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Obesity and genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732058/the-role-of-a-fads1-polymorphism-in-the-association-of-fatty-acid-blood-levels-bmi-and-blood-pressure-in-young-children-analyses-based-on-path-models
#1
Maike Wolters, Carmen Dering, Alfonso Siani, Paola Russo, Jaakko Kaprio, Patrizia Risé, Luis A Moreno, Stefaan De Henauw, Kirsten Mehlig, Toomas Veidebaum, Denés Molnár, Michael Tornaritis, Licia Iacoviello, Yannis Pitsiladis, Claudio Galli, Ronja Foraita, Claudia Börnhorst
BACKGROUND: The recent obesity epidemic in children also showed an increase in the prevalence of hypertension. As blood pressure (BP) is associated with (long-chain) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), genetic variation in desaturase enzymes being involved in the synthesis of LC PUFA may be associated with BP. This study aimed to investigate the direct effects (independent of mediating variables) and indirect effects (mediated through intermediate variables) of a common variant in the FADS1 gene, rs174546, known to affect delta-5 desaturase (D5D) activity on PUFA level, body mass index (BMI) and BP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730835/the-effect-of-very-low-calorie-diet-on-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-peripheral-monocytes-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
M Urbanová, M Mráz, V Ďurovcová, P Trachta, J Kloučková, P Kaválková, D Haluzíková, Z Lacinová, H Hansíková, L Wenchich, M Kršek, M Haluzík
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a potentially important player in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the changes of mRNA expression of genes encoding main enzymatic complexes of mitochondrial respiratory chain in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and peripheral monocytes (PM) of 11 subjects with simple obesity (OB), 16 obese patients with T2DM and 17 healthy lean subjects (C) before and after very low-calorie diet (VLCD) using quantitative real time PCR...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730830/preventive-effect-of-l-carnitine-on-the-disorder-of-lipid-metabolism-and-circadian-cclock-of-mice-subjected-to-chronic-jet-lag
#3
X Xie, A Guo, T Wu, Q Hu, L Huang, C Yao, B Zhao, W Zhang, B Chi, P Lu, Z Zhao, Z Fu
Circadian clock plays an essential role in orchestrating daily physiology, and its disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as obesity. L-Carnitine can reduce blood lipid levels, and ameliorate fatty liver through regulating lipid metabolism. However, whether L-Carnitine administration may affect the disturbance of lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm of mice induced by prolonged circadian disruption is still unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of L-Carnitine on conditions of circadian clock and lipid metabolism through a chronic jet-lag mice model which was developed by reversing12 h light/12 h dark cycle every 4 days for a continuous 12 weeks...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729164/antenatal-antipsychotic-exposure-induces-multigenerational-and-gender-specific-programming-of-adiposity-and-glucose-tolerance-in-adult-mouse-offspring
#4
E Courty, P Gobalakichenane, M Garcia, A Muscat, C Kazakian, T Ledent, M Moldes, B Blondeau, D Mitanchez, M Buyse, B Fève
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are well known for their metabolic side effects in humans, including obesity and diabetes. These compounds are maintained during pregnancy to prevent the relapse of psychoses, but they readily diffuse across the placenta to the fetus, as documented with the widely-prescribed drug olanzapine (OLZ). However, observational studies have provided conflicting results on the potential impact of SGAs on fetal growth and body weight, and their effects on metabolic regulation in the offspring...
July 17, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727777/8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-ogg1-deficiency-elicits-coordinated-changes-in-lipid-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-muscle
#5
Vladimir Vartanian, Jana Tumova, Pawel Dobrzyn, Agnieszka Dobrzyn, Yusaku Nakabeppu, R Stephen Lloyd, Harini Sampath
Oxidative stress resulting from endogenous and exogenous sources causes damage to cellular components, including genomic and mitochondrial DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is primarily repaired via the base excision repair pathway that is initiated by DNA glycosylases. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) recognizes and cleaves oxidized and ring-fragmented purines, including 8-oxoguanine, the most commonly formed oxidative DNA lesion. Mice lacking the OGG1 gene product are prone to multiple features of the metabolic syndrome, including high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#6
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727072/the-equine-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-dysregulation
#7
M H Kheder, M N Sillence, L M Bryant, M A de Laat
Metabolic disease is a significant problem that causes a range of species-specific comorbidities. Recently, a better understanding of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) biology has led to the suggestion that inhibiting its action may attenuate obesity in several species. In horses, antagonism of GIP may also reduce hyperinsulinemia, which leads to insulin-associated laminitis, a painful comorbidity unique to this species. However, little is known about GIP in horses. The aims of this study were to examine the tissue distribution of equine GIP receptors (eGIPR), to determine whether eGIPR can be blocked using a GIP antagonist not tested previously in horses, and to establish whether there is any association between GIP concentrations and body mass in this species...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727015/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-molecular-mechanisms-related-to-bovine-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-the-longissimus-muscle
#8
M Baik, H J Kang, S J Park, S W Na, M Piao, S Y Kim, D M Fassah, Y S Moon
The intramuscular fat (IMF) content of the LM, also known as marbling, is particularly important in determining the price of beef in Korea, Japan, and the United States. Deposition of IMF is influenced by both genetic (e.g., breed, gender, and genotype) and nongenetic factors (e.g., castration, nutrition, stressors, animal weight, and age). Castration of bulls markedly increases deposition of IMF, resulting in improved beef quality. Here, we present a comparative gene expression approach between bulls and steers...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726805/prepl-deficiency-delineation-of-the-phenotype-and-development-of-a-functional-blood-assay
#9
Luc Régal, Emma Mårtensson, Isabelle Maystadt, Nicol Voermans, Damien Lederer, Alberto Burlina, María Jesús Juan Fita, A Jeannette M Hoogeboom, Mia Olsson Engman, Tess Hollemans, Meyke Schouten, Sandra Meulemans, Tord Jonson, Inge François, David Gil Ortega, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, John W M Creemers
PurposePREPL deficiency causes neonatal hypotonia, ptosis, neonatal feeding difficulties, childhood obesity, xerostomia, and growth hormone deficiency. Different recessive contiguous gene deletion syndromes involving PREPL and a variable combination of SLC3A1 (hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome), CAMKMT (atypical hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome), and PPM1B (2p21 deletion syndrome) have been described. In isolated PREPL deficiency, previously described only once, the absence of cystinuria complicates the diagnosis...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726640/c1q-tnf-related-protein-6-ctrp6-links-obesity-to-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#10
Xia Lei, Marcus M Seldin, Hannah C Little, Nicholas Choy, Thomas Klonisch, G William Wong
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and metabolic regulators linking obesity to inflammation have therefore received much attention. Secreted C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) are one such group of regulators that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in peripheral tissues and modulate inflammation in adipose tissue. We have previously shown that expression of CTRP6 is up-regulated in leptin-deficient mice and, conversely, down-regulated by the anti-diabetic drug, rosiglitazone. Here, we provide evidence for a novel role of CTRP6 in modulating both inflammation and insulin sensitivity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726396/the-potent-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-adipogenic-properties-of-bamboo-sasa-coreana-nakai-leaves-extract-and-its-major-constituent-flavonoids
#11
Ji Hye Yang, Moon-Hee Choi, Seung Hwa Yang, Sam Seok Cho, Su Jung Park, Hyun-Jae Shin, Sung Hwan Ki
The pro-inflammatory response and recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we reported the anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic effects of the methanol (MeOH) extract and ethylacetate (EtOAc) fraction of bamboo leaf and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Functional macrophage migration assays also were performed. Surprisingly, EtOAc fraction of MeOH extracts from native Korean plant species Sasa coreana Nakai (SCN) has shown potent anti-inflammatory properties; SCN pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production (p<0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725902/impact-of-grape-pomace-consumption-on-the-blood-lipid-profile-and-liver-genes-associated-with-lipid-metabolism-of-young-rats
#12
Jianmei Yu, Rishipal R Bansode, Ivy N Smith, Steven L Hurley
Herein, we investigated the effects of grape pomace (GP) in diet on body weight, blood lipid profile, and expression of liver genes associated with lipid metabolism using a young rat model. In this study, twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats at 7 weeks of age were randomly divided into 4 groups, which were fed modified AIN-93G diets containing 0% (control), 6.9%, 13.8%, and 20.7% of GP for 10 weeks. Feed consumption and body weight were weekly determined. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the feeding period for cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and glucose analysis...
July 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724659/human-milk-microbial-community-structure-is-relatively-stable-and-related-to-variations-in-macronutrient-and-micronutrient-intakes-in-healthy-lactating-women
#13
Janet E Williams, Janae M Carrothers, Kimberly A Lackey, Nicola F Beatty, Mara A York, Sarah L Brooker, Bahman Shafii, William J Price, Matthew L Settles, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
Background: The human milk microbiome has been somewhat characterized, but little is known about changes over time and relations with maternal factors such as nutrient intake.Objective: We sought to characterize the human milk microbiome and described associations with maternal nutrient intake, time postpartum, delivery mode, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Methods: Milk samples (n = 104) and 24-h diet recalls were collected 9 times from 21 healthy lactating women from day 2 to 6 mo postpartum. Women were classified by BMI as healthy weight (<25) or overweight or obese (≥25)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724635/heterodimers-of-the-transcriptional-factors-nfatc3-and-fosb-mediate-tissue-factor-expression-for-15-s-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-induced-monocyte-trafficking
#14
Sivareddy Kotla, Nikhlesh K Singh, Daniel Kirchhofer, Gadiparthi N Rao
Tissue factor (TF) is expressed in vascular and nonvascular tissues and functions in several pathways, including embryonic development, inflammation, and cell migration. Many risk factors for atherosclerosis, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, increase TF expression. To better understand the TF-related mechanisms in atherosclerosis, here we investigated the role of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) in TF expression. 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), the major product of human 15-LOXs 1 and 2, induced TF expression and activity in a time-dependent manner in the human monocytic cell line THP1...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724410/identification-and-characterization-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-from-castrated-and-intact-full-sib-pair-huainan-male-pigs
#15
Jing Wang, Liushuai Hua, Junfeng Chen, Jiaqing Zhang, Xianxiao Bai, Binwen Gao, Congjun Li, Zhihai Shi, Weidong Sheng, Yuan Gao, Baosong Xing
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate adipose tissue metabolism, however, their function on testosterone deficiency related obesity in humans is less understood. For this research, intact and castrated male pigs are the best model animal because of their similar proportional organ sizes, cardiovascular systems and metabolic features. RESULTS: We identified lncRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by deep RNA-sequencing using the intact and castrated Huainan male pigs...
July 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724398/whole-genome-sequencing-identifies-a-novel-alms1-gene-mutation-in-two-chinese-siblings-with-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome
#16
Lin Yang, Zixiu Li, Mei Mei, Xiaomei Fan, Guodong Zhan, Huijun Wang, Guoying Huang, Mingbang Wang, Weidong Tian, Wenhao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Alström syndrome is a rare multi-systemic disorder with a broad spectrum of symptoms. This syndrome is characterized by childhood retinal degeneration; sensorineural hearing loss; obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus; cardiomyopathy; systemic fibrosis; and pulmonary, hepatic, and renal failure. CASE PRESENTATION: A Chinese quartet family with two siblings predominantly affected by cone-rod dystrophy and short stature were recruited. The craniofacial dysmorphism and on-set age-of-cone-rod dystrophy in the proband showed a minor intrafamilial variability...
July 19, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723664/detecting-the-genetic-link-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-obesity-using-bioinformatics-analysis-of-gwas-data
#17
Qi-Shuai Zhuang, Hao Zheng, Xiao-Dan Gu, Liang Shen, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the major form of dementia in the elderly. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicate that obesity may act as a risk factor for AD, while the genetic link between the two conditions remains unclear. This bioinformatics analysis aimed to detect the genetic link between AD and obesity on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene, and pathway levels based on genome-wide association studies data. A total of 31 SNPs were found to be shared by AD and obesity, which were linked to 7 genes...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723626/positive-correlation-of-cg16672562-methylation-with-obesity-related-traits-in-childhood-obesity-and-its-independence-with-underlying-hif3a-hypoxia-inducible-factor-3a-genetic-background
#18
Suman Lee, Hyo Jin Kim, Sohee Han, Jae-Pil Jeon, Sang-Ick Park, Ho-Yeong Yu, Mi Yeong Hwang, Juyoung Lee
Differential methylations of the HIF3A (hypoxia-inducible factor 3a) gene have been linked to body mass index (BMI). To explore the association of these methylations to childhood obesity, we measured 5 CpG methylation sites (cg27146050, cg46801562, cg22891070, cg16672562 and cg46801675) in intron 1 of the HIF3A gene by pyrosequencing, in the Korean population (mean age: 13.9 yrs, 305 obese cases and 387 controls). Two CpG methylations, cg46801562 and cg16672562, had statistically significant association with childhood obesity (P = 2...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723567/cold-inducible-sirt6-regulates-thermogenesis-of-brown-and-beige-fat
#19
Lu Yao, Xiaona Cui, Qi Chen, Xiaoying Yang, Fude Fang, Jun Zhang, Guoqing Liu, Wanzhu Jin, Yongsheng Chang
Promoting development and function of brown and beige fat may reduce obesity. Here, we show that fat SIRT6 expression is markedly induced by cold exposure and a β-adrenergic agonist. Deletion of SIRT6 in adipose tissue impairs the thermogenic function of brown adipocytes, causing a morphological "whitening" of brown fat, reduced oxygen (O2) consumption, obesity, decreased core body temperature, and cold sensitivity. Fat SIRT6-deleted mice exhibit increased blood glucose levels, severe insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723566/genome-wide-rnai-screen-for-fat-regulatory-genes-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-identifies-a-proteostasis-ampk-axis-critical-for-starvation-survival
#20
Christopher M Webster, Elizabeth C Pino, Christopher E Carr, Lianfeng Wu, Ben Zhou, Lucydalila Cedillo, Michael C Kacergis, Sean P Curran, Alexander A Soukas
Organisms must execute metabolic defenses to survive nutrient deprivation. We performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify fat regulatory genes indispensable for starvation resistance. Here, we show that opposing proteostasis pathways are principal determinants of starvation survival. Reduced function of cytoplasmic aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARS genes) increases fat mass and extends starvation survival, whereas reduced proteasomal function reduces fat and starvation survival. These opposing pathways converge on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as the critical effector of starvation defenses...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
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