracts was assayed on four tumor cell lines...
April 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626291/synthesis-and-characterization-of-site-selective-orbitide-bsa-conjugate-to-produce-antibodies
#15
Pramodkumar D Jadhav, Youn Young Shim, Martin J T Reaney
Bioactive flax cyclic peptides (orbitides, linusorbs) were site specifically ligated through methionine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to produce immunogenic compounds. In this study, modified flaxseed immunosuppressant orbitides (linusorbs, LOs) containing hydroxyl (OH) groups were synthesized for use as haptens. These compounds were extensively characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HPLC-MS/MS, and FTIR. The haptens were conjugated to BSA and the extent of hapten incorporation was determined by MALDI, LC-ESI-MS, and SDS-PAGE...
September 14, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550217/genome-analysis-and-avirulence-gene-cloning-using-a-high-density-radseq-linkage-map-of-the-flax-rust-fungus-melampsora-lini
#16
Claire Anderson, Muhammad Adil Khan, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Cameron A Jack, Adnane Nemri, Gregory J Lawrence, Narayana M Upadhyaya, Adrienne R Hardham, Jeffrey G Ellis, Peter N Dodds, David A Jones
BACKGROUND: Rust fungi are an important group of plant pathogens that cause devastating losses in agricultural, silvicultural and natural ecosystems. Plants can be protected from rust disease by resistance genes encoding receptors that trigger a highly effective defence response upon recognition of specific pathogen avirulence proteins. Identifying avirulence genes is crucial for understanding how virulence evolves in the field. RESULTS: To facilitate avirulence gene cloning in the flax rust fungus, Melampsora lini, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using single nucleotide polymorphisms detected in restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516647/the-effect-of-flax-seed-linum-usitatissimum-hydroalcoholic-extract-on-brain-weight-and-plasma-sexual-hormone-levels-in-aged-and-young-mice
#17
Soghra Bahmanpour, Mahsa Kamali
BACKGROUND: Flax is a food and fiber crop that is grown in some regions of the world. Its value will account for its great popularity as a food, medical and cosmetic applications. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant and are two to three times as strong as cotton. In this study, we compared brain weight and plasma sex hormone levels in young and aged mice after the administration of Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) hydro alcoholic extract. METHODS: In this study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476208/-effect-of-long-term-application-of-agrotechnical-techniques-and-crops-on-soil-microbial-communities
#18
I O Korvigo, E V Pershina, E A Ivanova, N S Matyuk, O A Savos'kina, E L Chirak, N A Provorov, E E Andronov
Effects of long-term application ofvarious fertilizers and crops on soil microbiomes an a long-term field experiment were investigated using the library of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained by high-throughput sequencing of the total DNA. The communities exhibited high diversity, with 655 microbial genera belonging to 34 phyla detected (31 bacterial and 3 archaeal ones). For analysis of the effect of the studied factors on community structure, a linear model was developed in order to simplify interpretation of the data of high-throughput sequencing and to obtain biologically important information...
March 2016: Mikrobiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446124/chalcone-synthase-chs-gene-suppression-in-flax-leads-to-changes-in-wall-synthesis-and-sensing-genes-cell-wall-chemistry-and-stem-morphology-parameters
#19
Magdalena Zuk, Magdalena Działo, Dorota Richter, Lucyna Dymińska, Jan Matuła, Andrzej Kotecki, Jerzy Hanuza, Jan Szopa
The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In flax, CHS down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but plant growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275107/natural-cures-for-breast-cancer-treatment
#20
Munazza Shareef, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, Maliha Sarfraz
For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. These phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. They either stimulate the protective enzyme like glutathione transferase or prevent the cell proliferation...
May 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
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