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Hypovolemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353282/differential-changes-in-myocardial-performance-index-and-its-time-intervals-in-donors-and-recipients-of-twin-to-twin-transfusion-syndrome-before-and-after-laser-therapy
#1
Javier U Ortiz, Ximena Torres, Elisenda Eixarch, Mar Bennasar, Monica Cruz-Lemini, Olga Gómez, Silvia M Lobmaier, Josep M Martínez, Eduard Gratacós, Fatima Crispi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate left myocardial performance index (MPI) and time intervals in fetuses with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) before and after laser surgery. METHODS: Fifty-one fetal pairs with TTTS and 47 uncomplicated monochorionic twin pairs were included. Left ventricular isovolumetric contraction time (ICT), ejection time (ET), and isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT) were measured using conventional Doppler. RESULTS: Recipients showed prolonged ICT (46 ± 12 vs...
January 19, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349400/single-session-total-endovascular-iliocaval-reconstruction-with-stent-grafting-for-the-treatment-of-inferior-vena-cava-agenesis-and-concurrent-iliac-venous-aneurysm-rupture
#2
Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Minhaj S Khaja, Steven Han, Kyle J Cooper, J Matthew Meadows, David M Williams
Iliac venous aneurysms are rare vascular abnormalities that may be manifested by abdominal masses, pelvic tenderness, or hypovolemia and may lead to rupture, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, paradoxical embolism, or death. Inferior vena cava agenesis, like venous aneurysm, is an uncommon condition that may present with deep venous thrombosis. This report describes a patient with inferior vena cava agenesis and iliac venous aneurysm rupture treated with emergent iliocaval reconstruction and endovascular stent graft placement...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344708/treatment-of-combined-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-with-fractionated-blood-products-versus-fresh-whole-blood-in-a-rat-model
#3
Akiva Leibowitz, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Moti Klein, Shmuel Hess, Alexander Zlotnik, Matthew Boyko
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, poses a particular challenge due to the possible conflicting consequences. While restoring diminished volume is the treatment goal for hypovolemia, maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and avoidance of secondary damage remains a treatment goal for the injured brain. Various treatment modalities have been proposed, but the optimal resuscitation fluid and goals have not yet been clearly defined...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338844/sfe-sfedp-adrenal-insufficiency-french-consensus-introduction-and-handbook
#4
Yves Reznik, Pascal Barat, Jérôme Bertherat, Claire Bouvattier, Frédéric Castinetti, Olivier Chabre, Philippe Chanson, Christine Cortet, Brigitte Delemer, Bernard Goichot, Damien Gruson, Laurence Guignat, Emmanuelle Proust-Lemoine, Marie-Laure Raffin Sanson, Rachel Reynaud, Dinane Samara Boustani, Dominique Simon, Antoine Tabarin, Delphine Zenaty
The French endocrinology society (SFE) and the French pediatric endocrinology society (DFSDP) have drawn up recommendations for the management of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency in the adult and child, based on an analysis of the literature by 19 experts in 6 work-groups. A diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should be suspected in the presence of a number of non-specific symptoms except hyperpigmentation which is observed in primary adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis rely on plasma cortisol and ACTH measurement at 8am and/or the cortisol increase after synacthen administration...
January 12, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313282/ertugliflozin-and-sitagliptin-co-initiation-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-the-vertis-sita-randomized-study
#5
Sam Miller, Tania Krumins, Haojin Zhou, Susan Huyck, Jeremy Johnson, Gregory Golm, Steven G Terra, James P Mancuso, Samuel S Engel, Brett Lauring
INTRODUCTION: Ertugliflozin is an oral sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that is being developed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of co-initiation of ertugliflozin and sitagliptin compared with placebo in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on diet and exercise. METHODS: In this phase III, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled 26-week study (NCT02226003), patients with T2DM and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307924/use-of-computed-tomography-and-automated-software-for-quantitative-analysis-of-the-vasculature-of-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#6
Danilo Tadao Wada, Adriana Ignácio de Pádua, Moyses Oliveira Lima Filho, José Antonio Marin Neto, Jorge Elias Júnior, José Baddini-Martinez, Marcel Koenigkam Santos
Objective: To perform a quantitative analysis of the lung parenchyma and pulmonary vasculature of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) on computed tomography angiography (CTA) images, using automated software. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the CTA findings and clinical records of 45 patients with PH (17 males and 28 females), in comparison with a control group of 20 healthy individuals (7 males and 13 females); the mean age differed significantly between the two groups (53 ± 14...
November 2017: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285953/incidence-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-cameroon-a-prospective-study-at-the-douala-general-hospital
#7
Marie Patrice E Halle, Ndjifoum Moselle Chipekam, Gérard Beyiha, Hermine Fouda, Aminata Coulibaly, Romuald Hentchoya, Folefack Francois Kaze, Namme Henry Luma, Gloria Ashuntantang
OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on AKI in sub-Saharan Africa. We aim to determine the incidence, characteristics and prognosis of AKI in Cameroon. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study including all consenting acute admissions in the internal medicine and the ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Cameroon from January 2015 to June 2016. Serum creatinine assay was done on admission, days 2 and 7 to diagnose AKI. For patients with AKI, serum creatinine was done on discharge, days 30, 60 and 90...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282633/ertugliflozin-compared-with-glimepiride-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-inadequately-controlled-on-metformin-the-vertis-su-randomized-study
#8
Priscilla Hollander, Jie Liu, Julie Hill, Jeremy Johnson, Zhi Wei Jiang, Gregory Golm, Susan Huyck, Steven G Terra, James P Mancuso, Samuel S Engel, Brett Lauring
INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the safety and efficacy of ertugliflozin (an oral sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor) vs. glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled on metformin. METHODS: This phase III, double-blind, non-inferiority study (NCT01999218) randomized patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.0% and ≤ 9.0% on stable metformin ≥ 1500 mg/day 1:1:1 to ertugliflozin 15 or 5 mg once-daily (QD), or glimepiride (titrated from 1 mg QD)...
December 27, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280786/nephrotoxicity-with-vancomycin-in-the-pediatric-population-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Theresa M Fiorito, Megan K Luther, Penelope H Dennehy, Kerry L LaPlante, Kelly L Matson
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is frequently used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in pediatric patients. Vancomycin exposure may lead to an increase in frequency of nephrotoxicity. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review to describe predictors of nephrotoxicity associated with vancomycin, including documented trough concentrations ≥15mg/L. We also aimed to use a meta-analysis to assess the impact of a vancomycin trough ≥15 mg/L on nephrotoxicity...
December 26, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234502/nuchal-cord-and-its-implications
#10
REVIEW
Morarji Peesay
Nuchal cord occurs when the umbilical cord becomes wrapped around the fetal neck 360 degrees. Nuchal cords occur in about 10-29% of fetuses and the incidence increases with advancing gestation age. Most are not associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality, but a few studies have shown that nuchal cord can affect the outcome of delivery with possible long-term effects on the infants. Nuchal cords are more likely to cause problems when the cord is tightly wrapped around the neck, with effects of a tight nuchal cord conceptually similar to strangulation...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222399/pediatric-disorders-of-orthostatic-intolerance
#11
REVIEW
Julian M Stewart, Jeffrey R Boris, Gisela Chelimsky, Phillip R Fischer, John E Fortunato, Blair P Grubb, Geoffrey L Heyer, Imad T Jarjour, Marvin S Medow, Mohammed T Numan, Paolo T Pianosi, Wolfgang Singer, Sally Tarbell, Thomas C Chelimsky
Orthostatic intolerance (OI), having difficulty tolerating an upright posture because of symptoms or signs that abate when returned to supine, is common in pediatrics. For example, ∼40% of people faint during their lives, half of whom faint during adolescence, and the peak age for first faint is 15 years. Because of this, we describe the most common forms of OI in pediatrics and distinguish between chronic and acute OI. These common forms of OI include initial orthostatic hypotension (which is a frequently seen benign condition in youngsters), true orthostatic hypotension (both neurogenic and nonneurogenic), vasovagal syncope, and postural tachycardia syndrome...
January 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217323/noninvasive-monitoring-of-physiologic-compromise-in-acute-appendicitis-new-insight-into-an-old-disease
#12
Young Mee Choi, David Leopold, Kristen Campbell, Jane Mulligan, Greg Z Grudic, Steven L Moulton
INTRODUCTION: Physiologic compromise in children with acute appendicitis has heretofore been difficult to measure. We hypothesized that the Compensatory Reserve Index (CRI), a novel adjunctive cardiovascular status indicator, would be low for children presenting with acute appendicitis in proportion to their physiological compromise, and that CRI would rise with fluid resuscitation and surgical management of their disease. METHODS: Ninety-four children diagnosed with acute appendicitis were monitored with a CipherOx CRI™ M1 pulse oximeter (Flashback Technologies Inc...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212494/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-children-with-renal-failure-in-the-pediatric-ward-of-a-tertiary-hospital-in-cameroon
#13
Marie Patrice Halle, Carine Tsou Lapsap, Esther Barla, Hermine Fouda, Hilaire Djantio, Beatrice Kaptue Moudze, Christophe Adjahoung Akazong, Eugene Belley Priso
BACKGROUND: Pediatric nephrology is challenging in developing countries and data on the burden of kidney disease in children is difficult to estimate due to absence of renal registries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of children with renal failure in Cameroon. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 103 medical records of children from 0 to 17 years with renal failure admitted in the Pediatric ward of the Douala General Hospital from 2004 to 2013...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189171/inappropriate-sinus-tachycardia
#14
Mohammed Ruzieh, Abdelmoniem Moustafa, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Mohammad M. Karim, Saima Karim
Definition and diagnosis: Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a sinus heart rate inexplicably higher than one hundred beats per minute at rest that is associated with symptoms like palpitations, dyspnea or dizziness in the absence of primary causes of tachycardia. The diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of tachycardia including medications/substances (such as anti-cholinergic, beta-blocker withdrawal, caffeine, and alcohol) or medical conditions (such as panic attacks, pulmonary embolism, fever, hyperthyroidism, hypovolemia, anemia, and pain)...
November 29, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185590/short-term-effects-of-stored-homologous-red-blood-cell-transfusion-on-cardiorespiratory-function-and-inflammation-an-experimental-study-in-a-hypovolemia-model
#15
S Biagini, C S Dale, J M Real, E S Moreira, C R R Carvalho, G P P Schettino, S Wendel, L C P Azevedo
The pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on cardiopulmonary function and inflammation are unclear. We developed an experimental model of homologous 14-days stored RBC transfusion in hypovolemic swine to evaluate the short-term effects of transfusion on cardiopulmonary system and inflammation. Sixteen healthy male anesthetized swine (68±3.3 kg) were submitted to controlled hemorrhage (25% of blood volume). Two units of non-filtered RBC from each animal were stored under blood bank conditions for 14 days...
November 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183321/effects-of-controlled-hypoxemia-or-hypovolemia-on-global-and-intestinal-oxygenation-and-perfusion-in-isoflurane-anesthetized-horses-receiving-an-alpha-2-agonist-infusion
#16
Klaus Hopster, Liza Wittenberg-Voges, Florian Geburek, Charlotte Hopster-Iversen, Sabine B R Kästner
BACKGROUND: Aim of this prospective experimental study was to assess effects of systemic hypoxemia and hypovolemia on global and gastrointestinal oxygenation and perfusion in anesthetized horses. Therefore, we anesthetized twelve systemically healthy warmblood horses using either xylazine or dexmedetomidine for premedication and midazolam and ketamine for induction. Anesthesia was maintained using isoflurane in oxygen with either xylazine or dexmedetomidine and horses were ventilated to normocapnia...
November 28, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182206/-mckrittick-wheelock-syndrome-report-of-one-case
#17
Alejandro Kral, Jorge Vega
McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is caused by chronic water and electrolyte hypersecretion from an intestinal tumor, usually a villous adenoma, located in the rectum or sigmoid. Patients often have dehydration, hypovolemic shock and kidney failure associated with hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia and metabolic acidosis. We report a 62-year-old male, suffering chronic diarrhea for eight years who was admitted after a syncope. He had severe hypokalemia, hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis, hypovolemia and acute renal failure...
July 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169714/-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#18
O Boyer, V Baudouin, E Bérard, C Dossier, V Audard, V Guigonis, I Vrillon
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is defined by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, with resulting hyperlipidemia and edema. The most common cause of NS in children is idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), also called nephrosis. Its annual incidence has been estimated to 1-4 per 100,000 children and varies with age, race, and geography. Many agents or conditions have been reported to be associated with INS such as infectious diseases, drugs, allergy, vaccinations, and malignancies. The disease may occur during the 1st year of life, but it usually starts between the ages of 2 and 7 years...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163354/diabetes-and-sepsis-risk-recurrence-and-ruination
#19
REVIEW
Lynn M Frydrych, Fatemeh Fattahi, Katherine He, Peter A Ward, Matthew J Delano
Sepsis develops when an infection surpasses local tissue containment. A series of dysregulated physiological responses are generated, leading to organ dysfunction and a 10% mortality risk. When patients with sepsis demonstrate elevated serum lactates and require vasopressor therapy to maintain adequate blood pressure in the absence of hypovolemia, they are in septic shock with an in-hospital mortality rate >40%. With improvements in intensive care treatment strategies, overall sepsis mortality has diminished to ~20% at 30 days; however, mortality continues to steadily climb after recovery from the acute event...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160643/antithrombotic-treatment-in-neonates-and-children
#20
Cornelia H van Ommen
Despite the increasing incidence of venous thromboembolic disease in pediatric patients, it remains a rare complication in childhood. Particularly neonates and adolescents are at risk for development of venous thrombosis. Spontaneous thrombotic events are sporadic, the majority of children have multiple co-existing risk factors, including central venous catheter, asphyxia, congenital heart disease, infection, malignancy, surgery and hypovolemia. Most thrombi are diagnosed by ultrasonography. Recommendations for management of pediatric thrombosis are typically extrapolated from adult studies, despite many differences between adults and children, including developmental hemostasis...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
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