Read by QxMD icon Read

Obesity and genes

Alexandra E Livanos, Thomas U Greiner, Pajau Vangay, Wimal Pathmasiri, Delisha Stewart, Susan McRitchie, Huilin Li, Jennifer Chung, Jiho Sohn, Sara Kim, Zhan Gao, Cecily Barber, Joanne Kim, Sandy Ng, Arlin B Rogers, Susan Sumner, Xue-Song Zhang, Ken Cadwell, Dan Knights, Alexander Alekseyenko, Fredrik Bäckhed, Martin J Blaser
The early life microbiome plays important roles in host immunological and metabolic development. Because the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing substantially in recent decades, we hypothesized that early-life antibiotic use alters gut microbiota, which predisposes to disease. Using non-obese diabetic mice that are genetically susceptible to T1D, we examined the effects of exposure to either continuous low-dose antibiotics or pulsed therapeutic antibiotics (PAT) early in life, mimicking childhood exposures...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Qian Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Zhixin Wang, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
An adverse intrauterine environment, induced by a chromium-restricted diet, is a potential cause of metabolic disease in adult life. Up to now, the relative mechanism has not been clear. C57BL female mice were time-mated and fed either a control diet (CD), or a chromium-restricted diet (CR) throughout pregnancy and the lactation period. After weaning, some offspring continued the diet diagram (CD-CD or CR-CR), while other offspring were transferred to another diet diagram (CD-CR or CR-CD). At 32 weeks of age, glucose metabolism parameters were measured, and the liver from CR-CD group and CD-CD group was analyzed using a gene array...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Esma R Isenovic, Aleksandra Jovanovic, Emina Sudar Milovanovic, Sudar Milovanovic, Samantha J Pitt, Alan J Stewart, Sonja Zafirovic, Julijana Stanimirovic, Djordje Radak
Overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a key link between high-fat (HF) diet induced obesity and cardiovascular disease. Oestradiol has cardioprotective effects that may be mediated through reduction of iNOS activity/expression. In the present study, female Wistar rats were fed a standard diet or a HF diet (42% fat) for 10 weeks. iNOS gene and protein expressions were measured in heart tissue. HF-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in cardiac iNOS mRNA by 695% (p<0.05), iNOS protein level by 248% (p<0...
October 25, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
B Hirschmugl, G Desoye, P Catalano, I Klymiuk, H Scharnagl, S Payr, E Kitzinger, C Schliefsteiner, U Lang, C Wadsack, S Hauguel-de Mouzon
BACKGROUND: Obesity before pregnancy is associated with impaired metabolic status of the mother and the offspring later in life. These adverse effects have been attributed to epigenetic changes in utero, but little is known about the role of placental metabolism and its contribution to fetal development. OBJECTIVES: We examined the impact of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on the expression of genes involved in placental lipid metabolism in lean and obese women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy-three lean and obese women with healthy pregnancy were recruited at term elective cesarean delivery...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
J Chen, Y Liu, S Lu, L Yin, C Zong, S Cui, D Qin, Y Yang, Q Guan, X Li, X Wang
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases, while preadipocyte differentiation or adipogenesis is closely related to obesity occurrence. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a unique class of transcripts in regulation of a variety of biological processes. Using cDNA microarray, we found lncRNA U90926 is negatively correlated with 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of lncRNA U90926 (lnc-U90926) in adipogenesis and the underlying mechanisms...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ana Babic, Ying Bao, Zhi Rong Qian, Chen Yuan, Edward L Giovannucci, Hugues Aschard, Peter Kraft, Laufey T Amundadottir, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Kimmie Ng, Meir J Stampfer, Shuji Ogino, Julie E Buring, Howard D Sesso, John Michael Gaziano, Nader Rifai, Michael N Pollak, Matthew L Anderson, Barbara B Cochrane, Juhua Luo, JoAnn E Manson, Charles S Fuchs, Brian Wolpin
Leptin is an adipokine involved in regulating energy balance which has been identified as a potential biological link in development of obesity-associated cancers such as pancreatic cancer. In this prospective, nested case-control study of 470 cases and 1094 controls from five U.S. cohorts, we used conditional logistic regression to evaluate pancreatic cancer risk by prediagnostic plasma leptin, adjusting for race/ethnicity, diabetes, body-mass index, physical activity, plasma C-peptide, adiponectin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Research
I Rostás, J Tenk, A Mikó, N Füredi, S Soós, M Solymár, A Lengyel, M Székely, B Gaszner, D Feller, E Pétervári, M Balaskó
Leptin is a key catabolic regulator of food intake (FI) and energy expenditure. Both aging and obesity have been shown to induce leptin-resistance. The present study aimed to analyze age-related changes in the anorexigenic and hypermetabolic responsiveness to acute intracerebroventricular leptin administration in different age-groups of normally fed male Wistar rats (adult and old rats from 3 to 24months of age, NF3 to NF24, respectively). The expressions of the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and inhibitory SOCS3 genes were also assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
October 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Alynne Christian Ribeiro Andaki, Ciro José Brito, Juliano Magalhães Guedes, Maria Paula Maia Santos, Jorge Mota
BACKGROUND: The increase in obesity, especially the increase of visceral fat, has been directly associated with health risk. Additionally, a waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (0.5) has been proposed as an indicator of early health risk. AIMS: To test the association between anthropometric measurements and inflammatory mRNA expression and to evaluate the effectiveness of WHtR to predict inflammatory risk in children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were collected in 94 Brazilian children (46 boys) aged 9-11 years...
October 26, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
R Dorajoo, R T-H Ong, X Sim, L Wang, W Liu, E S Tai, J Liu, S-M Saw
INTRODUCTION: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 103 adult obesity risk loci; however, it is unclear if these findings are relevant to East-Asian childhood body mass index (BMI) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated for paediatric obesity associations at these risk loci utilizing genome-wide data from Chinese childhood subjects in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study (N = 1006). A weighted gene-risk score of all adult obesity risk loci in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study showed strong associations with BMI at age 9 (p-value = 3...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
L Balazova, K Krskova, M Suski, V Sisovsky, N Hlavacova, R Olszanecki, D Jezova, S Zorad
Increasing evidence indicates a role of oxytocin in controlling energy metabolism. The aim of his study was to investigate oxytocin effects on obese phenotype in leptin-resistant Zucker fatty rats, focusing on glucose and lipid metabolism. Zucker fatty rats and their lean controls were treated with oxytocin (3.6 μg/100g body weight/day) by osmotic minipumps implanted subcutaneously for 2 weeks. Two-hours intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed in fasting rats. Oxytocin decreased food intake in both phenotypes while body weight gain reduced only in obese animals...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Abdoulaye Diane, W David Pierce, Sandra E Kelly, Sharon Sokolik, Faye Borthwick, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Rabban Mangat, Jesus Miguel Pradillo, Stuart McRae Allan, Megan R Ruth, Catherine J Field, Rebecca Hutcheson, Petra Rocic, James C Russell, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
Obesity and its metabolic complications have emerged as the epidemic of the new millennia. The use of obese rodent models continues to be a productive component of efforts to understand the concomitant metabolic complications of this disease. In 1978, the JCR:LA-cp rat model was developed with an autosomal recessive corpulent (cp) trait resulting from a premature stop codon in the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor. Rats that are heterozygous for the cp trait are lean-prone, while those that are homozygous (cp/cp) spontaneously display the pathophysiology of obesity as well as a metabolic syndrome (MetS)-like phenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Tarek K Motawi, Olfat G Shaker, Nancy N Shahin, Nancy M Ahmed
BACKGROUND: According to the WHO report in 2015, obesity is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and the prevalence of Egyptian female obesity is 37.5 %. Since obesity is highly influenced by genetics, and adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system is over-activated in obesity, the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism on obesity and related disorders was studied in several populations, because of its effect on ACE activity. Our objective was to study the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with obesity and certain related disorders, namely hypertension, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, in Egyptian females...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Eva-Lena Stenblom, Björn Weström, Caroline Linninge, Peter Bonn, Mary Farrell, Jens F Rehfeld, Caroline Montelius
Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects on GI passage, 16 rats were gavage-fed a control or thylakoid-supplemented high-fat diet (HFD) 30 min before receiving Evans blue. Another 16 rats were fed a control HFD or thylakoid HFD for two weeks prior to the intragastric challenge with Evans blue...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Sae-Rom Yoo, Mee-Young Lee, Byoung-Kab Kang, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Soo-Jin Jeong
Soshiho-tang (SST; sho-saiko-to in Japanese; xiaochaihu-tang in Chinese) has generally been used to improve liver fibrosis- and cirrhosis-related symptoms in traditional Korean medicine. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of SST, its antiobesity effect has not been elucidated. Thus, our present study was carried out to evaluate the antiobesity effect of SST using a high fat diet- (HFD) induced obese mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipose cells. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/group), normal diet (ND), HFD-fed group, and HFD- and SST-fed groups (S200: 200 mg/kg of SST; S600: 600 mg/kg of SST) and given HFD with or without SST extract for 8 weeks...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Shuaihua Pu, Hamidreza Khazanehei, Peter J Jones, Ehsan Khafipour
Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mehrnaz Riazian, Elnaz Khorrami, Elham Alipoor, Sina Moradmand, Mehdi Yaseri, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
BACKGROUND: Apelin, the endogenous ligand of orphan receptor APJ (gene symbol APLNR), is an adipokine that was suggested to have a direct correlation with obesity. This peptide might play a role in obesity-related disorders, especially in the cardiovascular system. Currently, few data are available on levels and potential metabolic functions of apelin in different cardiac diseases including atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), which have common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Shiho Fujisaka, Siegfried Ussar, Clary Clish, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masaji Sakaguchi, Marion Soto, Masahiro Konishi, Samir Softic, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Georg Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Hayoung Jang, Minsung Kim, Soyoung Lee, Jungtae Kim, Dong-Cheol Woo, Kyung Won Kim, Kyuyoung Song, Inchul Lee
Adipose tissue hyperplasia with increased number of adipocytes is implicated in a protective rather than deleterious effect on obesity-associated metabolic disorder. It is poorly understood how the adipose tissue cellularity is regulated. Tc1 is a gene of vertebrates that regulates diverse downstream genes. Young Tc1-deleted mice fed on standard chow diet show expanded adipose tissue with smaller adipocytes in size compared to wild type controls, representing adipose tissue hyperplasia. Tc1(-/-) mice show enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced serum lipids...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ali Doğan, Serkan Kahraman, Emrah Usta, Emrah Özdemir, Uzay Görmüş, Cavlan Çiftçi
OBJECTIVE: Clopidogrel inhibits platelet aggregation by blockade of platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptor. Leptin is the obesity gene product, and its serum level increases with obesity. Platelets have leptin receptors on their surfaces. Hyperleptinemia may induce ADP-mediated platelet aggregation. It has been proposed that clopidogrel effect could be diminished with high serum leptin levels. The aim of the present trial was to further investigate the relationship between serum leptin level and clopidogrel resistance...
October 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
José Peña, Haiyin Chen-Harris, Jonathan E Allen, Mona Hwang, Maher Elsheikh, Shalini Mabery, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Adam T Zemla, Richard A Bowen, Monica K Borucki
In vivo serial passage of non-pathogenic viruses has been shown to lead to increased viral virulence, and although the precise mechanism(s) are not clear, it is known that both host and viral factors are associated with increased pathogenicity. Under- or overnutrition leads to a decreased or dysregulated immune response and can increase viral mutant spectrum diversity and virulence. The objective of this study was to identify the role of viral mutant spectra dynamics and host immunocompetence in the development of pathogenicity during in vivo passage...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"