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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848096/the-gut-kidney-axis
#1
REVIEW
Pieter Evenepoel, Ruben Poesen, Björn Meijers
The host-gut microbiota interaction has been the focus of increasing interest in recent years. It has been determined that this complex interaction is not only essential to many aspects of normal "mammalian" physiology but that it may also contribute to a multitude of ailments, from the obvious case of inflammatory bowel disease to (complex) diseases residing in organs outside the gut. An increasing body of evidence indicates that crosstalk between host and microbiota is pathophysiologically relevant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845778/identification-of-sex-specific-urinary-biomarkers-for-major-depressive-disorder-by-combined-application-of-nmr-and-gc-ms-based-metabonomics
#2
P Zheng, J-J Chen, C-J Zhou, L Zeng, K-W Li, L Sun, M-L Liu, D Zhu, Z-H Liang, P Xie
Women are more vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. However, molecular biomarkers of sex differences are limited. Here we combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)- and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to investigate sex differences of urinary metabolite markers in MDD, and further explore their potential of diagnosing MDD. Consequently, the metabolite signatures of women and men MDD subjects were significantly different from of that in their respective healthy controls (HCs)...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843201/indoxyl-sulfate-induces-mesangial-cell-proliferation-via-the-induction-of-cox-2
#3
Shuzhen Li, Sijie Cheng, Zhenzhen Sun, Harr-Keshauve Mungun, Wei Gong, Jing Yu, Weiwei Xia, Yue Zhang, Songming Huang, Aihua Zhang, Zhanjun Jia
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of important uremic toxins and is markedly accumulated in the circulation of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, which might contribute to the damage of residual nephrons and progressive loss of residual renal function (RRF). Thus this study was undertaken to investigate the role of IS in modulating mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and the underlying mechanism. The proliferation of MCs induced by IS was determined by cell number counting, DNA synthase rate, and cell cycle phase analysis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832762/tryptophan-metabolism-its-relation-to-inflammation-and-stress-markers-and-association-with-psychological-and-cognitive-functioning-tasmanian-chronic-kidney-disease-pilot-study
#4
Naama Karu, Charlotte McKercher, David S Nichols, Noel Davies, Robert A Shellie, Emily F Hilder, Matthew D Jose
BACKGROUND: Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit alterations in tryptophan metabolism, mainly via the kynurenine pathway, due to higher enzymatic activity induced mainly by inflammation. Indoles produced by gut-microflora are another group of tryptophan metabolites related to inflammation and conditions accompanying CKD. Disruptions in tryptophan metabolism have been associated with various neurological and psychological disorders. A high proportion of CKD patients self-report symptoms of depression and/or anxiety and decline in cognitive functioning...
November 10, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830716/metabolic-alterations-by-indoxyl-sulfate-in-skeletal-muscle-induce-uremic-sarcopenia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Emiko Sato, Takefumi Mori, Eikan Mishima, Arisa Suzuki, Sanae Sugawara, Naho Kurasawa, Daisuke Saigusa, Daisuke Miura, Tomomi Morikawa-Ichinose, Ritsumi Saito, Ikuko Oba-Yabana, Yuji Oe, Kiyomi Kisu, Eri Naganuma, Kenji Koizumi, Takayuki Mokudai, Yoshimi Niwano, Tai Kudo, Chitose Suzuki, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Sato, Takaaki Abe, Toshimitsu Niwa, Sadayoshi Ito
Sarcopenia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Pathogenic mechanism of skeletal muscle loss in CKD, which is defined as uremic sarcopenia, remains unclear. We found that causative pathological mechanism of uremic sarcopenia is metabolic alterations by uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate. Imaging mass spectrometry revealed indoxyl sulfate accumulated in muscle tissue of a mouse model of CKD. Comprehensive metabolomics revealed that indoxyl sulfate induces metabolic alterations such as upregulation of glycolysis, including pentose phosphate pathway acceleration as antioxidative stress response, via nuclear factor (erythroid-2-related factor)-2...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766038/indoxyl-sulfate-enhance-the-hypermethylation-of-klotho-and-promote-the-process-of-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Jing Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Han Zhang, Tongqiang Liu, Hui Zhang, Jie Teng, Jun Ji, Xiaoqiang Ding
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a state of Klotho deficiency. The Klotho expression may be suppressed due to DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells so we have investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The vascular Klotho hypermethylation in radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease was described. Cultured HASMCs and 5/6-nephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with indoxyl sulfate (IS) were used as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750081/metabolomics-insights-into-activated-redox-signaling-and-lipid-metabolism-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#7
Hua Chen, Gang Cao, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Nosratola D Vaziri, Zhi-Hao Zhang, Jia-Rong Mao, Xu Bai, Ying-Yong Zhao
Early detection is critical in prevention and treatment of kidney disease. However currently clinical laboratory and histopathological tests do not provide region-specific and accurate biomarkers for early detection of kidney disease. The present study was conducted to identify sensitive biomarkers for early detection and progression of tubulo-interstitial nephropathy in aristolochic acid I-induced rats at weeks 4, 8 and 12. Biomarkers were validated using aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) rats at week 24, adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) rats and CKD patients...
September 28, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703258/new-low-flux-mixed-matrix-membranes-that-offer-superior-removal-of-protein-bound-toxins-from-human-plasma
#8
Denys Pavlenko, Esmée van Geffen, Mies J van Steenbergen, Griet Glorieux, Raymond Vanholder, Karin G F Gerritsen, Dimitrios Stamatialis
Hemodialysis is a widely available and well-established treatment for patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). However, although life-sustaining, patient mortality rates are very high. Several recent studies corroborated the link between dialysis patients' outcomes and elevated levels of protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUT) that are poorly removed by conventional hemodialysis. Therefore, new treatments are needed to improve their removal. Recently, our group showed that the combination of dialysis and adsorption on one membrane, the mixed matrix membrane (MMM), can effectively remove those toxins from human plasma...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701177/uremic-toxin-producing-gut-microbiota-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Mami Kikuchi, Mariko Ueno, Yoshiharu Itoh, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), many metabolites of gut microbiota retain in the body as uremic toxins (UTs). However, the kinds of bacteria producing UTs are rarely discussed. METHODS: We analyzed UT production and the composition of gut microbiota in CKD rats and cecectomized rats. AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, was administrated to evaluate how the precursors of UT affect gut microbiota. Serum and urine levels of UTs were quantified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry...
October 5, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669544/comparisons-of-amino-acids-body-constituents-and-antioxidative-response-between-long-time-hd-and-normal-hd
#10
Akira Torigoe, Emiko Sato, Takefumi Mori, Norio Ieiri, Chika Takahashi, Yoko Ishida, Osamu Hotta, Sadayoshi Ito
Introduction Oxidative stress is one of the main mediators of progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the transcription factor of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes and related proteins which play an important role in cellular defense. Long-time hemodialysis (HD) therapy (8 hours) has been considered to be more beneficial compared to normal HD therapy (4 hours). We investigated oxidative response related to Nrf2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of long-time HD and normal HD patients...
October 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640125/intestinal-microbiota-in-pediatric-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-a-midwest-pediatric-nephrology-consortium-study
#11
Janice Crespo-Salgado, V Matti Vehaskari, Tyrus Stewart, Michael Ferris, Qiang Zhang, Guangdi Wang, Eugene E Blanchard, Christopher M Taylor, Mahmoud Kallash, Larry A Greenbaum, Diego H Aviles
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with uremia and increased systemic inflammation. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota may facilitate translocation of endotoxins into the systemic circulation leading to inflammation. We hypothesized that children with ESRD have an altered intestinal microbiota and increased serum levels of bacterially derived uremic toxins. METHODS: Four groups of subjects were recruited: peritoneal dialysis (PD), hemodialysis (HD), post-kidney transplant and healthy controls...
September 17, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636773/biomarkers-for-predicting-outcomes-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Lekha Tummalapalli, Girish N Nadkarni, Steven G Coca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited by lack of sensitivity and inability to prognosticate CKD progression. Significant recent research has better characterized novel biomarker candidates that are associated with CKD progression and cardiovascular mortality in CKD. This review discusses the most significant advances within the past year. RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss biomarkers for outcomes in CKD under two categories: emerging (defined as having been validated in an independent cohort), which include serum cystatin C, serum β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1/2, urinary monocyte chemotactic protein-1, neutrophil gelatin-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and fibroblast growth factor-23; and novel (which have shown associations in smaller observational studies but have not been validated yet), which include indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, IL-18, Klotho, markers of endothelial dysfunction, vimentin, and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616754/indoxyl-sulfate-a-valuable-biomaker-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis
#13
Xiao Tan, Xuesen Cao, Jianzhou Zou, Bo Shen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhonghua Liu, Wenlv Lv, Jie Teng, Xiaoqiang Ding
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly recognized disease with high global incidence and mortality. Yet, the existing diagnostic tools are not sufficient enough to predict prognosis of CKD and CKD comorbidities. Indoxyl sulfate, a typical uremic toxin, is of great importance in the development of CKD with its nephrotoxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, and bone toxicity. Some reports suggest that indoxyl sulfate directly associate with renal function loss and mortality in CKD patients. This review discusses the diagnostic value of indoxyl sulfate from its biological characteristics, pathophysiological effects, related therapies, and its diagnostic value in clinical studies...
September 12, 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595677/independent-and-incremental-prognostic-value-of-novel-cardiac-biomarkers-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Masaru Obokata, Hiroaki Sunaga, Hideki Ishida, Kyoko Ito, Tetsuya Ogawa, Yoshitaka Ando, Masahiko Kurabayashi, Kazuaki Negishi
UNLABELLED: End-stage renal disease is a major clinical and public health problem, and cardiovascular disease accounts for half of the mortality in hemodialysis patients. An existing mortality risk score (AROii score) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level have modest predictive power, but there is room for improvement. There are emerging cardiac biomarkers (soluble isoforms of ST2 [sST2], galectin-3 [Gal-3]), and uremic toxicity (indoxyl sulfate). We sought to determine whether these biomarkers predict cardiovascular outcomes in hemodialysis patients and have incremental prognostic value over the clinical score and NT-proBNP level...
September 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589702/arginine-new-insights-into-growth-performance-and-urinary-metabolomic-profiles-of-rats
#15
Guangmang Liu, Xianjian Wu, Gang Jia, Xiaoling Chen, Hua Zhao, Jing Wang, Caimei Wu, Jingyi Cai
Arginine regulates growth performance, nutrient metabolism and health effects, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of dietary arginine supplementation on rat growth performance and urinary metabolome through ¹H-NMR spectroscopy. Twenty rats were randomly assigned to two groups supplemented with 0% or 1.0% l-arginine for 4 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed through NMR-based metabolomics. Arginine supplementation significantly increased the urine levels of 4-aminohippurate, acetate, creatine, creatinine, ethanolamine, formate, hippurate, homogentisate, indoxyl sulfate, and phenylacetyglycine...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584017/an-untargeted-metabolomics-approach-to-characterize-short-term-and-long-term-metabolic-changes-after-bariatric-surgery
#16
Sophie H Narath, Selma I Mautner, Eva Svehlikova, Bernd Schultes, Thomas R Pieber, Frank M Sinner, Edgar Gander, Gunnar Libiseller, Michael G Schimek, Harald Sourij, Christoph Magnes
Bariatric surgery is currently one of the most effective treatments for obesity and leads to significant weight reduction, improved cardiovascular risk factors and overall survival in treated patients. To date, most studies focused on short-term effects of bariatric surgery on the metabolic profile and found high variation in the individual responses to surgery. The aim of this study was to identify relevant metabolic changes not only shortly after bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) but also up to one year after the intervention by using untargeted metabolomics...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568578/quantitative-analysis-of-biomarkers-of-liver-and-kidney-injury-in-serum-and-urine-using-ultra-fast-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-coupled-with-a-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-column-application-to-monitor-injury-induced-by-euphorbiae
#17
Yuanyuan Zhang, Liqiang Gu, Yu Jiang, Kaishun Bi, Xiaohui Chen
Fast and sensitive monitoring of drug-induced liver and kidney injury in early stage is beneficial. An ultrafast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed and validated to simultaneously determine ten endogenous biomarkers in serum and urine, including hippuric acid, phenylacetylglycine, 5-oxoproline, cholic acid, taurine, indoleacetic acid, 3-indoxyl sulfate, guanidinosuccinic acid, guanidinoacetic acid and uric acid. A CAPCELL CORE PC column (2.1 × 150 mm, 2.7 μm) was adopted for analytes separation...
October 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550174/novel-regulations-of-mef2-a-mef2-d-and-cacna1s-in-the-functional-incompetence-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-induced-indoxyl-sulfate-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Duyen Thi Do, Nam Nhut Phan, Chih-Yang Wang, Zhengda Sun, Yen-Chang Lin
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a digestive intermediate product that is a known indicator of chronic kidney disease. Its toxicity has also been suggested to accelerate chronic kidney disease. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been confirmed as a potential treatment in kidney regeneration. To determine the universal alteration in gene expression, we combined high-throughput microarray technology and in vitro culture of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells at different doses of IS (20, 40, 60 mg/l). We found that indoxyl sulfate has a remarkable interconnection with stem cell and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase pathways...
December 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549031/indoxyl-sulfate-potentiates-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-by-inducing-the-oxidative-stress-mediated-expression-of-myostatin-and-atrogin-1
#19
Yuki Enoki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Riho Arake, Ryusei Sugimoto, Tadashi Imafuku, Yuna Tominaga, Yu Ishima, Shunsuke Kotani, Makoto Nakajima, Motoko Tanaka, Kazutaka Matsushita, Masafumi Fukagawa, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
Skeletal muscle atrophy, referred to as sarcopenia, is often observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, especially in patients who are undergoing hemodialysis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether uremic toxins are involved in CKD-related skeletal muscle atrophy. Among six protein-bound uremic toxins, indole containing compounds, indoxyl sulfate (IS) significantly inhibited proliferation and myotube formation in C2C12 myoblast cells. IS increased the factors related to skeletal muscle breakdown, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and TGF-β1) in C2C12 cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527211/urinary-metabolomic-approach-provides-new-insights-into-distinct-metabolic-profiles-of-glutamine-and-n-carbamylglutamate-supplementation-in-rats
#20
Guangmang Liu, Wei Cao, Tingting Fang, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Caimei Wu, Jing Wang
Glutamine and N-carbamylglutamate can enhance growth performance and health in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of glutamine and N-carbamylglutamate supplementation in rat metabolism. Thirty rats were fed a control, glutamine, or N-carbamylglutamate diet for four weeks. Urine samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, specifically high-resolution ¹H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis...
2016: Nutrients
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