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Obesity and genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036998/-association-between-polymorphism-of-rs10185316-in-insulin-induced-gene-2-and-blood-pressure-among-children-and-adolescents
#1
Y D Yang, J Y Song, F H Liu, X R Shang, H J Wang, J Ma
Objective: To examine the association between polymorphism of rs10185316 in insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) and blood pressure among children and adolescents. Methods: 9 junior middle schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing and 5 schools (3 primary junior middle schools, 2 primary schools) in Haidian District of Beijing were chosen in 2005 and 2007, respectively. According to the Chinese BMI percentile criteria for screening overweight and obesity in school children, we recruited 1 425 overweight or obese children and 605 normal weight children...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036761/effects-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-n-3-and-resistance-training-on-muscle-quality-and-expression-of-atrophy-related-ubiquitin-ligases-in-middle-aged-mice-with-high-fat-dietinduced-obesity
#2
Seung-Lyul Oh, Sang-Rok Lee, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)/n-3 supplements and resistance exercise training (RT) for 20 weeks on muscle quality and genes related to protein synthesis/degradation in middle-aged mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: Nine-month-old C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to five groups: 1) normal diet (C), 2) high-fat diet (H), 3) H+RT (HRT), 4) H+CLA/n-3 (H-CN), and 5) H+RT+CLA/n-3 (H-RTCN). HFD groups were given a diet containing 60% fat for 20 weeks, and exercised groups underwent progressive RT using weighted ladder climbing...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036231/vildagliptin-increases-butyrate-producing-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-diabetic-rats
#3
Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Jia Zheng, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035695/expression-of-macrophage-genes-within-skeletal-muscle-correlates-inversely-with-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance-in-humans
#4
Dongmei Liu, Flor Elisa Morales, Heidi B IglayReger, Mary K Treutelaar, Amy E Rothberg, Monica J Hubal, Evan P Nadler, Jacques Robidoux, Hisham Barakat, Jeffrey F Horowitz, Eric P Hoffman, Charles F Burant, Paul M Gordon
Background Local inflammation in obese adipose tissue has been shown to contribute to insulin resistance, however, the role of macrophage infiltration within skeletal muscle is still debateable. This study aimed to evaluate the association of skeletal muscle macrophage gene expression with adiposity levels and insulin sensitivity in obese patients. Methods Twenty-two non-diabetic obese patients and 23 healthy lean controls were included. Obese patients underwent a 3-month weight loss intervention. Macrophage gene expression in skeletal muscle (quantitative RT-PCR), body composition (DXA) and insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment and oral glucose tolerance test) were compared between groups and their associations were analyzed...
October 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035368/activation-of-intestinal-hypoxia-inducible-factor-2%C3%AE-during-obesity-contributes-to-hepatic-steatosis
#5
Cen Xie, Tomoki Yagai, Yuhong Luo, Xianyi Liang, Tao Chen, Qiong Wang, Dongxue Sun, Jie Zhao, Sadeesh K Ramakrishnan, Lulu Sun, Chunmei Jiang, Xiang Xue, Yuan Tian, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Yatrik M Shah, Yue Wu, Changtao Jiang, Frank J Gonzalez
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries, and limited therapeutic options are available. Here we uncovered a role for intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in hepatic steatosis. Human-intestine biopsies from individuals with or without obesity revealed that intestinal HIF-2α signaling was positively correlated with body-mass index and hepatic toxicity. The causality of this correlation was verified in mice with an intestine-specific disruption of Hif2a, in which high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis and obesity were substantially lower as compared to control mice...
October 9, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035280/adipocyte-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-regulates-energy-homeostasis-and-alternatively-activated-macrophages
#6
Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Giacomo Mancini, Raj Kamal Srivastava, Alejandro Aparisi Rey, Pierre Cardinal, Laura Tedesco, Cristina Maria Zingaretti, Antonia Sassmann, Carmelo Quarta, Claudia Schwitter, Andrea Conrad, Nina Wettschureck, V Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jens Hartwig, Maria Mendez-Lago, Laura Bindila, Krisztina Monory, Antonio Giordano, Saverio Cinti, Giovanni Marsicano, Stefan Offermanns, Enzo Nisoli, Uberto Pagotto, Daniela Cota, Beat Lutz
Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care. Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms. In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035279/cannabis-in-fat-high-hopes-to-treat-obesity
#7
Melody N Hawkins, Tamas L Horvath
Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1s) is known to have a substantial impact on the regulation of energy metabolism via central and peripheral mechanisms. In this issue of the JCI, Ruiz de Azua and colleagues provide important insights into the regulation of adipocyte physiology by CB1. Mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of the CB1-encoding gene had an overall improved metabolic profile in addition to reduced body weight and total adiposity. These changes were associated with an increase in sympathetic tone of the adipose tissue and expansion of activated macrophages, both of which occurred prior to changes in body weight, lending support to a causal relationship between loss of CB1 in adipocytes and systemic metabolic changes...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034492/transcriptome-analyses-reveal-genes-and-pathways-associated-with-fatty-acid-composition-traits-in-pigs
#8
J Zhang, L Cui, J Ma, C Chen, B Yang, L Huang
Fatty acid composition is associated with meat quality in pigs as well as with obesity- and diabetes-related traits in humans. Liver and muscle are important tissues for fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we evaluated correlations between liver and muscle transcriptomes and fatty acid composition traits in muscle and abdominal fat tissues in 335 F2 pigs from a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 pig resource population. Transcripts significantly correlated with fatty acid composition traits were enriched for genes involved in the categories of triglyceride catabolic process, mitochondrial function, hematological and immune system, and disease such as Type II diabetes...
October 16, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034327/high-fat-diet-changes-fungal-microbiomes-and-interkingdom-relationships-in-the-murine-gut
#9
Timothy Heisel, Emmanuel Montassier, Abigail Johnson, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Yi-Wei Lin, Li-Na Wei, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
Dietary fat intake and shifts in gut bacterial community composition are associated with the development of obesity. To date, characterization of microbiota in lean versus obese subjects has been dominated by studies of gut bacteria. Fungi, recently shown to affect gut inflammation, have received little study for their role in obesity. We sought to determine the effects of high-fat diet on fungal and bacterial community structures in a mouse model using the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034152/association-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-2-and-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-polymorphism-with-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#10
Shania Abbas, Syed Tasleem Raza, Anu Chandra, Luxmi Singh, Farzana Mahdi
PURPOSE: The present study was carried out to investigate the association of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphism with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study includes 122 POAG cases and 112 controls. FABP2 and FTO gene polymorphisms in cases and controls were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. RESULTS: The mean ages were 49...
July 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033896/the-influence-of-a-kdt501-a-novel-isohumulone-on-adipocyte-function-in-humans
#11
Brian S Finlin, Beibei Zhu, Bernard P Kok, Cristina Godio, Philip M Westgate, Neile Grayson, Robert Sims, Jeffrey S Bland, Enrique Saez, Philip A Kern
OBJECTIVE: In a phase II clinical trial in nine obese, insulin-resistant humans, we observed that treatment with KDT501, a novel isohumulone drug, increased total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in plasma. The objective was to determine whether KDT501 increased adiponectin secretion from subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SC WAT) and the underlying mechanism(s). METHODS: Nine obese participants with either prediabetes or with normal glucose tolerance plus three features of metabolic syndrome were part of the study...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032145/genetic-association-analysis-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-obesity-related-phenotypes
#12
Correa-Rodríguez María, Carrillo-Ávila Jose Antonio, Schmidt-RioValle Jacqueline, González-Jiménez Emilio, Vargas Sofia, Martin Javier, Rueda-Medina Blanca
Vitamin D has been established as a key factor in the development of obesity through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the VDR gene to obesity-related phenotypes in a population of Caucasian young adults. The study population consisted of 701 healthy Spanish young adults (mean age 20.41±2.48). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR (TaqI, BsmI and FokI) were selected as genetic markers. Body composition measurements including weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), percentage of fat mass (PFM), fat-free mass (FFM) and visceral fat level (VFL) were analysed...
October 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032027/peripheral-neuropathy-and-hindlimb-paralysis-in-a-mouse-model-of-adipocyte-specific-knockout-of-lkb1
#13
Yan Xiong, Jessica C Page, Naagarajan Narayanan, Chao Wang, Zhihao Jia, Feng Yue, Xine Shi, Wen Jin, Keping Hu, Meng Deng, Riyi Shi, Tizhong Shan, Gongshe Yang, Shihuan Kuang
Brown adipose tissues (BAT) burn lipids to generate heat through uncoupled respiration, thus representing a powerful target to counteract lipid accumulation and obesity. The tumor suppressor liver kinase b1 (Lkb1) is a key regulator of cellular energy metabolism; and adipocyte-specific knockout of Lkb1 (Ad-Lkb1 KO) leads to the expansion of BAT, improvements in systemic metabolism and resistance to obesity in young mice. Here we report the unexpected finding that the Ad-Lkb1 KO mice develop hindlimb paralysis at mid-age...
September 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031728/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-distinct-population-of-proglucagon-expressing-cells-specific-to-the-mouse-upper-small-intestine
#14
Leslie L Glass, Fernando J Calero-Nieto, Wajid Jawaid, Pierre Larraufie, Richard G Kay, Berthold Göttgens, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
OBJECTIVES: To identify sub-populations of intestinal preproglucagon-expressing (PPG) cells producing Glucagon-like Peptide-1, and their associated expression profiles of sensory receptors, thereby enabling the discovery of therapeutic strategies that target these cell populations for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. METHODS: We performed single cell RNA sequencing of PPG-cells purified by flow cytometry from the upper small intestine of 3 GLU-Venus mice. Cells from 2 mice were sequenced at low depth, and from the third mouse at high depth...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031725/intestinal-sirt3-overexpression-in-mice-improves-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis-independent-of-body-weight
#15
Deepti Ramachandran, Rosmarie Clara, Shahana Fedele, Junmin Hu, Endre Lackzo, Jing-Yi Huang, Eric Verdin, Wolfgang Langhans, Abdelhak Mansouri
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal metabolism might play a greater role in regulating whole body metabolism than previously believed. We aimed to enhance enterocyte metabolism in mice and investigate if it plays a role in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and its comorbidities. METHODS: Using the cre-loxP system, we overexpressed the mitochondrial NAD(+) dependent protein deacetylase SIRT3 in enterocytes of mice (iSIRT3 mice). We chronically fed iSIRT3 mice and floxed-SIRT3 control (S3fl) mice a low-fat, control diet (CD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and then phenotyped the mice...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031722/activated-macrophages-control-human-adipocyte-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-via-secreted-factors
#16
Michaela Keuper, Stephan Sachs, Ellen Walheim, Lucia Berti, Bernhard Raedle, Daniel Tews, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Martin Wabitsch, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Gabi Kastenmüller, Matthias H Tschöp, Martin Jastroch, Harald Staiger, Susanna M Hofmann
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-associated WAT inflammation is characterized by the accumulation and local activation of macrophages (MΦs), and recent data from mouse studies suggest that macrophages are modifiers of adipocyte energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. As mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in humans, herein we aimed to delineate how human macrophages may affect energy metabolism of white adipocytes. METHODS: Human adipose tissue gene expression analysis for markers of macrophage activation and tissue inflammation (CD11c, CD40, CD163, CD206, CD80, MCP1, TNFα) in relationship to mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) was performed on subcutaneous WAT of 24 women (BMI 20-61 kg/m(2))...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031721/cdkal1-a-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-gene-regulates-mitochondrial-function-in-adipose-tissue
#17
Colin J Palmer, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Lawrence Kazak, Jonathan Z Long, Amir I Mina, Zhaoming Deng, Katherine B LeClair, Jessica A Hall, Shangyu Hong, Peter-James H Zushin, Kyle L Smith, Steven P Gygi, Susan Hagen, David E Cohen, Alexander S Banks
OBJECTIVES: Understanding how loci identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) contribute to pathogenesis requires new mechanistic insights. Variants within CDKAL1 are strongly linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Investigations in mouse models have focused on the function of Cdkal1 as a tRNA(Lys) modifier and downstream effects of Cdkal1 loss on pro-insulin translational fidelity in pancreatic β-cells. However, Cdkal1 is broadly expressed in other metabolically relevant tissues, including adipose tissue...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031720/brown-adipocytes-can-display-a-mammary-basal-myoepithelial-cell-phenotype-in%C3%A2-vivo
#18
Li Li, Baoguo Li, Min Li, Chaoqun Niu, Guanlin Wang, Ting Li, Elżbieta Król, Wanzhu Jin, John R Speakman
OBJECTIVE: Previous work has suggested that white adipocytes may also show a mammary luminal secretory cell phenotype during lactation. The capacity of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to display a mammary cell phenotype and the levels at which they demonstrate such phenotypes in vivo is currently unknown. METHODS: To investigate the putative adipocyte origin of mammary gland cells, we performed genetic lineage-labeling experiments in BAT and the mammary glands...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031719/macrophage-alternative-activation-confers-protection-against-lipotoxicity-induced-cell-death
#19
Lingling Dai, Prerna Bhargava, Kristopher J Stanya, Ryan K Alexander, Yae-Huei Liou, David Jacobi, Nelson H Knudsen, Alexander Hyde, Matthew R Gangl, Sihao Liu, Chih-Hao Lee
OBJECTIVE: Alternative activation (M2) of adipose tissue resident macrophage (ATM) inhibits obesity-induced metabolic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that dysregulated lipid homeostasis caused by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) in the obese state is a trigger of inflammatory responses. We investigated the role of M2 macrophages in lipotoxicity-induced inflammation. METHODS: We used microarray experiments to profile macrophage gene expression regulated by two M2 inducers, interleukin-4 (Il-4), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta/gamma (Pparδ/Pparγ) agonists...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031395/habitual-dietary-intake-of-fatty-acids-are-associated-with-leptin-gene-expression-in-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-patients-without-diabetes
#20
Hosein Rostami, Mohammad Samadi, Emad Yuzbashian, Maryam Zarkesh, Golaleh Asghari, Mehdi Hedayati, Afsoon Daneshafrooz, Parvin Mirmiran, Alireza Khalaj
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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