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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924523/the-interplay-of-genetics-and-environmental-factors-in-the-development-of-obesity
#1
REVIEW
Abu Baker Sheikh, Adeel Nasrullah, Shujaul Haq, Aisha Akhtar, Haider Ghazanfar, Amara Nasir, Rao M Afzal, Marvi M Bukhari, Ahtsham Yousaf Chaudhary, Syed W Naqvi
Obesity is a major health issue in the developed nations, and it has been increasingly clear that both genetics and environment play an important role in determining if an individual will be obese or not. We reviewed the latest researches which were carried out to identify the obesity susceptible genes and to identify the metabolic pathways having a central role in energy balance. Obesity is a heritable disorder, and some of the many obesity susceptible genes are fat mass and obesity (FTO), leptin, and Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R)...
July 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894993/effect-of-growth-hormone-overexpression-on-gastric-evacuation-rate-in-coho-salmon
#2
Jin-Hyoung Kim, Satid Chatchaiphan, Michelle T Crown, Samantha L White, Robert H Devlin
Growth hormone (GH) transgenic (T) coho salmon consistently show remarkably enhanced growth associated with increased appetite and food consumption compared to non-transgenic wild-type (NT) coho salmon. To improve understanding of the mechanism by which GH overexpression mediates food intake and digestion in T fish, feed intake and gastric evacuation rate (over 7 days) were measured in size-matched T and NT coho salmon. T fish displayed greatly enhanced feed intake levels (~ 2.5-fold), and more than 3-fold increase in gastric evacuation rates relative to NT coho salmon...
September 11, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888694/analyzing-the-effects-of-co-expression-of-chick-gallus-gallus-melanocortin-receptors-with-either-chick-mrap1-or-mrap2-in-cho-cells-on-sensitivity-to-acth-1-24-or-acth-1-13-nh2-implications-for-the-avian-hpa-axis-and-avian-melanocortin-circuits-in-the-hypothalamus
#3
Alexa L Thomas, Fumihiko Maekawa, Takaharu Kawashima, Hirotaka Sakamoto, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Perry Davis, Robert M Dores
In order to better understand the roles that melanocortin receptors (cMCRs) and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins (cMRAP1 and cMRAP2) play in the HPA axis and hypothalamus, adrenal gland and hypothalamus mRNA from 1day-old white leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus), were analyzed by real-time PCR. mRNA was also made for kidney, ovary, and liver. Mrap1 mRNA could be detected in adrenal tissue, but not in any of the other tissues, and mrap2 mRNA was also detected in the adrenal gland. Finally, all five melanocortin receptors mRNAs could be detected in the adrenal gland; mc2r and mc5r mRNAs were the most abundant...
September 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878020/lipid-stress-inhibits-endocytosis-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-from-modified-clathrin-enriched-sites-and-impairs-receptor-desensitization
#4
Kimberly A Cooney, Brent M Molden, Nicholas S Kowalczyk, Susan Russell, Giulia Baldini
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in the brain hypothalamus where it regulates energy homeostasis. MC4R agonists function to lower food intake and weight. In this respect, while obesity promotes hyperlipidemia and hypothalamic injury, MC4R agonists are nevertheless more effective to reduce food intake within hours of administration in overweight, rather than lean, mice. MC4R undergoes constitutive internalization and recycling to the plasma membrane, with agonist binding inducing receptor retention along the intracellular route and, under prolonged exposure, desensitization...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877366/melanocortin-receptor-subtypes-are-expressed-on-cells-in-the-oligodendroglial-lineage-and-signal-acth-protection
#5
Joyce A Benjamins, Liljana Nedelkoska, Robert P Lisak
ACTH, a melanocortin peptide used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses, acts by stimulating adrenal corticosteroid (CS) production via melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R), but it may also exert a therapeutic effect independent of CS by stimulating other melanocortin receptors (MCR) distributed in many tissues, including the brain. We reported that oligodendroglia (OL) and oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPC) express MC4R, and that ACTH 1-39 protects OL and OPC in vitro from cell death induced by mechanisms likely involved in white matter damage in MS...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856768/meat-and-nutritional-quality-comparison-of-purebred-and-crossbred-pigs
#6
Jie Zhang, Jie Chai, Zonggang Luo, Hang He, Lei Chen, Xueqin Liu, Qinfei Zhou
Crossbreeding is an effective method of improving the efficiency and profit of production in commercial pig operations. To understand the effect of crossbreeding on meat and nutrient quality, a combination including three purebred (Duroc, D; Landrace, L; Yorkshire, Y) and two crossbred pig lines (Landrace × Yorkshire, LY; Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire), DLY) frequently used internationally were studied. The results showed that meat from the LY and DLY crosses had lower values for lightness L24h∗, shear force and epinephrine and higher values for drip loss, C18:1, insulin, glucagon and monounsaturated fatty acids than D, L and Y pigs...
August 30, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852042/the-mc4r-genotype-is-associated-with-postpartum-weight-reduction-and-glycemic-changes-among-women-with-prior-gestational-diabetes-longitudinal-analysis
#7
Aline Martins de Carvalho, Ping Shao, Huikun Liu, Han-Ling Cheng, Yan Zheng, Junhong Leng, Weiqin Li, Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Leishen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Gang Hu, Lu Qi
The genetic variants near the Melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R), a key protein regulating energy balance and adiposity, have been related to obesity and glucose metabolism. We aimed to assess whether the MC4R genotype affected longitudinal changes in body weight and glucose metabolism biomarkers among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The MC4R genotype, postpartum weight reduction, and glycemic changes between after delivery and pregnancy were assessed in a cohort of 1208 Chinese women who had experienced GDM...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829041/loss-of-the-melanocortin-4-receptor-in-mice-causes-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#8
Michael J Litt, G Donald Okoye, Daniel Lark, Isin Cakir, Christy Moore, Mary C Barber, James Atkinson, Josh Fessel, Javid Moslehi, Roger D Cone
Haploinsufficiency of the melanocortin-4 receptor, the most common monogenetic obesity syndrome in humans, is associated with a reduction in autonomic tone, bradycardia, and incidence of obesity-associated hypertension. Thus, it has been assumed that melanocortin obesity syndrome may be protective with respect to obesity-associated cardiovascular disease. We show here that absence of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in mice causes dilated cardiomyopathy, characterized by reduced contractility and increased left ventricular diameter...
August 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828082/impact-of-the-polymorphism-near-mc4r-rs17782313-on-obesity-and-metabolic-related-traits-in-women-participating-in-an-aerobic-training-program
#9
Agata Leońska-Duniec, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Zarębska, Wojciech Smółka, Paweł Cięszczyk
The C/T polymorphism (rs17782313) mapped 188 kb downstream of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) shows a strong relationship with an increased body mass index (BMI) and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the information on polymorphism's potential modifying effect on obesity- and metabolic-related traits achieved through training is still unknown. Therefore, we decided to check if selected body measurements observed in physically active participants would be modulated by the genotype. The genotype distribution was examined in a group of 201 Polish women measured for chosen traits before and after the completion of a 12 week moderate-intensive aerobic training program...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813605/structure-activity-relationship-studies-on-a-macrocyclic-agouti-related-protein-agrp-scaffold-reveal-agouti-signaling-protein-asp-residue-substitutions-maintain-melanocortin-4-receptor-antagonist-potency-and-result-in-inverse-agonist-pharmacology-at-the-melanocortin
#10
Mark D Ericson, Katie T Freeman, Sathya M Schnell, Katlyn A Fleming, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
The melanocortin system consists of five reported receptors, agonists from the proopiomelanocortin gene transcript, and two antagonists, agouti-signaling protein (ASP) and agouti-related protein (AGRP). For both ASP and AGRP, the hypothesized Arg-Phe-Phe pharmacophores are on exposed β-hairpin loops. In this study, the Asn and Ala positions of a reported AGRP macrocyclic scaffold (c[Pro-Arg-Phe-Phe-Asn-Ala-Phe-DPro]) were explored with 14-compound and 8-compound libraries, respectively, to generate more potent, selective melanocortin receptor antagonists...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799434/metabolic-biomarkers-and-gallstone-disease-a-population-based-study
#11
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh, Tea Skaaby, Lars Tue Sørensen, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Torben Jørgensen
OBJECTIVES: The objectives for this study were to examine the associations between metabolic biomarkers of obesity including insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction, systemic inflammation, genetic susceptibility and ultrasound proven gallstone disease or cholecystectomy in a population-based cross-sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 2650 participants were included, of whom 422 had gallstone disease. Associations between selected metabolic biomarkers and gallstone disease were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models and expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
August 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791594/melanocortin-receptor-4-and-glioblastoma-cells-effects-of-the-selective-antagonist-ml00253764-alone-and-in-combination-with-temozolomide-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Francesca Vaglini, Carla Pardini, Teresa Di Desidero, Paola Orlandi, Francesco Pasqualetti, Alessandra Ottani, Simone Pacini, Daniela Giuliani, Salvatore Guarini, Guido Bocci
Currently, no description of melanocortin receptor-4 (MC4R) expression or activity is available in human cancer cells, including glioblastoma (GBM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of MC4Rs in GBM cells and the selective inhibition of their activity through the MC4R antagonist ML00253764 alone and in association with temozolomide in vitro and in vivo. MC4R genotyping and gene expression were performed on human GBM cells (U-87 and U-118) with real-time PCR. MC4R western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were obtained in both cell lines and in human tissues...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782535/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-induced-anorexia-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica-likely-involves-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-and-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#13
Taylor Lear, Lingbin Liu, Madison O'Donnell, Betty R McConn, D Michael Denbow, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) reduces food intake in birds and mammals. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of α-MSH on food and water intake, and hypothalamic c-Fos immunoreactivity and appetite-associated factor mRNA in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species that has not undergone the same artificial selection for growth-related traits as the chicken. At 7days post-hatch, 3-h-fasted quail were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected into the lateral ventricle with 0 (vehicle), 0...
October 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755272/polymorphism-and-methylation-of-the-mc4r-gene-in-obese-and-non-obese-dogs
#14
Monika Mankowska, Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Aneta Graczyk, Paulina Ciazynska, Monika Stachowiak, Marek Switonski
The dog is considered to be a useful biomedical model for human diseases and disorders, including obesity. One of the numerous genes associated with human polygenic obesity is MC4R, encoding the melanocortin 4 receptor. The aim of our study was to analyze polymorphisms and methylation of the canine MC4R in relation to adiposity. Altogether 270 dogs representing four breeds predisposed to obesity: Labrador Retriever (n = 187), Golden Retriever (n = 38), Beagle (n = 28) and Cocker Spaniel (n = 17), were studied...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739551/the-description-of-a-new-case-with-proopiomelanocortin-pomc-deficiency-an-increasingly-important-diagnosis-to-make
#15
Semra Çetinkaya, Tülay Güran, Erdal Kurnaz, Melikşah Keskin, Elif Sağsak, Senay Savaş Erdeve, Jenifer P Suntharalingham, Federica Buonocore, John Achermann, Zehra Aycan
International surveillance data suggests a worldwide epidemic of pediatric obesity regardless of geographic, socioeconomic, racial and ethnic factors. Reversing this epidemic of pediatric obesity will require recognition and understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition to enable us to develop novel therapies as well as taking measures to shift social attitudes and public policies at a global level. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency is a rare monogenic disorder of early-onset obesity, which has increased our insight into the important role of the leptin-melanocortin pathway in energy balance...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738459/-gene-gene-interaction-on-central-obesity-in-school-aged-children-in-china
#16
L W Fu, M X Zhang, L J Wu, L W Gao, J Mi
Objective: To investigate possible effect of 6 obesity-associated SNPs in contribution to central obesity and examine whether there is an interaction in the 6 SNPs in the cause of central obesity in school-aged children in China. Methods: A total of 3 502 school-aged children who were included in Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) Study were selected, and based on the age and sex specific waist circumference (WC) standards in the BCAMS study, 1 196 central obese cases and 2 306 controls were identified...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#17
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720755/functional-variants-of-the-melanocortin-4-receptor-associated-with-the-odontoceti-and-mysticeti-suborders-of-cetaceans
#18
Liyuan Zhao, Xiaofan Zhou, Antonis Rokas, Roger D Cone
Cetaceans, a group of mammals adapted to the aquatic environment that descended from terrestrial artiodactyls, exhibit tremendous interspecific differences in a number of phenotypes, including feeding behavior, such as filter feeding in the Mysticeti vs prey-hunting Odontoceti, and size, with the smallest cetacean, the vaquita, at 1.4 meters and the largest, the blue whale, reaching 33 meters. The Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) regulates food intake, energy balance, and somatic growth in both mammals and teleosts...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699792/novel-approaches-to-the-design-of-bioavailable-melanotropins
#19
Yang Zhou, Minying Cai
The melanocortin system is a primordial and critical system for survival, involved in a wide variety of physiological functions. It includes melanocortin receptors (MCRs) and melanotropin ligands (MCLs). MCRs are important drug targets that can regulate several key physiological processes. Extensive efforts have been made to develop peptide and peptidomimetics targeting melanocortin receptors including MC1R, MC3R, MC4R and MC5R. Most research is focused on developing potent and selective melanotropins. However, developing bioavailable melanotropins remains challenging...
July 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636007/analysis-of-association-of-gene-variants-with-obesity-traits-in-new-zealand-european-children-at-6-years-of-age
#20
Mohanraj Krishnan, John M D Thompson, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, Andrew N Shelling, G On Behalf Of The Children Of Scope Study Group
Childhood obesity is a public health problem, which is associated with a long-term increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Several gene variants have previously been identified that have provided novel insights into biological factors that contribute to the development of obesity. As obesity tracks through childhood into adulthood, identification of the genetic factors for obesity in early life is important. The objective of this study was to identify putative associations between genetic variants and obesity traits in children at 6 years of age...
July 25, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
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