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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608457/potential-therapeutic-interventions-for-chronic-kidney-disease-associated-sarcopenia-via-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#1
Yuki Enoki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Riho Arake, Rui Fujimura, Kana Ishiodori, Tadashi Imafuku, Kento Nishida, Ryusei Sugimoto, Saori Nagao, Shigeyuki Miyamura, Yu Ishima, Motoko Tanaka, Kazutaka Matsushita, Hirotaka Komaba, Masafumi Fukagawa, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients experience skeletal muscle wasting and decreased exercise endurance. Our previous study demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, accelerates skeletal muscle atrophy. The purpose of this study was to examine the issue of whether IS causes mitochondria dysfunction and IS-targeted intervention using AST-120, which inhibits IS accumulation, or mitochondria-targeted intervention using L-carnitine or teneligliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor which retains mitochondria function and alleviates skeletal muscle atrophy and muscle endurance in chronic kidney disease mice...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605162/targeted-metabolomics-analysis-of-aromatic-amino-acids-and-their-gut-microbiota-host-co-metabolites-in-rat-serum-and-urine-by-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Yifeng Zeng, Liang Luo, Waner Hou, Biyu Lu, Jing Gong, Jiahui Chen, Xiaojun Zhang, Bo Han, Zhiyong Xie, Qiongfeng Liao
Gut microbiota-host co-metabolites are closely related to various diseases. Monitoring dynamic changes of co-metabolites can provide a more comprehensive understanding of pathophysiology. Here, a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was performed for the analysis of aromatic amino acids and their gut microbiota-host co-metabolites in rat serum and urine. In the developed method, seven key gut microbiota-host co-metabolites were chromatographically separated on a Kinetex Phenyl-Hexyl column by gradient elution, and the run time was 6 min...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596556/indoxyl-sulfate-is-mediated-immune-dysfunction-provokes-endothelial-damage-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-esrd
#3
Hee Young Kim, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Yuri Hwang, Ga Hye Lee, Bonah Kim, Jiyeon Jang, Hee Tae Yu, Min Chang Kim, Joo-Youn Cho, Chan Joo Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sungha Park, Won-Woo Lee
Progressive renal failure causes uremia-related immune dysfunction, which features a chronic inflammatory milieu. Given the central role of end-stage renal disease (ESRD)-related immune dysfunction in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), much attention has been focused on how uremic toxins affect cellular immunity and the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ESRD patients. Here, we investigated the characteristics of monocytes and CD4(+) T cells in ESRD patients and the immune responses induced by indoxyl sulfate (IS), a key uremic toxin, in order to explore the pathogenic effects of these cells on vascular endothelial cells...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589039/gum-arabic-reduces-c-reactive-protein-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-without-affecting-urea-or-indoxyl-sulfate-levels
#4
Sarra Elamin, Mariam J Alkhawaja, Amina Y Bukhamsin, Mohamed A S Idris, Muntasir M Abdelrahman, Nasrulla K Abutaleb, Abdulrahman A Housawi
INTRODUCTION: Gum Arabic (GA) is a complex polysaccharide with proven prebiotic properties and potentially beneficial systemic effects. METHODS: We randomly allocated 36 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to receive 10, 20, or 40 grams daily of GA for four weeks and studied the systemic effects of this intervention. RESULTS: Thirty participants completed the study with baseline glomerular filtration rate 29.1 ± 9.9 mL/min/1.7 m(2)...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582807/dietary-fiber-intake-is-associated-with-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd-progression-and-cardiovascular-risk-but-not-protein-nutritional-status-in-adults-with-ckd
#5
Lu Lu, Yan-Feng Huang, Ming-Qing Wang, De-Xiu Chen, Heng Wan, Lian-Bo Wei, Wei Xiao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that dietary fiber benefits patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, this conclusion requires further validation. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary fiber on kidney function, inflammation, indoxyl sulfate, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced CKD. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We performed linear regressions to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and CKD parameters...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573386/uremic-toxicity-and-bone-in-ckd
#6
REVIEW
Suguru Yamamoto, Masafumi Fukagawa
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially those on dialysis treatment, are at high risk of bone fracture. In CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with advanced CKD induces bone abnormalities, and skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) starts in the early stages of kidney disease. Uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate reduce the expression of PTH receptor as well as PTH-induced cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate production in osteoblasts...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528271/exploring-binding-characteristics-and-the-related-competition-of-different-protein-bound-uremic-toxins
#7
Olivier Deltombe, Henriette de Loor, Griet Glorieux, Annemieke Dhondt, Wim Van Biesen, Björn Meijers, Sunny Eloot
Little is known about potential differences in binding characteristics of protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) versus healthy controls. The question arises whether eventual differences are attributed to (i) the elevated levels of competing uremic toxins, and/or (ii) post-translational modifications of albumin. We evaluated the binding characteristics of hippuric acid (HA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and p-cresylsulfate (pCS) by deriving a binding curve in three distinct conditions: (i) serum from healthy controls (healthy serum), (ii) blank serum from hemodialysis patients (blank HD serum; i...
May 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508124/dna-hypermethylation-of-sfrp5-contributes-to-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-renal-fibrosis
#8
Yanlin Yu, Xu Guan, Ling Nie, Yong Liu, Ting He, Jiachuan Xiong, Xinli Xu, Yan Li, Ke Yang, Yiqin Wang, Yunjian Huang, Bing Feng, Jingbo Zhang, Jinghong Zhao
Renal fibrosis is the most common outcome of chronic kidney disease (CKD), while the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis is not fully understood. In this study, we first showed that the progress of renal fibrosis was positively related to serum levels of indoxyl sulfate, a typical protein-bound toxin, and that there was a close correlation between serum indoxyl sulfate levels and β-catenin expression in the kidneys (r = 0.908, p < 0.001) of CKD patients. We then demonstrated that intraperitoneal injections of indoxyl sulfate (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks in uninephrectomized mice explicitly induced renal fibrosis, which was accompanied by a significant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498348/nutrients-turned-into-toxins-microbiota-modulation-of-nutrient-properties-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
REVIEW
Raul Fernandez-Prado, Raquel Esteras, Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Emilio Gonzalez-Parra, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of death. Some uremic toxins are ingested with the diet, such as phosphate and star fruit-derived caramboxin. Others result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves. These nutrients include l-carnitine, choline/phosphatidylcholine, tryptophan and tyrosine, which are also sold over-the-counter as nutritional supplements. Physicians and patients alike should be aware that, in CKD patients, the use of these supplements may lead to potentially toxic effects...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495925/indoxyl-sulfate-a-uremic-trigger-for-platelets
#10
Maribel Diaz-Ricart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490014/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-in-chronic-kidney-disease-role-of-uremic-toxins
#11
Jessyca S Brito, Natália A Borges, Marta Esgalhado, D''Angelo C Magliano, Christophe O Soulage, Denise Mafra
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. Uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and indole acetic acid are derived from tryptophan fermentation by gut microbiota; they accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on haemodialysis and have recently emerged as potent ligands of AhR. Therefore, AhR can serve as a mediator in inflammation and cardiovascular diseases in these patients...
May 11, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474713/-purple-urine-bag-syndrome-an-uncommon-manifestation-of-urinary-tract-infection
#12
María Fernanda Golzarri, Juan Carlos Hernaiz-Leonardo, Adriana Díaz-González, Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Diana Vilar-Compte
CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old paraplegic male diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and complete spinal cord compression arrived at our clinic because of fever and purple discoloration of the urine. We diagnosed purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) and treated him with oral ciprofloxacin and urinary catheter replacement. DISCUSSION: PUBS is an unusual phenomenon that occurs predominantly in bedridden patients with long-term urinary catheters, presenting as a purple discoloration of the urine bag...
March 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472795/role-of-organic-anion-transporters-in-the-uptake-of-protein-bound-uremic-toxins-by-human-endothelial-cells-and-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-expression
#13
Giane Favretto, Lauro M Souza, Paulo C Gregório, Regiane S Cunha, Rayana A P Maciel, Guilherme L Sassaki, Maria G Toledo, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Wesley M Souza, Andréa E M Stinghen
Organic anion transporters (OATs) are involved in the uptake of uremic toxins such as p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS), which play a role in endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In this study, we investigated the role of OAT1 and OAT3 in the uptake of PCS and IS into human endothelial cells. PCS was synthesized via p-cresol sulfation and characterized using analytical methods. The cells were treated with PCS and IS in the absence and presence of probenecid (Pb), an OAT inhibitor...
2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462705/the-food-gut-human-axis-the-effects-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-and-metabolome
#14
Maria De Angelis, Gabriella Garruti, Fabio Minervini, Leonilde Bonfrate, Piero Portincasa, Marco Gobbetti
Gut microbiota, the largest symbiont community hosted in human organism, is emerging as a pivotal player in the relationship between dietary habits and health. Oral and, especially, intestinal microbes metabolize dietary components, affecting human health by producing harmful or beneficial metabolites, which are involved in the incidence and progression of several intestinal related and non-related diseases. Habitual diet (Western, Agrarian and Mediterranean omnivore diets, vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free diets) drives the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolome...
April 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445490/the-effect-of-swimming-exercise-on-adenine-induced-kidney-disease-in-rats-and-the-influence-of-curcumin-or-lisinopril-thereon
#15
Badreldin H Ali, Turan Karaca, Yousuf Al Suleimani, Mohammed Al Za'abi, Jamila Al Kalbani, Mohammed Ashique, Abderrahim Nemmar
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported to benefit from different types of exercises. It has also been shown that the ACE inhibitor lisinopril, and the natural product curcumin are also beneficial in different models of CKD in rats. We assessed the influence of moderate swimming exercise (SE) on rats with adenine-induced CKD, and tested the possible effects of lisinopril and/or curcumin thereon using several physiological, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420181/comment-on-indoxyl-sulfate-review-of-toxicity-and-therapeutic-strategies-toxins-2016-8-358
#16
Fellype C Barreto, Daniela V Barreto, Andrea E M Stinghen, Ziad A Massy
Recently, the clinical and experimental evidences that support the toxic effects of indoxyl sulfate, a protein-bound uremic toxin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, has been discussed. In this panorama, the authors described several in vitro and in vivo studies, suggesting that indoxyl sulfate may play a part in the pathogenesis of low turnover bone disease. However, the discussion claims the need for relevant clinical studies in CKD patients whose bone turnover biomarkers and bone histomorphometry were assessed in order to demonstrate the association between serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and bone turnover...
April 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411233/vasculopathy-in-the-setting-of-cardiorenal-syndrome-the-roles-of-protein-bound-uremic-toxins
#17
Jingbin Guo, Lu Lu, Yue Hua, Kevin Huang, Ian Wang, Li Huang, Qiang Fu, Aihua Chen, Paul Chan, Huimin Fan, Zhong-Min Liu, Bing Hui Wang
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) often leads to and accelerates the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), whilst CVD also causes kidney dysfunction. This bidirectional interaction leads to the development of a complex syndrome known as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). CRS not only involves both the heart and the kidney, but also the vascular system through a vast array of contributing factors. In addition to hemodynamic, neuro-hormonal, mechanical and biochemical factors, the non-dialyzable protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) are also key contributing factors that have been demonstrated through in vitro, in vivo and clinical observations...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405928/adynamic-bone-disease-is-a-predominant-bone-pattern-in-early-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ziad Massy, Tilman Drueke
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complicated by disturbances of mineral and bone metabolism which start early in the course of the disease. It has long been assumed that high turnover bone lesions induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism are the predominant type of renal osteodystrophy from the start. However, there is increasing evidence in favor of the view that in early CKD stages low bone turnover is prevailing, with adynamic bone disease being the predominant form. Since serum parathyroid hormone levels increase progressively early on, and the most probable explanation is resistance to the skeletal action of this hormone...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396122/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-uremic-solute-accumulation-by-a-ce-tofms-based-metabolomics-approach
#19
Eikan Mishima, Shinji Fukuda, Chikahisa Mukawa, Akinori Yuri, Yoshitomi Kanemitsu, Yotaro Matsumoto, Yasutoshi Akiyama, Noriko N Fukuda, Hiroki Tsukamoto, Kei Asaji, Hisato Shima, Koichi Kikuchi, Chitose Suzuki, Takehiro Suzuki, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Tomoyoshi Soga, Sadayoshi Ito, Takaaki Abe
Gut microbiota is involved in the metabolism of uremic solutes. However, the precise influence of microbiota to the retention of uremic solutes in CKD is obscure. To clarify this, we compared adenine-induced renal failure and control mice under germ-free or specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions, examining the metabolite profiles of plasma, feces, and urine using a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based approach. Mice with renal failure under germ-free conditions demonstrated significant changes in plasma metabolites...
April 8, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392999/sustained-uremic-toxin-control-improves-renal-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-advanced-renal-dysfunction-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-kremezin-study-against-renal-disease-progression-in-korea
#20
Ran-Hui Cha, Shin Wook Kang, Cheol Whee Park, Dae Ryong Cha, Ki Young Na, Sung Gyun Kim, Sun Ae Yoon, Sejoong Kim, Sang Youb Han, Jung Hwan Park, Jae Hyun Chang, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim
BACKGROUND: We investigated the long-term effect of AST-120, which has been proposed as a therapeutic option against renal disease progression, in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We performed post-hoc analysis with a per-protocol group of the K-STAR study (Kremezin study against renal disease progression in Korea) that randomized participants into an AST-120 and a control arm. Patients in the AST-120 arm were given 6 g of AST-120 in three divided doses, and those in both arms received standard conventional treatment...
March 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
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