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Obesity and genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666371/integration-of-human-adipocyte-chromosomal-interactions-with-adipose-gene-expression-prioritizes-obesity-related-genes-from-gwas
#1
David Z Pan, Kristina M Garske, Marcus Alvarez, Yash V Bhagat, James Boocock, Elina Nikkola, Zong Miao, Chelsea K Raulerson, Rita M Cantor, Mete Civelek, Craig A Glastonbury, Kerrin S Small, Michael Boehnke, Aldons J Lusis, Janet S Sinsheimer, Karen L Mohlke, Markku Laakso, Päivi Pajukanta, Arthur Ko
Increased adiposity is a hallmark of obesity and overweight, which affect 2.2 billion people world-wide. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related phenotypes can help to improve treatment options and drug development. Here we perform promoter Capture Hi-C in human adipocytes to investigate interactions between gene promoters and distal elements as a transcription-regulating mechanism contributing to these phenotypes. We find that promoter-interacting elements in human adipocytes are enriched for adipose-related transcription factor motifs, such as PPARG and CEBPB, and contribute to heritability of cis-regulated gene expression...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665620/personalized-cardio-metabolic-responses-to-an-anti-inflammatory-nutrition-intervention-in-obese-adolescents-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#2
Aoibheann M McMorrow, Ruth M Connaughton, Tiago R Magalhães, Fiona C McGillicuddy, Maria F Hughes, David Cheishvili, Melissa J Morine, Sean Ennis, Marie-Louise Healy, Edna F Roche, Richard E Tremblay, Moshe Szyf, Fiona E Lithander, Helen M Roche
SCOPE: Chronic inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia are characteristic of obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR). The effect of an anti-inflammatory nutrition supplement (AINS) on IR and adiponectin biology in overweight adolescents was investigated. The secondary objective was to examine the extent to which individuals' biomarker profiles, derived from baseline phenotypes, predicted response or not to the AINS. Additionally, the impact of DNA methylation on intervention efficacy was assessed...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665034/metabolic-features-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-nafl-in-obese-adolescents-findings-from-a-multi-ethnic-cohort
#3
Domenico Tricò, Sonia Caprio, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Bridget Pierpont, Jessica Nouws, Alfonso Galderisi, Grace Kim, Mariana M Mata, Nicola Santoro
AIMS: We conducted a prospective study in a large, multiethnic cohort of obese adolescents to characterize clinical and genetic features associated with pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL), the most common cause of chronic liver disease in youth. METHODS: A total of 503 obese adolescents were enrolled, including 191 (38.0%) Caucasians, 134 (26.6%) African Americans, and 178 (35.4%) Hispanics. Participants underwent abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify hepatic fat content, an oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and the genotyping of three SNPs associated with fatty liver (PNPLA3 rs738409, GCKR rs1260326, and TM6SF2 rs58542926)...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664665/genetic-variation-in-nfkb1-gene-influences-liver-enzyme-levels-in-morbidly-obese-women
#4
Guven Yenmis, Tugba Soydas, Hulya Arkan, Ertugrul Tasan, Gonul Kanigur Sultuybek
BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity (MO), characterized by low-grade inflammation, is associated with increased C-reactive protein (CRP). NF-KB is a candidate factor for inflammatory responses in inflammatory diseases such as obesity. The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between NFKB1 gene variations and the risk of MO in the context of the high/normal level of liver enzymes such as Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)...
January 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663892/complement-components-c3-and-c4-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Melanie Copenhaver, Chack-Yung Yu, Robert P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Increased systemic inflammation is engaged likely plays a significant role in the development of adult cardiometabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. The complement system is part of the innate immune system and plays a key role in in regulation inflammation. Of particular importance is the activation of complement components C3 and C4. C3 is produced primarily by the liver but is also produced in adipocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, all of which are present in adipose tissue...
April 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663401/variants-in-the-ppargc1a-gene-may-influence-the-effect-of-fat-intake-on-resting-metabolic-rate-in-obese-women
#6
Sajjad Moradi, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Zhila Maghbooli, Ahmed A Abdurahman, Seyed Ali Keshavarz
Recent studies have shown that dietary intake and genetic variants play a decisive role in the risk of obesity. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the interaction between dietary fat and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on the level of resting metabolic rate (RMR). We enrolled 288 Iranian overweight and obese women in this cross-sectional study. We sequenced the 648 b.p. DNA in Exon 8 of PPARGC1A gene. We analyzed the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, namely rs11290186 and rs2970847, in this region. All participants were assessed for RMR, dietary intake, and body composition...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662264/chromosome-6q24-related-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Tohru Yorifuji, Shinji Higuchi, Yuki Hosokawa, Rie Kawakita
Chromosome 6q24-related diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of transient neonatal diabetes (TNDM), accounting for approximately two-thirds of all TNDM cases. Patients with 6q24-TNDM develop insulin-requiring diabetes soon after birth, followed by the gradual improvement and eventual remission of the disorder by 18 mo of age. The most important clinical feature of affected patients is a small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth weight, which reflects the lack of insulin in utero. It is believed that 6q24-TNDM is caused by the overexpression of the paternal allele of the imprinted locus in chromosome 6q24, which contains only two expressed genes, PLAGL1 and HYMAI...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661866/reciprocal-effects-of-antiretroviral-drugs-used-to-treat-hiv-infection-on-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-%C3%AE-klotho-system
#8
Ricardo Moure, Pere Domingo, Joan Villarroya, Laura Gasa, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Tania Quesada-López, Samantha Morón-Ros, Alberto F Maroto, Gracia M Mateo, Joan C Domingo, Francesc Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Following antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients show increased circulating levels of the antidiabetic hormone fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21). In contrast, expression of the FGF21-obligatory co-receptor β-Klotho (KLB) is reduced in target tissues. This situation is comparable to the FGF21 resistance status observed in obesity and type-2 diabetes. Here, we performed the first systematic study of the effects of distinct members of different antiretroviral drug classes on the FGF21/KLB system in human hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle cells...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661414/dexmedetomidine-metabolic-clearance-is-not-affected-by-fat-mass-in-obese-patients
#9
A Rolle, S Paredes, L I Cortínez, B J Anderson, N Quezada, S Solari, F Allende, J Torres, D Cabrera, V Contreras, J Carmona, C Ramírez, A M Oliveros, M Ibacache
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with reduced dexmedetomidine clearance, suggesting impaired hepatic function or reduced hepatic blood flow. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of obesity in dexmedetomidine metabolic clearance. METHODS: Forty patients, ASA I-III, 18-60 yr old, weighing 47-126 kg, scheduled for abdominal laparoscopic surgery, were enrolled. Anaesthetic agents (propofol, remifentanil, and dexmedetomidine) were dosed based on lean body weight measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660213/role-of-ncor1-in-mitochondrial-function-and-energy-metabolism
#10
REVIEW
Tanes I Lima, Rafael R Valentim, Hygor N Araújo, André G Oliveira, Bianca C Favero, Eveline S Menezes, Rafaela Araújo, Leonardo R Silveira
Mitochondrial number and shape are constantly changing in response to increased energy demands. The ability to synchronize mitochondrial pathways to respond to energy fluctuations within the cell is a central aspect of mammalian homeostasis. This dynamic process depends on the coordinated activation of transcriptional complexes to promote the expression of genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins. Recent evidence has shown that the nuclear corepressor NCoR1 is an essential metabolic switch which acts on oxidative metabolism signaling...
April 16, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660031/meningioma-transcription-factors-link-cell-lineage-with-systemic-metabolic-cues
#11
Ziming Du, Ryan Brewster, Parker H Merrill, Juliann Chmielecki, Josh Francis, Ayal Aizer, Malak Abedalthagafi, Lynette M Sholl, Lars Geffers, Brian Alexander, Sandro Santagata
Background: Tumor cells recapitulate cell-lineage transcriptional programs that are characteristic of normal tissues from which they arise. It is unclear why such lineage programs are fatefully maintained in tumors and if they contribute to cell proliferation and viability. Methods: Here, we used the most common brain tumor, meningioma, which is strongly associated with female gender and high body mass index (BMI), as a model system to address these questions. We screened expression profiling data to identify the transcription factor (TF) genes which are highly enriched in meningioma, and characterized the expression pattern of those TFs and downstream genes in clinical meningioma samples as well as normal brain tissues...
April 12, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658914/visualization-and-quantification-of-mesenchymal-cell-adipogenic-differentiation-potential-with-a-lineage-specific-marker
#12
Jennifer Eom, Vaughan Feisst, Louis Ranjard, Kerry Loomes, Tanvi Damani, Victoria Jackson-Patel, Michelle Locke, Hilary Sheppard, Pritika Narayan, P Rod Dunbar
Several dyes are currently available for use in detecting differentiation of mesenchymal cells into adipocytes. Dyes, such as Oil Red O, are cheap, easy to use and widely utilized by laboratories analyzing the adipogenic potential of mesenchymal cells. However, they are not specific to changes in gene transcription. We have developed a gene-specific differentiation assay to analyze when a mesenchymal cell has switched its fate to an adipogenic lineage. Immuno-labelling against fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), a lineage-specific marker of adipogenic differentiation, enabled visualization and quantification of differentiated cells...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658577/interleukin-29-activates-expression-of-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-1-in-macrophages-via-toll%C3%A2-like-receptor-2
#13
Haoqiang Zhang, Bing Song, Shaoheng He
Obesity and diabetes are characterized by low grade chronic inflammation status and insulin resistance in adipose tissue associated with metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1). Interleukin (IL)29, exhibits multiple immune regulatory activities. However, the role of IL29 and its effects on TIMP1 remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of IL29 on expression of TIMP1 in macrophages associated with inflammation in adipose tissue. IL29 and high glucose were used to activate Raw264...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658358/association-of-mthfr-c677t-gene-polymorphism-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-chinese-population-a-case-control-study
#14
Jin Wang, Lijuan Xu, Hongmiao Xia, Ying Li, Shiqi Tang
Objective To investigate the association of the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people in Hubei Province, China. Methods A case-control study was conducted with 651 subjects with MetS (MetS group) and 727 healthy controls (control group) at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between January and December 2016. The MTHFR C677T genotype was detected by the gene chip technique and clinical data were collected. Results Body mass index, waist circumference, the waist-hip-ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and homocysteine levels, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were higher in the MetS group than in controls...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657248/association-of-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-and-retinitis-pigmentosa-guanosine-triphosphatase-gtpase-regulator-interacting-protein-1-like-polymorphisms-with-body-mass-index-in-chinese-women
#15
Boyu Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Jianhua Chen, Jue Ji, Jingyi Shen, Yufeng Xu, Yingying Zhao, Danping Liu, Yinhuan Shen, Weijie Zhang, Jiawei Shen, Yonggang Wang, Yongyong Shi
Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used quantitative measure of adiposity. It is a kind of complex genetic diseases which are caused by multiple susceptibility genes. The first intron of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) has been widely discovered to be associated with BMI. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like (RPGRIP1L) is located in the upstream region of FTO and has been proved to be linked with obesity through functional tests. We carried out a genetic association analysis to figure out the role of the FTO gene and the RPGRIP1L gene in BMI...
April 14, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655403/lipid-profile-of-bovine-blastocysts-exposed-to-insulin-during-in-vitro-oocyte-maturation
#16
Denise Laskowski, Göran Andersson, Patrice Humblot, Marc-André Sirard, Ylva Sjunnesson, Christina R Ferreira, Valentina Pirro, Renée Båge
Insulin is a key hormone with important functions in energy metabolism and is involved in the regulation of reproduction. Hyperinsulinaemia is known to impair fertility (for example, in obese mothers); therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of elevated insulin concentrations during the sensitive period of oocyte maturation on gene expression and lipid profiles of the bovine Day-8 embryo. Two different insulin concentrations were used during in vitro oocyte maturation (INS10=10µgmL-1 and INS0.1=0.1µgmL-1) in order to observe possible dose-dependent effects or thresholds for hyperinsulinaemia in vitro...
April 16, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653185/sex-differences-in-the-development-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-cafeteria-diet-induced-obesity-in-young-mice
#17
Fabiana Rodrigues Silva Gasparin, Fernando Olinto Carreño, Juliana Moraes Mewes, Eduardo Hideo Gilglioni, Clairce Luzia Salgueiro Pagadigorria, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Karina Sayuri Utsunomiya, Rodrigo Polimeni Constantin, Amanda Tomie Ouchida, Carlos Curti, Ingrid C Gaemers, Ronald Petrus Johannes Oude Elferink, Jorgete Constantin, Emy Luiza Ishii-Iwamoto
The present study was planned to improve our understanding about sex differences in the development of hepatic steatosis in cafeteria diet-induced obesity in young mice. Female (FCaf) and male (MCaf) mice fed a cafeteria diet had similar body weight gain and adiposity index, but FCaf had a more extensive steatosis than MCaf. FCaf livers exhibited a higher non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score, elevated lipid percentage area (+34%) in Sudan III staining and increased TG content (+25%) compared to MCaf...
April 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653158/mice-deficient-in-akap13-brx-develop-compulsive-like-behavior-and-increased-body-weight
#18
K Maravet Baig, Szu-Chi Su, Sunni L Mumford, Emma Giuliani, Sinnie Sin Man Ng, Charles Armstrong, Margaret F Keil, Kamaria Cayton Vaught, Nils Olsen, Elyse Pettiford, Irina Burd, James H Segars
OBJECTIVE: Hormonal contributions to the sex-dependent development of both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obesity have been described, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. A-kinase anchoring protein 13 (AKAP13) significantly augments ligand-dependent activation of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are implicated in the development and exacerbation of OCD and obesity and have strong AKAP13 expression. The AKAP13 localization pattern observed in these key brain regions together with its effects on sex steroid action suggest a potential role for AKAP13 in compulsive-like behaviors...
April 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652634/emerging-applications-of-genome-editing-technology-to-examine-functionality-of-gwas-associated-variants-for-complex-traits
#19
Andrew J P Smith, Panos Deloukas, Patricia B Munroe
Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have propelled the discovery of thousands of loci associated with complex diseases. The focus is now turning towards the function of these association signals, determining the causal variant(s) amongst those in strong linkage disequilibrium, and identifying their underlying mechanisms, such as long-range gene regulation. Genome-editing techniques utilising zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats with Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR-Cas9), are becoming the tools of choice to establish functionality for these variants, due to the ability to assess effects of single variants in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652095/decrease-in-neprilysin-and-vasoconstrictors-and-increase-in-vasodilators-following-bariatric-surgery
#20
Husam Ghanim, Scott Monte, Joseph Caruana, Kelly Green, Sanaa Abuaysheh, Paresh Dandona
Since morbid obesity is associated with congestive cardiac failure and hypertension, and gastric bypass surgery is followed by a reduction in blood pressure and in the risk of congestive cardiac failure, we hypothesized that weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in morbidly obese patients is associated with a decrease in plasma concentrations of neprilysin, mediators of renin angiotensin system (RAS), catecholamines and endothelin-1 with an increase in the concentrations of vasodilators...
April 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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