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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086928/resolvin-rvd2-reduces-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-rescues-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Livia B Pascoal, Bruna Bombassaro, Albina F Ramalho, Andressa Coope, Rodrigo F Moura, Felipe Correa-da-Silva, Leticia Ignacio-Souza, Daniela Razolli, Diogo de Oliveira, Rodrigo Catharino, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation is an important mechanism leading to dysfunction of neurons involved in controlling body mass. Studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats can reduce hypothalamic inflammation. Here, we evaluated the presence and function of RvD2, a resolvin produced from docosahexaenoic acid, in the hypothalamus of mice. METHODS: Male Swiss mice were fed either chow or a high-fat diet. RvD2 receptor and synthetic enzymes were evaluated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073831/deletion-of-protein-kinase-c-lambda-in-pomc-neurons-predisposes-to-diet-induced-obesity
#2
Mauricio D Dorfman, Jordan E Krull, Jarrad M Scarlett, Stephan J Guyenet, Mini P Sajan, Vincent Damian, Hong T Nguyen, Michael Leitges, Gregory J Morton, Robert V Farese, Michael W Schwartz, Joshua P Thaler
Effectors of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway contribute to the hypothalamic regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in divergent ways. Here we show that CNS action of the PI3K signaling intermediate atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) constrains food intake, weight gain, and glucose intolerance in both rats and mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of CNS aPKC activity acutely increases food intake and worsens glucose tolerance in chow-fed rodents and causes excess weight gain during high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
January 10, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035522/analysis-of-gene-candidate-snp-and-ancestral-origin-associated-to-obesity-and-postoperative-weight-loss-in-a-cohort-of-obese-patients-undergoing-rygb
#3
David Velázquez-Fernández, Gabriela Mercado-Celis, Jeny Flores-Morales, Diana Clavellina-Gaytán, Ramón Vidrio, Eduardo Vidrio, Maureen Mosti, Hugo Sánchez-Aguilar, Donaji Rodriguez, Pablo León, Miguel F Herrera
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is the result of a complex interaction between multiple genetic traits and psychological, behavioral, nutritional and environmental factors. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were (a) to comparatively evaluate the presence of 20 candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in morbidly obese patients, (2) their association to comorbid conditions and (3) their impact on weight loss after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty-nine patients were eligible for this study...
December 29, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028078/ire1%C3%AE-in-pomc-neurons-is-required-for-thermogenesis-and-glycemia
#4
Ting Yao, Zhuo Deng, Yong Gao, Jia Sun, Xingxing Kong, Yiru Huang, Zhenyan He, Yanchao Xu, Yongsheng Chang, Kai-Jiang Yu, Brianna G Findley, Eric D Berglund, Rui-Tao Wang, Hongbo Guo, Hong Chen, Xu Li, Randal J Kaufman, Jianqun Yan, Tiemin Liu, Kevin W Williams
Whether neuronal inositol-requiring enzyme 1(Ire1) is required for the proper regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis is unclear. We found that pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)-specific deficiency of Ire1α accelerated diet-induced obesity concomitant with a decrease in energy expenditure. This hypometabolic phenotype included deficits in thermogenic responses to diet and cold exposure as well as 'beiging' of white adipose tissue. We also demonstrate that loss of Ire1α in Pomc neurons impaired whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027925/impact-of-prebiotics-on-metabolic-and-behavioral-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Célia Fourrier, Julie Sauvant, Amandine Everard, Lucile Capuron, Patrice D Cani, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002791/chinese-herb-cinobufagin-reduced-cancer-pain-is-associated-with-increased-peripheral-opioids-by-invaded-cd3-4-8-lymphocytes
#6
Tao Chen, Shenjun Yuan, Xin-Nian Wan, Ling Zhan, Xue-Qin Yu, Jian-Hong Zeng, Hong Li, Wen Zhang, Xiang-Yang Hu, Yi-Fei Ye, Wei Hu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanism of cinobufagin-reduced cancer pain in mouse cancer pain model and in vitro cell co-culture system. METHODS: Female Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. One group of animals was set as normal control without any treatment. Other three groups of animals received H22 hepatoma cell inoculation in right hind paw. At day 9 after inoculation, mice in other three groups were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 8 days with the solvent, morphine or cinobufagin, respectively...
December 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999963/identification-of-an-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-rat-pars-tuberalis-a-possible-interface-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system
#7
Arsalan Jafarpour, Faramarz Dehghani, Horst-Werner Korf
Endocannabinoids (ECs) are ubiquitous endogenous lipid derivatives and play an important role in intercellular communication either in an autocrine/paracrine or in an endocrine fashion. Recently, an intrinsic EC system has been discovered in the hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT) of hamsters and humans. In hamsters, this EC system is under photoperiodic control and appears to influence the secretion of hormones such as prolactin from the adenohypophysis. We investigate the EC system in the PT of the rat, a frequently used species in endocrine research...
December 20, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994501/blockade-of-central-glp-1-receptors-deteriorates-the-improvement-of-diabetes-after-ileal-transposition
#8
Weijie Chen, Qianqian Xu, Yiding Xiao, Jiaolin Zhou, Weimin Zhang, Guole Lin, Fengying Gong
Background: The mechanism of improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus induced by ileal transposition (IT) is undefined. Our aim was to investigate the possible role of central glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) after IT. Methods: Ninety male diabetic rats were randomly divided into the IT, sham IT (S-IT) and control group. The food intake, glucose metabolism and GLP-1 level were measured. Subsequently, we administered GLP-1 antagonist via lateral brain ventricle cannula to block central GLP-1 receptor, and verified whether the food intake, glucose metabolism changed...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988176/anxiogenic-like-effects-of-fluoxetine-render-adult-male-rats-vulnerable-to-the-effects-of-a-novel-stress
#9
Francisca Gomez, Luis García-García
Fluoxetine (FLX) has paradoxical anxiogenic-like effects during the acute phase of treatment. In adolescent (35d-old) male rats, the stress-like effects induced by short-term (3d-4d) FLX treatment appear to involve up-regulation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA. However, studies on FLX-induced anxiety-like effects in adult rodents are inconclusive. Herein, we sought to study the response of adult male rats (60-65d-old) to a similar FLX treatment, also investigating how the stressful component, inherent to our experimental conditions, contributed to the responses...
December 14, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987181/association-of-snps-in-dopamine-and-serotonin-pathway-genes-and-their-interacting-genes-with-temperament-traits-in-charolais-cows
#10
E Garza-Brenner, A M Sifuentes-Rincón, R D Randel, F A Paredes-Sánchez, G M Parra-Bracamonte, W Arellano Vera, F A Rodríguez Almeida, A Segura Cabrera
Cattle temperament is a complex trait, and molecular studies aimed at defining this trait are scarce. We used an interaction networks approach to identify new genes (interacting genes) and to estimate their effects and those of 19 dopamine- and serotonin-related genes on the temperament traits of Charolais cattle. The genes proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), solute carrier family 18, member 2 (SLC18A2) and FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homologue (FOSFBJ) were identified as new candidates...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981646/characterization-of-kiss1r-gpr54-expressing-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-female-rat-hypothalamus
#11
Shimpei Higo, Norio Iijima, Hitoshi Ozawa
Kisspeptin is essential in reproduction, and acts by stimulating neurons expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recent studies suggest that kisspeptin has multiple roles in the modulation of neuronal circuits in systems outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our recent research using in situ hybridization (ISH) clarified the histological distribution of Kiss1r (Gpr54)-expressing neurons in the rat brain which were presumed to be putative targets of kisspeptin. The arcuate nucleus (ARN) of the hypothalamus is one of the brain regions in which Kiss1r expression in non-GnRH neurons is prominent...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939689/aav-mediated-il-10-gene-transfer-counteracts-inflammation-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-and-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#12
Masanori Nakata, Sawako Yamamoto, Takashi Okada, Toshihiko Yada
Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces energy imbalance and consequently obesity. In the pathogenesis of obesity, HFD triggers inflammation in the hypothalamus including arcuate nucleus (ARC). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a representative anti-inflammatory cytokine, known to ameliorate the adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the effect of IL-10 on the hypothalamic inflammation remains less defined. We here report the effect of over-expression of murine IL-10 using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector on the inflammation in ARC and feeding behavior in HFD-induced obese (DIO) mice...
December 6, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935805/e2f1-mediated-human-pomc-expression-in-ectopic-cushing-s-syndrome
#13
Takako Araki, Ning-Ai Liu, Yukiko Tone, Daniel Cuevas-Ramos, Roy Heltsley, Masahide Tone, Shlomo Melmed
Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion derived from pituitary corticotroph tumors (Cushing disease) or from non-pituitary tumors (ectopic Cushing's syndrome). Hypercortisolemic features of ectopic Cushing's syndrome are severe, and no definitive treatment for paraneoplastic ACTH excess is available. We aimed to identify subcellular therapeutic targets by elucidating transcriptional regulation of the human ACTH precursor POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and ACTH production in non-pituitary tumor cells and in cell lines derived from patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome...
November 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931246/increased-alternate-splicing-of-htr2c-in-a-mouse-model-for-prader-willi-syndrome-leads-disruption-of-5ht2c-receptor-mediated-appetite
#14
Alastair S Garfield, Jennifer R Davies, Luke K Burke, Hannah V Furby, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Lora K Heisler, Anthony R Isles
Alternate splicing of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) pre-RNA is negatively regulated by the small nucleolar RNA, Snord115, loss of which is observed in nearly all individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a multigenic disorder characterised by hyperphagia and obesity. Given the role of the 5-HT2CR in the regulation of ingestive behaviour we investigated the pathophysiological implications of Snord115 deficiency on 5-HT2CR regulated appetite in a genotypically relevant PWS mouse model (PWS-IC)...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922103/hypothalamic-activation-is-essential-for-endotoxemia-induced-acute-muscle-wasting
#15
Kaipeng Duan, Qiyi Chen, Minhua Cheng, Chenyan Zhao, Zhiliang Lin, Shanjun Tan, Fengchan Xi, Tao Gao, Jialiang Shi, Juanhong Shen, Weiqin Li, Wenkui Yu, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
Growing evidence suggests acute skeletal muscle wasting is a key factor affecting nutritional support and prognosis in critical patients. Previously, plenty of studies of muscle wasting focused on the peripheral pathway, little was known about the central role. We tested the hypothesis whether central inflammatory pathway and neuropeptides were involved in the process. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats, hypothalamic NF-κB pathway and inflammation were highly activated, which was accompanied with severe muscle wasting...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917343/a-new-bioinformatic-insight-into-the-associated-proteins-in-psychiatric-disorders
#16
Wenlong Zhao, Wenjing Yang, Shuanglin Zheng, Qiong Hu, Ping Qiu, Xinghua Huang, Xiaoqian Hong, Fenghua Lan
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric diseases severely affect the quality of patients' lives and bring huge economic pressure to their families. Also, the great phenotypic variability among these patients makes it difficult to investigate the pathogenesis. Nowadays, bioinformatics is hopeful to be used as an effective tool for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, which can identify sensitive biomarkers and explore associated signaling pathways. METHODS: In this study, we performed an integrated bioinformatic analysis on 1945 mental-associated proteins including 91 secreted proteins and 593 membrane proteins, which were screened from the Universal Protein Resource (Uniport) database...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916541/the-orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr139-is-activated-by-the-peptides-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-acth-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh-and-%C3%AE-msh-and-the-conserved-core-motif-hfrw
#17
Anne Cathrine Nøhr, Mohamed A Shehata, Alexander S Hauser, Vignir Isberg, Jacek Mokrosinski, Kirsten B Andersen, I Sadaf Farooqi, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, David E Gloriam, Hans Bräuner-Osborne
GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed primarily in the brain. Not much is known regarding the function of GPR139. Recently we have shown that GPR139 is activated by the amino acids l-tryptophan and l-phenylalanine (EC50 values of 220 μM and 320 μM, respectively), as well as di-peptides comprised of aromatic amino acids. This led us to hypothesize that GPR139 may be activated by peptides. Sequence alignment of the binding cavities of all class A GPCRs, revealed that the binding pocket of the melanocortin 4 receptor is similar to that of GPR139...
January 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911598/type-3-deiodinase-role-on-central-thyroid-hormone-action-affects-the-leptin-melanocortin-system-and-circadian-activity
#18
Zhaofei Wu, M Elena Martinez, Donald L St Germain, Arturo Hernandez
The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the central regulation of energy balance is increasingly appreciated. Mice lacking the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which inactivates TH, have decreased circulating TH levels relative to control mice due to defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, we have shown that the TH status of the adult Dio3(-/-) brain is opposite that of the serum, exhibiting enhanced levels of TH action. Since the brain, specially the hypothalamus, harbors important circuitries that regulate metabolism, we aimed to examine the energy balance phenotype of Dio3(-/-) mice and determine whether it is associated with hypothalamic abnormalities...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907881/effect-of-toad-skin-extracts-on-the-pain-behavior-of-cancer-model-mice-and-its-peripheral-mechanism-of-action
#19
Tao Chen, Shen-Jun Yuan, Xue-Qin Yu, Liang-Bo Jiao, Wei Hu, Wang-Long Chen, Bo Xie
The changes in thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in paw cancer pain model mice and the action mechanism of toad skin extracts (TSE) was investigated. Eighty female mice were subcutaneously injected with saline or inoculated with H22 hepatoma cells in the right hind paw and administration with saline, vehicle, morphine and TSE. The pain behavior was recorded before treatment and at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 3 and 6h after initial administration, and thereafter on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th day after administration. On the last day, samples were collected after the euthanasia for the detection of β-END, CRF, IL-1β, POMC, μ-OR, CD3+, CD8+ and CD4+ in sera and the tumor tissues...
January 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906547/late-diagnosis-of-pomc-deficiency-and-in-vitro-evidence-of-residual-translation-from-allele-with-c-11c-a-mutation
#20
Aleksandra S Anisimova, Petr M Rubtsov, Kseniya A Akulich, Sergey E Dmitriev, Elena Frolova, Anatoly Tiulpakov
CONTEXT: Loss-of-function mutations in the POMC gene are associated with the syndrome of adrenal insufficiency, obesity and red hair. We describe here a case of POMC deficiency, in which adrenal insufficiency was not treated until the fourth year of life. One of the disease-causative POMC mutations was characterized in vitro using a new approach. CASE DESCRIPTION: A boy presented in the first year of life with red hair, growth acceleration, moderate obesity and recurrent cholestasis, which was followed by two episodes of hypoglycemia at ages of 1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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