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indoxyl sulfate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089366/limited-reduction-in-uremic-solute-concentrations-with-increased-dialysis-frequency-and-time-in-the-frequent-hemodialysis-network-daily-trial
#1
Tammy L Sirich, Kara Fong, Brett Larive, Gerald J Beck, Glenn M Chertow, Nathan W Levin, Alan S Kliger, Natalie S Plummer, Timothy W Meyer
The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily Trial compared conventional three-times weekly treatment to more frequent treatment with a longer weekly treatment time in patients receiving in-center hemodialysis. Evaluation at one year showed favorable effects of more intensive treatment on left ventricular mass, blood pressure, and phosphate control, but modest or no effects on physical or cognitive performance. The current study compared plasma concentrations of uremic solutes in stored samples from 53 trial patients who received three-times weekly in-center hemodialysis for an average weekly time of 10...
January 12, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067862/impact-of-indoxyl-sulfate-on-progenitor-cell-related-neovascularization-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-and-post-angioplasty-thrombosis-of-dialysis-vascular-access
#2
REVIEW
Chih-Cheng Wu, Szu-Chun Hung, Ko-Lin Kuo, Der-Cherng Tarng
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of vascular disease, which is associated with considerable health care costs. Vascular disease in CKD differs clinically and pathobiologically from that in patients with normal renal function. Besides the traditional risk factors, retention of uremic toxins contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in patients with CKD. Indoxyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic toxin and is inefficiently removed by conventional dialysis. Accumulating evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate is a vascular toxin involved in atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, vascular calcification and vascular repair...
January 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067806/high-uric-acid-ameliorates-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-and-is-associated-with-lower-mortality-among-hemodialysis-patients
#3
Wei-Liang Hsu, Szu-Yuan Li, Jia-Sin Liu, Po-Hsun Huang, Shing-Jong Lin, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Yao-Ping Lin, Der-Cherng Tarng
High uric acid (UA) can act as a pro-oxidant in normal physiological conditions; however, emerging evidence is still debatable with regard to the association between high UA and poor outcomes among chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. In the present study, 27,229 stable prevalent HD patients were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the quartiles of baseline UA concentration, and 5737 died during a median follow-up of 38 months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a UA level of <6...
January 6, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025487/indoxyl-sulfate-as-a-mediator-involved-in-dysregulation-of-pulmonary-aquaporin-5-in-acute-lung-injury-caused-by-acute-kidney-injury
#4
Nozomi Yabuuchi, Masataka Sagata, Chika Saigo, Go Yoneda, Yuko Yamamoto, Yui Nomura, Kazuhiko Nishi, Rika Fujino, Hirofumi Jono, Hideyuki Saito
High mortality of acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with acute lung injury (ALI), which is a typical complication of AKI. Although it is suggested that dysregulation of lung salt and water channels following AKI plays a pivotal role in ALI, the mechanism of its dysregulation has not been elucidated. Here, we examined the involvement of a typical oxidative stress-inducing uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS), in the dysregulation of the pulmonary predominant water channel, aquaporin 5 (AQP-5), in bilateral nephrectomy (BNx)-induced AKI model rats...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006782/indoxyl-sulfate-impairs-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-might-contribute-to-vascular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Cheng-Jui Lin, Chih-Jen Wu, Pei-Chen Wu, Chi-Feng Pan, Tuan-Jen Wang, Fang-Ju Sun, Hsuan-Liang Liu, Han-Hsiang Chen, Hung-I Yeh
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-bound uremic toxin that accumulates in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We explored the effect of IS on human early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and analyzed the correlation between serum IS levels and parameters of vascular function, including endothelial function in a CKD-based cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 128 stable CKD patients was conducted. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV), ankle brachial index, serum IS and other biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed...
2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001180/is-there-a-relationship-between-tryptophan-dietary-intake-and-plasma-levels-of-indoxyl-sulfate-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-on-hemodialysis
#6
Jessyca Sousa de Brito, Natália Alvarenga Borges, Carla Juliana Ribeiro Dolenga, José Carlos Carraro-Eduardo, Lia Sumie Nakao, Denise Mafra
INTRODUCTION: Gut microbiota is involved in generation of uremic toxins in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on hemodialysis (HD), like indoxyl sulfate (IS) that is originated from tryptophan amino acid fermentation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tryptophan intake by chronic renal failure patients on HD and its possible relationship with IS plasma levels. METHODS: Participated of the study 46 patients with CKD on HD regular program (56.5% men; 52...
December 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993865/simultaneous-determination-of-five-specific-and-sensitive-nephrotoxicity-biomarkers-in-serum-and-urine-samples-of-four-drug-induced-kidney-injury-models
#7
Liqiang Gu, Huiyan Shi, Ruowen Zhang, Zhe Wei, Kai-Shun Bi, Xiao-Hui Chen
In clinical diagnosis, serum creatinine (CR) was commonly used as the routine markers for the evaluation of kidney injury. To investigate the specific and sensitive nephrotoxicity biomarkers in different drug-induced kidney injury (DKI) models, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied in this study. The quantification data were acquired by the LC-MS determination. Histopathology results showed that different kinds of kidney injuries were observed in different DKI models (gentamycin, cisplatin, methotrexate and amphotericin B models), indicating the injuries might be caused by different mechanisms...
January 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990791/the-role-of-carbon-adsorbent-in-the-conservative-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Toshimitsu Niwa
Indoxyl sulfate is a uremic toxin, and cannot be removed efficiently by hemodialysis due to its protein-binding. Indoxyl sulfate induces cellular dysfunction by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor through its uptake via organic anion transporters (OAT1 and OAT3). Indoxyl sulfate shows toxic effects on a variety of cells such as renal proximal tubular cells, glomerular mesangial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, monocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and myocytes...
December 16, 2016: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978427/microbial-modulation-of-a-uremic-toxin
#9
Sarah M Skye, Stanley L Hazen
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Devlin et al. (2016) identify a family of tryptophanases encoded by members of the human gut microbiome and demonstrate that levels of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate can be modulated in vivo by altering the abundance of bacteria harboring tryptophanase activity.
December 14, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960172/effect-of-ast-120-in-chronic-kidney-disease-treatment-still-a-controversy
#10
Junna Yamaguchi, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Reiko Inagi
AST-120 (kremezin; Kureha Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) is an oral spherical carbonaceous adsorbent, which was approved for clinical use in Japanese chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in 1991. It adsorbs indole, the precursor of indoxyl sulfate, in the intestines and prevents indoxyl sulfate production. Indoxyl sulfate, initially identified as a major uremic toxin that causes uremic symptoms, contributes to CKD progression. Since AST-120 decreases serum indoxyl sulfate in a dose-dependent manner, multicenter prospective trials have been conducted in Japan in the 1980s; these trials were mostly in favor of the efficacy of AST-120 in delaying the initiation of dialysis in patients with advanced stage CKD...
December 14, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932887/role-of-anuria-in-the-relationship-between-indoxyl-sulfate-and-anemia-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#11
Jeng-Yi Huang, Ching-Wei Hsu, Chih-Wei Yang, Cheng-Chieh Hung, Wen-Hung Huang
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate (IS) is associated with chronic kidney disease-related anemia. However, clinical studies are limited, and few have explored the potential confounding effect of anuria. This study, thus, evaluated the association between IS and anemia in both non-anuric and anuric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional and observational study included 165 chronic PD patients aged 19-84 years...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916890/indoxyl-sulfate-review-of-toxicity-and-therapeutic-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Sheldon C Leong, Tammy L Sirich
Indoxyl sulfate is an extensively studied uremic solute. It is a small molecule that is more than 90% bound to plasma proteins. Indoxyl sulfate is derived from the breakdown of tryptophan by colon microbes. The kidneys achieve high clearances of indoxyl sulfate by tubular secretion, a function not replicated by hemodialysis. Clearance by hemodialysis is limited by protein binding since only the free, unbound solute can diffuse across the membrane. Since the dialytic clearance is much lower than the kidney clearance, indoxyl sulfate accumulates to relatively high plasma levels in hemodialysis patients...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916477/modulation-of-a-circulating-uremic-solute-via-rational-genetic-manipulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#13
A Sloan Devlin, Angela Marcobal, Dylan Dodd, Stephen Nayfach, Natalie Plummer, Tim Meyer, Katherine S Pollard, Justin L Sonnenburg, Michael A Fischbach
Renal disease is growing in prevalence and has striking co-morbidities with metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a toxin that accumulates in plasma when kidney function declines and contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease. IS derives exclusively from the gut microbiota. Bacterial tryptophanases convert tryptophan to indole, which is absorbed and modified by the host to produce IS. Here, we identify a widely distributed family of tryptophanases in the gut commensal Bacteroides and find that deleting this gene eliminates the production of indole in vitro...
December 14, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848096/the-gut-kidney-axis
#14
REVIEW
Pieter Evenepoel, Ruben Poesen, Björn Meijers
The host-gut microbiota interaction has been the focus of increasing interest in recent years. It has been determined that this complex interaction is not only essential to many aspects of normal "mammalian" physiology but that it may also contribute to a multitude of ailments, from the obvious case of inflammatory bowel disease to (complex) diseases residing in organs outside the gut. An increasing body of evidence indicates that crosstalk between host and microbiota is pathophysiologically relevant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845778/identification-of-sex-specific-urinary-biomarkers-for-major-depressive-disorder-by-combined-application-of-nmr-and-gc-ms-based-metabonomics
#15
P Zheng, J-J Chen, C-J Zhou, L Zeng, K-W Li, L Sun, M-L Liu, D Zhu, Z-H Liang, P Xie
Women are more vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. However, molecular biomarkers of sex differences are limited. Here we combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)- and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to investigate sex differences of urinary metabolite markers in MDD, and further explore their potential of diagnosing MDD. Consequently, the metabolite signatures of women and men MDD subjects were significantly different from of that in their respective healthy controls (HCs)...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843201/indoxyl-sulfate-induces-mesangial-cell-proliferation-via-the-induction-of-cox-2
#16
Shuzhen Li, Sijie Cheng, Zhenzhen Sun, Harr-Keshauve Mungun, Wei Gong, Jing Yu, Weiwei Xia, Yue Zhang, Songming Huang, Aihua Zhang, Zhanjun Jia
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of important uremic toxins and is markedly accumulated in the circulation of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, which might contribute to the damage of residual nephrons and progressive loss of residual renal function (RRF). Thus this study was undertaken to investigate the role of IS in modulating mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and the underlying mechanism. The proliferation of MCs induced by IS was determined by cell number counting, DNA synthase rate, and cell cycle phase analysis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832762/tryptophan-metabolism-its-relation-to-inflammation-and-stress-markers-and-association-with-psychological-and-cognitive-functioning-tasmanian-chronic-kidney-disease-pilot-study
#17
Naama Karu, Charlotte McKercher, David S Nichols, Noel Davies, Robert A Shellie, Emily F Hilder, Matthew D Jose
BACKGROUND: Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit alterations in tryptophan metabolism, mainly via the kynurenine pathway, due to higher enzymatic activity induced mainly by inflammation. Indoles produced by gut-microflora are another group of tryptophan metabolites related to inflammation and conditions accompanying CKD. Disruptions in tryptophan metabolism have been associated with various neurological and psychological disorders. A high proportion of CKD patients self-report symptoms of depression and/or anxiety and decline in cognitive functioning...
November 10, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830716/metabolic-alterations-by-indoxyl-sulfate-in-skeletal-muscle-induce-uremic-sarcopenia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Emiko Sato, Takefumi Mori, Eikan Mishima, Arisa Suzuki, Sanae Sugawara, Naho Kurasawa, Daisuke Saigusa, Daisuke Miura, Tomomi Morikawa-Ichinose, Ritsumi Saito, Ikuko Oba-Yabana, Yuji Oe, Kiyomi Kisu, Eri Naganuma, Kenji Koizumi, Takayuki Mokudai, Yoshimi Niwano, Tai Kudo, Chitose Suzuki, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Sato, Takaaki Abe, Toshimitsu Niwa, Sadayoshi Ito
Sarcopenia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Pathogenic mechanism of skeletal muscle loss in CKD, which is defined as uremic sarcopenia, remains unclear. We found that causative pathological mechanism of uremic sarcopenia is metabolic alterations by uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate. Imaging mass spectrometry revealed indoxyl sulfate accumulated in muscle tissue of a mouse model of CKD. Comprehensive metabolomics revealed that indoxyl sulfate induces metabolic alterations such as upregulation of glycolysis, including pentose phosphate pathway acceleration as antioxidative stress response, via nuclear factor (erythroid-2-related factor)-2...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766038/indoxyl-sulfate-enhance-the-hypermethylation-of-klotho-and-promote-the-process-of-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Jing Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Han Zhang, Tongqiang Liu, Hui Zhang, Jie Teng, Jun Ji, Xiaoqiang Ding
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a state of Klotho deficiency. The Klotho expression may be suppressed due to DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells so we have investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The vascular Klotho hypermethylation in radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease was described. Cultured HASMCs and 5/6-nephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with indoxyl sulfate (IS) were used as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750081/metabolomics-insights-into-activated-redox-signaling-and-lipid-metabolism-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#20
Hua Chen, Gang Cao, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Nosratola D Vaziri, Zhi-Hao Zhang, Jia-Rong Mao, Xu Bai, Ying-Yong Zhao
Early detection is critical in prevention and treatment of kidney disease. However currently clinical laboratory and histopathological tests do not provide region-specific and accurate biomarkers for early detection of kidney disease. The present study was conducted to identify sensitive biomarkers for early detection and progression of tubulo-interstitial nephropathy in aristolochic acid I-induced rats at weeks 4, 8 and 12. Biomarkers were validated using aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) rats at week 24, adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) rats and CKD patients...
September 28, 2016: Redox Biology
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