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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430698/the-right-ventricle-is-dilated-during-resuscitation-from-cardiac-arrest-caused-by-hypovolemia-a-porcine-ultrasound-study
#1
Rasmus Aagaard, Asger Granfeldt, Morten T Bøtker, Troels Mygind-Klausen, Hans Kirkegaard, Bo Løfgren
OBJECTIVES: Dilation of the right ventricle during cardiac arrest and resuscitation may be inherent to cardiac arrest rather than being associated with certain causes of arrest such as pulmonary embolism. This study aimed to compare right ventricle diameter during resuscitation from cardiac arrest caused by hypovolemia, hyperkalemia, or primary arrhythmia (i.e., ventricular fibrillation). DESIGN: Thirty pigs were anesthetized and then randomized to cardiac arrest induced by three diffrent methods...
April 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427453/the-italian-society-for-pediatric-nephrology-sinepe-consensus-document-on-the-management-of-nephrotic-syndrome-in-children-part-i-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-the-first-episode-and-the-first-relapse
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Pasini, Elisa Benetti, Giovanni Conti, Luciana Ghio, Marta Lepore, Laura Massella, Daniela Molino, Licia Peruzzi, Francesco Emma, Carmelo Fede, Antonella Trivelli, Silvio Maringhini, Marco Materassi, Giovanni Messina, Giovanni Montini, Luisa Murer, Carmine Pecoraro, Marco Pennesi
This consensus document is aimed at providing an updated, multidisciplinary overview on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome (NS) at first presentation. It is the first consensus document of its kind to be produced by all the pediatric nephrology centres in Italy, in line with what is already present in other countries such as France, Germany and the USA. It is based on the current knowledge surrounding the symptomatic and steroid treatment of NS, with a view to providing the basis for a separate consensus document on the treatment of relapses...
April 21, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412129/acute-kidney-injury-after-burn
#3
REVIEW
Audra Clark, Javier A Neyra, Tarik Madni, Jonathan Imran, Herb Phelan, Brett Arnoldo, Steven E Wolf
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and morbid complication after severe burn, with an incidence and mortality as high as 30% and 80%, respectively. AKI is a broad clinical condition with many etiologies, which makes definition and diagnosis challenging. The most recent Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) consensus guidelines defined stage and severity of AKI based on changes of serum creatinine and urine output (UOP) across time. Burn-related kidney injury is typically classified as early (0-3days after injury) or late (4-14days after injury)...
April 12, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402198/ventral-longitudinal-intraspinal-fluid-collection-rare-presentation-as-brachial-amyotrophy-and-intracranial-hypotension
#4
Veeramani Preethish-Kumar, Seena Vengalil, Sarbesh Tiwari, Kiran Polavarapu, M Netravathi, Aravinda Hanumanthapura Ramalingaiah, Atchayaram Nalini
CONTEXT: Ventral longitudinal intraspinal fluid collection (VLISFC) presenting as hand amyotrophy has been described only in a few cases and there are no reports on associated intracranial CSF hypovolemia (ICH). We describe the clinical and imaging findings of a case with combined brachial amyotrophy and ICH secondary to VLISFC. FINDINGS: A 31 year old man presented with severe positional neck discomfort, radiating pain, progressive asymmetrical wasting and weakness of distal upper limbs...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400499/the-coherence-of-macrocirculation-microcirculation-and-tissue-metabolic-response-during-nontraumatic-hemorrhagic-shock-in-swine
#5
Halvor Langeland, Oddveig Lyng, Petter Aadahl, Nils-Kristian Skjærvold
Hemorrhagic shock is clinically observed as changes in macrocirculatory indices, while its main pathological constituent is cellular asphyxia due to microcirculatory alterations. The coherence between macro- and microcirculatory changes in different shock states has been questioned. This also applies to the hemorrhagic shock. Most studies, as well as clinical situations, of hemorrhagic shock include a "second hit" by tissue trauma. It is therefore unclear to what extent the hemorrhage itself contributes to this lack of circulatory coherence...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396638/physiological-mechanisms-mediating-the-coupling-between-heart-period-and-arterial-pressure-in-response-to-postural-changes-in-humans
#6
Alessandro Silvani, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Blair D Johnson, Noud van Helmond, Giorgio Barletta, Anna G Cecere, Michael J Joyner, Pietro Cortelli
The upright posture strengthens the coupling between heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) consistently with a greater contribution of the arterial baroreflex to cardiac control, while paradoxically decreasing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS). To investigate the physiological mechanisms that mediate the coupling between HP and SAP in response to different postures, we analyzed the cross-correlation functions between low-frequency HP and SAP fluctuations and estimated cBRS with the sequence technique in healthy male subjects during passive head-up tilt test (HUTT, n = 58), during supine wakefulness, supine slow-wave sleep (SWS), and in the seated and active standing positions (n = 8), and during progressive loss of 1 L blood (n = 8) to decrease central venous pressure in the supine position...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390725/comparison-of-a-commercially-available-oral-nutritional-supplement-and-intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-dehydration-in-dairy-calves
#7
Jared D Taylor, Merel Rodenburg, Timothy A Snider
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387886/distinctive-effect-of-6-hydroxyethyl-starch-130-0-4-voluven-infusion-on-pediatric-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#8
J-Z Zhang, J-S Liu, S-H Zhang, S-Y Huang, J-J Zhang, J Zhou, J-H Zhou
OBJECTIVE: It has not been clear that Voluven (6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4) may be administered in pediatric patients safely. The purpose of this study was to determine if Voluven could be used for blood volume expansion and hypovolemia prevention in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 50 pediatric patients with congenital heart disease were recruited in the study. Circulatory and respiratory parameters were determined to monitor the responses to intravenous infusion of Voluven in the patients...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385881/quantitative-measurement-of-csf-in-patients-with-spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension
#9
H-C Chen, P-L Chen, Y-H Tsai, C-H Chen, C C-C Chen, J-W Chai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CSF hypovolemia is a core feature of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is characterized by orthostatic headache and radiologic manifestations, including CSF along the neural sleeves, diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement, and/or venous engorgement. However, these characteristics are only qualitative. Quantifying intraspinal CSF volumes could improve spontaneous intracranial hypotension diagnosis and evaluation of hypovolemic statuses in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension...
April 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374707/-the-causes-of-recurrent-ulcerative-gastroduodenal-bleeding
#10
E M Lipnitsky, A V Alekberzade, M R Gasanov
AIM: To explore microcirculatory changes within the first 48 hours after admission, to compare them with clinical manifestations of bleeding and to define the dependence of recurrent bleeding from the therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 108 patients with ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding who were treated at the Clinical Hospital #71 for the period 2012-2014. There were 80 (74.1%) men and 28 (25.9%) women. Age ranged 20-87 years (mean 54.4±16.8 years)...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363471/hypotension-and-the-need-for-transfusion-in-pediatric-blunt-spleen-and-liver-injury-an-atomac-prospective-study
#11
Summer R Magoteaux, David M Notrica, Crystal S Langlais, Maria E Linnaus, Alexander R Raines, Robert W Letton, Adam C Alder, Cynthia Greenwell, James W Eubanks, Karla A Lawson, Nilda M Garcia, Shawn D St Peter, Daniel J Ostlie, Charles M Leys, Amina Bhatia, R Todd Maxson, David W Tuggle, Todd A Ponsky
PURPOSE: Children with blunt liver or spleen injury (BLSI) requiring early transfusion may present without hypotension despite significant hypovolemia. This study sought to determine the relationship between early transfusion in pediatric BLSI and hypotension. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a 10-institution prospective observational study was performed of patients 18years and younger presenting with BLSI. Patients with central nervous system (CNS) injury were excluded...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356292/responses-of-distal-nephron-na-transporters-to-acute-volume-depletion-and-hyperkalemia
#12
Gustavo Frindt, Lei Yang, Shinichi Uchida, Alan M Weinstein, Lawrence G Palmer
We assessed effects of acute volume reductions induced by administration of diuretics in rats. Direct block Na+ transport produced changes in urinary electrolyte excretion. Adaptations to these effects appeared as alterations in the expression of protein for the distal nephron Na+ transporters NCC and ENaC. Two hours after a single injection of furosemide (6 mg/kg) or hydrochlorothiazide (30 mg/kg) Na+ and K+ excretion increased but no changes in the content of activated forms of NCC (phosphorylated on residue T53) or ENaC (cleaved γ-subunit) were detected...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356233/pine-processionary-caterpillar-thaumetopoea-pityocampa-envenomation-in-109-dogs-a-retrospective-study
#13
Céline Pouzot-Nevoret, Maxime Cambournac, Amandine Violé, Isabelle Goy-Thollot, Gilles Bourdoiseau, Anthony Barthélemy
Contact with the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth (CPPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa induces severe local allergic reactions. The purpose of this large-scale retrospective cohort-study was to describe the clinical manifestations and related risk factors of CPPM exposure. This cohort-study included 109 dogs between the years of 2000 and 2016. Tongue lesions ranging from oedema to severe necrosis were observed in 94/109 dogs (86%). The following systemic signs were observed in 60/109 dogs (55%): vomiting (52/109, 48%), dyspnoea (6/109, 5%), hypovolemia (4/109, 4%) and diarrhoea (2/109, 2%)...
June 15, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352627/treatment-of-cirrhosis-associated-hyponatremia-with-midodrine-and-octreotide
#14
Sharad Patel, Dai-Scott Nguyen, Anjay Rastogi, Minh-Kevin Nguyen, Minhtri K Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia in the setting of cirrhosis is a common electrolyte disorder with few therapeutic options. The free water retention is due to non-osmotic vasopressin secretion resulting from the cirrhosis-associated splanchnic vasodilatation. Therefore, vasoconstrictive therapy may correct this electrolyte abnormality. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of midodrine and octreotide as a therapeutic approach to increasing urinary electrolyte-free water clearance (EFWC) in the correction of cirrhosis-associated hyponatremia...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351560/chronic-salt-loading-reduces-basal-excitatory-input-to-crh-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-and-accelerates-recovery-from-restraint-stress-in-male-mice
#15
Eric G Krause, Dipanwita Pati, Charles J Frazier
Neurons synthesizing corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are activated during acute stress and act via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to increase systemic levels of corticosterone (CORT). Recent data indicates that CRH neurons in the PVN are inhibited by acute salt-loading, and that this inhibition blunts the response to restraint stress as measured by increases in plasma CORT. The current study evaluates the effects of chronic rather than acute salt-loading on stress-induced activation of the HPA axis...
March 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351533/the-100-most-influential-publications-pertaining-to-intracranial-aneurysms-and-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#16
REVIEW
James Zhou, Nitin Agarwal, D Kojo Hamilton, Michael T Koltz
The study of intracranial aneurysms has grown at an astounding rate since Sir Charles Symond's association of hemorrhage within the subarachnoid space to intracranial aneurysms in 1923. These associations led to the first surgical treatment of an intracranial aneurysm with wrapping by Norman Dott in 1931, and shortly thereafter, clip ligation by Walter Dandy in 1938. Surgical outcomes were improved by the introduction of the operative microscope in the 1960s and perioperative care utilizing induced hypertension, hypovolemia, and hemodilution ("HHH therapy")...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334540/-acute-kidney-injury-a%C3%A2-current-comprehensive-overview
#17
Štefan Sotak
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome characterized by the rapid loss of the glomerular filtration (GF) with consecutive retention of nitrogen-containing substances. It includes conditions from mild injury with slight metabolic derangements to oligoanuric failure with life-threatening metabolic disruption. 130 subjects with this renal injury were hospitalized at the Ist Department of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital of Louis Pasteur and the Medical Faculty of the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik in Košice in the Slovak Republic in the years 2013, 2014 and 2015...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325788/decompression-illness-with-hypovolemic-shock-and-neurological-failure-symptoms-after-two-risky-dives-a-case-report
#18
Sebastian Klapa, Johannes Meyne, Wataru Kähler, Frauke Tillmans, Henning Werr, Andreas Binder, Andreas Koch
Hypovolemia is known to be a predisposing factor of decompression illness (DCI) while diving. The typical clinically impressive neurological symptoms of DCI may distract from other symptoms such as an incipient hypovolemic shock. We report the case of a 61-year-old male Caucasian, who presented with an increasing central and peripheral neural failure syndrome and massive hypovolemia after two risky dives. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head revealed multiple cerebral and pulmonary thromboembolisms...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318633/capillary-leak-syndrome-etiologies-pathophysiology-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Eric Siddall, Minesh Khatri, Jai Radhakrishnan
In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins...
March 16, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272268/firefighter-work-duration-influences-the-extent-of-acute-kidney-injury
#20
Zachary J Schlader, Christopher L Chapman, Suman Sarker, Lindsey Russo, Todd C Rideout, Mark D Parker, Blair D Johnson, David Hostler
PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that elevations in biomarkers of acute kidney injury are influenced by the magnitude of hyperthermia and dehydration elicited by two common firefighter work durations. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy adults (10 females) wearing firefighter protective clothing completed two randomized trials where they walked at 4.8 kph, 5% grade in a 38°C, 50% RH environment. In the SHORT trial, subjects completed two 20 min exercise bouts. In the LONG trial, subjects completed three 20 min exercise bouts...
March 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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