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indoxyl sulfate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921575/shen-shuai-ning-granule-decreased-serum-concentrations-of-indoxyl-sulfate-in-uremic-patients-undergoing-peritoneal-dialysis
#1
Xujiao Chen, Shouhong Gao, Mengna Ruan, Sixiu Chen, Jing Xu, Xiaohong Xing, Xiaohong Pan, Changlin Mei, Zhiguo Mao
Background Clearance of protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) by dialysis is a challenge in the treatment of uremic patients. Shen-Shuai-Ning(SSN), a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, has been used commonly in China to retard kidney disease progression and decrease uremic toxins in chronic kidney disease patients, but the effects of SSN on serum PBUTs in dialysis patients were not investigated. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) at dialysis center of Changzheng Hospital to evaluate the effects of SSN on serum PBUTs...
June 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914158/mediterranean-diet-score-associations-with-metabolic-products-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-carotid-plaque-burden-and-renal-function
#2
Michael Pignanelli, Caroline Just, Chrysi Bogiatzi, Vincent Dinculescu, Gregory B Gloor, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Gregor Reid, Bradley L Urquhart, Kelsey N Ruetz, Thomas J Velenosi, J David Spence
Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that accumulate in renal failure (gut-derived uremic toxins, GDUTs) affect atherosclerosis and increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that patients on a Mediterranean diet and those consuming lower amounts of dietary precursors would have lower levels of GDUTs. Patients attending vascular prevention clinics completed a Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and had plasma levels of TMAO, p-cresylsulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, phenyl acetyl glutamine, and phenyl sulfate measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869756/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-uremic-toxin-related-systemic-disorders-in-chronic-kidney-disease-focused-on-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-related-amyloidosis-and-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-atherosclerosis-oshima-award-address-2016
#3
REVIEW
Suguru Yamamoto
Uremic toxins are linked to chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related systemic diseases. β2 -Microglobulin (β2 -m), a water-soluble, middle-sized molecule, is associated with mortality and dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA). DRA occurs in long-term dialysis patients, with β2 -m amyloid deposited mainly in osteoarticular tissues. We investigated a model of β2 -m amyloid fibril extension at neutral pH in the presence of trifluoroethanol or sodium dodecyl sulfate. Using this model, some biological molecules, including glycosaminoglycans and lysophospholipids, were found to be chaperones for β2 -m amyloid fibril extension...
June 5, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865226/uremic-toxin-clearance-and-cardiovascular-toxicities
#4
REVIEW
Robert D Mair, Tammy L Sirich, Timothy W Meyer
Uremic solutes contribute to cardiovascular disease in renal insufficiency. In this review we describe the clearance of selected uremic solutes, which have been associated with cardiovascular disease. These solutes-indoxyl sulfate (IS), p-cresol sulfate (PCS), phenylacetylglutamine (PAG), trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO), and kynurenine-exemplify different mechanisms of clearance. IS and PCS are protein-bound solutes efficiently cleared by the native kidney through tubular secretion. PAG and TMAO are not protein-bound but are also cleared by the native kidney through tubular secretion, while kynurenine is not normally cleared by the kidney...
June 2, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864403/effect-of-uremic-toxin-indoxyl-sulfate-on-the-skeletal-system
#5
REVIEW
Wen-Chih Liu, Chia-Chao Wu, Paik-Seong Lim, Shiaw-Wen Chien, Yi-Chou Hou, Cai-Mei Zheng, Jia-Fwu Shyu, Yuh-Feng Lin, Kuo-Cheng Lu
Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD) exhibit abnormalities in the circulating mineral levels, vitamin D metabolism, and parathyroid function that contribute to the formation of a bone lesion. The uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS), accumulates in the blood in cases of renal failure and leads to bone loss. The bone and renal responses to the action of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) are progressively decreased in CKD in spite of increasing PTH levels, a condition commonly called PTH resistance...
June 1, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844272/the-impact-of-uremic-toxins-on-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-function
#6
REVIEW
Lucie Hénaut, Aurélien Mary, Jean-Marc Chillon, Saïd Kamel, Ziad A Massy
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with profound vascular remodeling, which accelerates the progression of cardiovascular disease. This remodeling is characterized by intimal hyperplasia, accelerated atherosclerosis, excessive vascular calcification, and vascular stiffness. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction has a key role in the remodeling process. Under uremic conditions, VSMCs can switch from a contractile phenotype to a synthetic phenotype, and undergo abnormal proliferation, migration, senescence, apoptosis, and calcification...
May 29, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780075/prognostic-utility-of-indoxyl-sulfate-for-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#7
Ippei Watanabe, Junko Tatebe, Takahiro Fujii, Ryota Noike, Daiga Saito, Hideki Koike, Takayuki Yabe, Ryo Okubo, Rine Nakanishi, Hideo Amano, Mikihito Toda, Takanori Ikeda, Toshisuke Morita
AIM: We investigated whether indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uremic toxin, predicts prognosis after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Serum IS level was determined prospectively in 98 patients who underwent successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ACS. Patients on hemodialysis were excluded. The endpoint of this study was six-month composite events including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, heart failure requiring hospitalization, and adverse bleeding events...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779029/low-plasma-hydrogen-sulfide-is-associated-with-impaired-renal-function-and-cardiac-dysfunction
#8
Qing Kuang, Ning Xue, Jing Chen, Ziyan Shen, Xiaomeng Cui, Yi Fang, Xiaoqiang Ding
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been proposed to associate with decreased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) level. Nevertheless, the role of H2S in the pathogenesis of CKD has not been fully investigated. Our study aimed to investigate the plasma level of endogenous H2S in patients with different stages of CKD, and to identify the role of H2S in the progression of CKD and its relationship with cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: A total of 157 non-dialysis CKD patients were recruited in our study, with 37 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals as control...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779028/dietary-changes-involving-bifidobacterium-longum-and-other-nutrients-delays-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#9
Yuko Iwashita, Masaki Ohya, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Kazuki Kawakami, Yuri Nakashima, Takuro Yano, Yu Iwashita, Toru Mima, Shigeo Negi, Kaoru Kubo, Koichi Tomoda, Toshitaka Odamaki, Takashi Shigematsu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that prebiotic and/or probiotic treatments ameliorate kidney function in humans and animals by improving the gut environment. However, the gut microbiota and kidney disease interactions remain to be determined. This study investigated whether synbiotics modulate the gut microbiota and ameliorate kidney function using a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As uremic toxins are associated with CKD-related mineral and bone disorder, the secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between synbiotics and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)...
2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772737/distal-colon-motor-dysfunction-in-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease-putative-role-of-uremic-toxins
#10
Elsa Hoibian, Nans Florens, Laetitia Koppe, Hubert Vidal, Christophe O Soulage
Although gastrointestinal complications are a common feature of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the impact of uremia on bowel motility remains poorly understood. The present study was, therefore, designed to investigate the impact of uremia on gut motility. Kidney failure was induced in mice by chemical nephrectomy using an adenine diet (0.25% w/w ). Gastrointestinal transit time and colon motility were explored in vivo and ex vivo . Colons from control mice were incubated with uremic plasma or uremic toxins (urea, indoxyl-sulfate or p-cresyl-sulfate) at concentrations encountered in patients with end-stage renal disease...
May 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772660/role-of-uremic-toxins-for-kidney-cardiovascular-and-bone-dysfunction
#11
REVIEW
Hideki Fujii, Shunsuke Goto, Masafumi Fukagawa
With decreasing kidney function, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mineral bone disorders frequently emerge in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). For these patients, in addition to the traditional risk factors, non-traditional CKD-specific risk factors are also associated with such diseases and conditions. One of these non-traditional risk factors is the accumulation of uremic toxins (UTs). In addition, the accumulation of UTs further deteriorates kidney function. Recently, a huge number of UTs have been identified...
May 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764003/a-bioartificial-kidney-device-with-polarized-secretion-of-immune-modulators
#12
N V Chevtchik, M Mihajlovic, M Fedecostante, L Bolhuis-Versteeg, J Sastre Toraño, R Masereeuw, D Stamatialis
The accumulation of protein-bound toxins in dialyzed patients is strongly associated with their high morbidity and mortality. The bioartificial kidney device (BAK), containing proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) seeded on functionalized synthetic hollow fiber membranes (HFM), may be a powerful solution for the active removal of those metabolites. In an earlier study, we developed an upscaled BAK containing conditionally immortalized human PTEC (ciPTEC) with functional organic cationic transporter 2 (OCT2)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752692/understanding-and-therapeutic-strategies-of-chinese-medicine-on-gut-derived-uremic-toxins-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Chuan Guo, Xiang-Rong Rao
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major disease that threatens human health. With the progression of CKD, the risk of cardiovascular death increases, which is associated with the elevated levels of uremic toxins (UTs). Representative toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are involed in CKD progression and cardiovascular events inseparable from the key role of endothelial dysfunction. The therapeutic strategies of UTs are aimed at signaling pathways that target the levels and damage of toxins in modern medicine...
May 11, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743417/impact-of-indoxyl-sulfate-on-coronary-plaques-in-patients-on-hemodialysis
#14
Masahiko Asami, Kengo Tanabe, Shunsuke Ito, Eri Yoshida, Jiro Aoki, Shuzou Tanimoto, Yu Horiuchi, Masayuki Yoshida
Serum indoxyl sulfate (IS; a uremic toxin) levels, which are significantly higher in patients with chronic kidney disease, including those undergoing hemodialysis, than in the robust, are associated with both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related mortality. Furthermore, coronary artery calcium (CAC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This study aimed to interpret the association between serum IS levels and coronary plaque burden (CPB) or CAC.A total of 30 consecutive patients on hemodialysis, who underwent 320-row coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography for suspected coronary artery disease, were enrolled in this prospective study...
May 9, 2018: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734669/co-administration-of-melatonin-effectively-enhances-the-therapeutic-effects-of-pioglitazone-on-mesenchymal-stem-cells-undergoing-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-senescence-through-modulation-of-cellular-prion-protein-expression
#15
Yong Seok Han, Sang Min Kim, Jun Hee Lee, Sang Hun Lee
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising source for regenerative medicine. However, their therapeutic potential in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is restricted by the presence of uremic toxins. To address this limitation, we explored the protective effect of melatonin and pioglitazone on MSCs undergoing senescence induced by the uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS). METHODS: MSC senescence was induced by IS, and the therapeutic effects of melatonin and pioglitazone were identified...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728422/residual-function-effectively-controls-plasma-concentrations-of-secreted-solutes-in-patients-on-twice-weekly-hemodialysis
#16
Sheldon C Leong, Justin N Sao, Abigail Taussig, Natalie S Plummer, Timothy W Meyer, Tammy L Sirich
Background Most patients on hemodialysis are treated thrice weekly even if they have residual kidney function, in part because uncertainty remains as to how residual function should be valued and incorporated into the dialysis prescription. Recent guidelines, however, have increased the weight assigned to residual function and thus reduced the treatment time required when it is present. Increasing the weight assigned to residual function may be justified by knowledge that the native kidney performs functions not replicated by dialysis, including solute removal by secretion...
May 4, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710508/puerarin-improves-methotrexate-induced-renal-damage-by-up-regulating-renal-expression-of-oat1-and-oat3-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
Qi Liu, Zhihao Liu, Xiaokui Huo, Changyuan Wang, Qiang Meng, Huijun Sun, Pengyuan Sun, Jinyong Peng, Xiaodong Ma, Kexin Liu
The regulation of renal transporters such as organic anion transporter (OATs) is a new target for treatment of acute renal failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effect of puerarin (Pur) on renal damage induced by methotrexate (MTX) is related to the expression of renal Oat1/3 in vivo and in vitro, and to explore the related mechanisms. Effect of Pur on the renal damage caused by MTX was evaluated by assessment of the changes of endogenous metabolites, toxins and H&E staining...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705499/high-salt-intake-increases-plasma-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-concentration-and-produces-gut-dysbiosis-in-rats
#18
Klaudia Bielinska, Marek Radkowski, Marta Grochowska, Karol Perlejewski, Tomasz Huc, Kinga Jaworska, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Marcin Ufnal
OBJECTIVE: A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk...
March 22, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705133/determination-of-the-binding-properties-of-p-cresyl-glucuronide-to-human-serum-albumin
#19
Dan Yi, Elisa Bernardes Monteiro, Stéphane Chambert, Hédi A Soula, Julio B Daleprane, Christophe O Soulage
p-Cresyl glucuronide (p-CG) is a by-product of tyrosine metabolism that accumulates in patients with end-stage renal disease. p-CG binding to human serum albumin in physiological conditions (37 °C, pH 7.40) was studied by ultrafiltration (MWCO 10 kDa) and data were analyzed assuming one binding site. The estimated value of the association constant was 2.77 × 103  M-1 and a maximal stoichiometry of 3.80 mol per mole. At a concentration relevant for end-stage renal patients, p-CG was 23% bound to albumin...
July 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703382/transporter-mediated-interaction-of-indican-and-methotrexate-in-rats
#20
Shiuan-Pey Lin, Chung-Ping Yu, Yu-Chi Hou, Ching-Ya Huang, Lu-Ching Ho, Shu-Ling Chan
Indican (indoxyl-β-D-glucoside) is present in several Chinese herbs e.g. Isatis indigotica, Polygonum tinctorium and Polygonum perfoliatum. The major metabolite of indican was indoxyl sulfate (IS), an uremic toxin which was a known substrate/inhibitor of organic anion transporter (OAT) 1, OAT 3 and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 4. Methotrexate (MTX), an important immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, is a substrate of OAT 1, 2, 3, 4 and MRP 1, 2, 3, 4. We hypothesized that IS, the major metabolite of oral indican, might inhibit the renal excretion of MTX mediated by OAT 1, OAT 3 and MRP 4...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
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