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Flax plant

Joël Doussot, Véronique Mathieu, Cyril Colas, Roland Molinié, Cyrielle Corbin, Josiane Montguillon, Laeticia Moreno Y Banuls, Sullivan Renouard, Frédéric Lamblin, Patricia Dupré, Benoit Maunit, Robert Kiss, Christophe Hano, Eric Lainé
Podophyllotoxin, a lignan still extracted from the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae), is the starting molecule for the semisynthesis of widely used anticancer drugs such as etoposide. However, this source is threatened by the over-collection of P. hexandrum. Plants belonging to the Linaceae and Cupressaceae families could be attractive alternative sources with species that contain the lignan podophyllotoxin or its precursors and derivatives. Wild flax species, such as Linum flavum, as well as some Juniperus and Callitris species were investigated for their lignan content, and the in vitro antiproliferative capacity of their extracts was assayed on four tumor cell lines...
October 24, 2016: Planta Medica
Pramodkumar D Jadhav, Youn Young Shim, Martin J T Reaney
Bioactive flax cyclic peptides (orbitides, linusorbs) were site specifically ligated through methionine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to produce immunogenic compounds. In this study, modified flaxseed immunosuppressant orbitides (linusorbs, LOs) containing hydroxyl (OH) groups were synthesized for use as haptens. These compounds were extensively characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HPLC-MS/MS, and FTIR. The haptens were conjugated to BSA and the extent of hapten incorporation was determined by MALDI, LC-ESI-MS, and SDS-PAGE...
September 14, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Claire Anderson, Muhammad Adil Khan, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Cameron A Jack, Adnane Nemri, Gregory J Lawrence, Narayana M Upadhyaya, Adrienne R Hardham, Jeffrey G Ellis, Peter N Dodds, David A Jones
BACKGROUND: Rust fungi are an important group of plant pathogens that cause devastating losses in agricultural, silvicultural and natural ecosystems. Plants can be protected from rust disease by resistance genes encoding receptors that trigger a highly effective defence response upon recognition of specific pathogen avirulence proteins. Identifying avirulence genes is crucial for understanding how virulence evolves in the field. RESULTS: To facilitate avirulence gene cloning in the flax rust fungus, Melampsora lini, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using single nucleotide polymorphisms detected in restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data...
2016: BMC Genomics
Soghra Bahmanpour, Mahsa Kamali
BACKGROUND: Flax is a food and fiber crop that is grown in some regions of the world. Its value will account for its great popularity as a food, medical and cosmetic applications. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant and are two to three times as strong as cotton. In this study, we compared brain weight and plasma sex hormone levels in young and aged mice after the administration of Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) hydro alcoholic extract. METHODS: In this study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
I O Korvigo, E V Pershina, E A Ivanova, N S Matyuk, O A Savos'kina, E L Chirak, N A Provorov, E E Andronov
Effects of long-term application ofvarious fertilizers and crops on soil microbiomes an a long-term field experiment were investigated using the library of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained by high-throughput sequencing of the total DNA. The communities exhibited high diversity, with 655 microbial genera belonging to 34 phyla detected (31 bacterial and 3 archaeal ones). For analysis of the effect of the studied factors on community structure, a linear model was developed in order to simplify interpretation of the data of high-throughput sequencing and to obtain biologically important information...
March 2016: Mikrobiologiia
Magdalena Zuk, Magdalena Działo, Dorota Richter, Lucyna Dymińska, Jan Matuła, Andrzej Kotecki, Jerzy Hanuza, Jan Szopa
The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In flax, CHS down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but plant growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Munazza Shareef, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, Maliha Sarfraz
For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. These phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. They either stimulate the protective enzyme like glutathione transferase or prevent the cell proliferation...
May 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Nadezda N Ibragimova, Marina V Ageeva, Tatyana A Gorshkova
The major mechanism of gravitropism that is discussed for herbal plants is based on the nonuniform elongation of cells located on the opposite stem sides, occurring in the growing zone of an organ. However, gravitropic response of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is well-pronounced in the lower half of developing stem, which has ceased elongation long in advance of plant inclination. We have analyzed the stem curvature region by various approaches of microscopy and found the undescribed earlier significant modifications in primary phloem fibers that have constitutively developed G-layer...
June 4, 2016: Protoplasma
Peta-Gaye Gillian Burnett, Clara Marisa Olivia, Denis Paskal Okinyo-Owiti, Martin John Tarsisius Reaney
The flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) core collection (FCC) was regenerated in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and Morden, Manitoba in 2009. Seed orbitide content and composition from successfully propagated plants of 391 accessions were analyzed using high-throughput analyses employing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with reverse-phase monolithic HPLC columns and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Seed from plants regenerated in Morden had comparatively higher orbitide content than those grown in Saskatoon...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ying Yu, Guangwen Wu, Hongmei Yuan, Lili Cheng, Dongsheng Zhao, Wengong Huang, Shuquan Zhang, Liguo Zhang, Hongyu Chen, Jian Zhang, Fengzhi Guan
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress and have been characterized in a large number of plant species. Although flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the most important fiber and oil crops worldwide, no reports have been published describing flax miRNAs (Lus-miRNAs) induced in response to saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses. RESULTS: In this work, combined small RNA and degradome deep sequencing was used to analyze flax libraries constructed after alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS), alkaline stress (AS), and the non-stressed control (CK)...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Anwar Ali Shad, Seemab Asmat, Jehan Bakht, Saleem Jan, Muhammad Azim Khan
The present study reveals antimicrobial potentials and phytochemical analysis of A. javanica and L. ustitatissimum. Phytochemical analysis indicated that the tested plants contained a substantial amount of flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids while saponins and tannins were absent in L. ustitatissimum, however, tannins were present in A. javanica. L. ustitatissimum contained maximum total phenolic content of 166.36mg/g in methylated spirit fraction while its ethyl acetate fraction contained highest quantity of flavonoids 27...
May 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Dinushika Thambugala, Raja Ragupathy, Sylvie Cloutier
Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the richest crop source of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), is a diploid plant with an estimated genome size of ~370 Mb and is well suited for studying genomic organization of agronomically important traits. In this study, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome clones harbouring the six FA desaturase loci sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b from the conventional variety CDC Bethune and the high linolenic acid line M5791 were sequenced, analysed and compared to determine the structural organization of these loci and to gain insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying FA composition in flax...
July 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Nataliya V Melnikova, Alexey A Dmitriev, Maxim S Belenikin, Nadezhda V Koroban, Anna S Speranskaya, Anastasia A Krinitsina, George S Krasnov, Valentina A Lakunina, Anastasiya V Snezhkina, Asiya F Sadritdinova, Natalya V Kishlyan, Tatiana A Rozhmina, Kseniya M Klimina, Alexandra V Amosova, Alexander V Zelenin, Olga V Muravenko, Nadezhda L Bolsheva, Anna V Kudryavtseva
Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important plant valuable for industry. Some flax lines can undergo heritable phenotypic and genotypic changes (LIS-1 insertion being the most common) in response to nutrient stress and are called plastic lines. Offspring of plastic lines, which stably inherit the changes, are called genotrophs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a crucial regulatory mechanism of gene expression. They have previously been assumed to take part in nutrient stress response and can, therefore, participate in genotroph formation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wioleta Wojtasik, Anna Kulma, Lucyna Dymińska, Jerzy Hanuza, Magdalena Czemplik, Jan Szopa
BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum infection leads to Fusarium-derived wilt, which is responsible for the greatest losses in flax (Linum usitatissimum) crop yield. Plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum show severe symptoms of dehydration due to the growth of the fungus in vascular tissues. As the disease develops, vascular browning and leaf yellowing can be observed. In the case of more virulent strains, plants die. The pathogen's attack starts with secretion of enzymes degrading the host cell wall...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Simone Augusta Ribas, Rafaela Lora Grando, Lilia Zago, Elvira Carvajal, Iolanda M Fierro
BACKGROUND: Flaxseed is becoming an increasingly widely used food ingredient. The rising interest of the food industry in this nutraceutical is primarily because of functional nutrients, such as alpha-linolenic acid and lignans, which have health benefits due to their lipid-lowering properties. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the patenting of flaxseed products with cholesterol-lowering effects. METHOD: Patent applications filed by country of origin were retrieved from the Derwent Innovations Index® database...
March 21, 2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Melania Figueroa, Narayana M Upadhyaya, Jana Sperschneider, Robert F Park, Les J Szabo, Brian Steffenson, Jeff G Ellis, Peter N Dodds
The recent resurgence of wheat stem rust caused by new virulent races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) poses a threat to food security. These concerns have catalyzed an extensive global effort toward controlling this disease. Substantial research and breeding programs target the identification and introduction of new stem rust resistance (Sr) genes in cultivars for genetic protection against the disease. Such resistance genes typically encode immune receptor proteins that recognize specific components of the pathogen, known as avirulence (Avr) proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tomáš Takáč, Bohuš Obert, Jakub Rolčík, Jozef Šamaj
Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of oil and fiber. In vitro manipulations of flax are used for genetic improvement and breeding while improvements in adventitious root formation are important for biotechnological programs focused on regeneration and vegetative propagation of genetically valuable plant material. Additionally, flax hypocotyl segments possess outstanding morphogenetic capacity, thus providing a useful model for the investigation of flax developmental processes...
September 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Noel J Sauer, Javier Narváez-Vásquez, Jerry Mozoruk, Ryan B Miller, Zachary J Warburg, Melody J Woodward, Yohannes A Mihiret, Tracey A Lincoln, Rosa E Segami, Steven L Sanders, Keith A Walker, Peter R Beetham, Christian R Schöpke, Greg F W Gocal
Here, we report a form of oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis for precision genome editing in plants that uses single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssODNs) to precisely and efficiently generate genome edits at DNA strand lesions made by DNA double strand break reagents. Employing a transgene model in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we obtained a high frequency of precise targeted genome edits when ssODNs were introduced into protoplasts that were pretreated with the glycopeptide antibiotic phleomycin, a nonspecific DNA double strand breaker...
April 2016: Plant Physiology
Gisela Grunewaldt-Stöcker, Henning von Alten
In previous investigations, we found that Acremonium strictum (strain DSM 100709) developed intracellular structures with similarity to mycelia of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizodermal cells of flax plants and in hair roots of Rhododendron plantlets. A. strictum had also been isolated from roots of ericaceous salal plants and was described as an unusual ericoid mycorrhizal fungus (ERMF). As its mycorrhizal traits were doubted, we revised the hypothesis of a mycorrhizal nature of A. strictum. A successful synthesis of mycorrhiza in hair roots of inoculated ericaceous plants was a first step of evidence, followed by fluorescence microscopy with FUN(®)1 cell stain to observe the vitality of the host cells at the early infection stage...
July 2016: Mycorrhiza
Mokrane Malek, Haithem Khelfa, Pascal Picart, Denis Mounier, Christophe Poilâne
This paper describes a method for optical projection tomography for the 3D in situ characterization of micrometric plant fibers. The proposed approach is based on digital holographic microscopy, the holographic capability being convenient to compensate for the runout of the fiber during rotations. The setup requires a telecentric alignment to prevent from the changes in the optical magnification, and calibration results show the very good experimental adjustment. Amplitude images are obtained from the set of recorded and digitally processed holograms...
January 20, 2016: Applied Optics
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