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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929258/inhibitory-neurotransmitter-serotonin-and-excitatory-neurotransmitter-dopamine-both-decrease-food-intake-in-chinese-perch-siniperca-chuatsi
#1
Yu-Hui He, Ling Li, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Luo Zhao, Yan-Peng Zhang
Aminergic neurotransmitters play important roles in the regulation of food intake. However, their effects on feeding in fish have been less explored and still unclear. In the present study, the effects of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) on food intake were evaluated through intraventricular (ICV) administration in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) and the mRNA expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were detected. At 1 h post-injection, 5-HT significantly decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner...
September 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928140/selenoprotein-t-is-a-novel-ost-subunit-that-regulates-upr-signaling-and-hormone-secretion
#2
Abdallah Hamieh, Dorthe Cartier, Houssni Abid, André Calas, Carole Burel, Christine Bucharles, Cedric Jehan, Luca Grumolato, Marc Landry, Patrice Lerouge, Youssef Anouar, Isabelle Lihrmann
Selenoprotein T (SelT) is a recently characterized thioredoxin-like protein whose expression is very high during development, but is confined to endocrine tissues in adulthood where its function is unknown. We report here that SelT is required for adaptation to the stressful conditions of high hormone level production in endocrine cells. Using immunofluorescence and TEM immunogold approaches, we find that SelT is expressed at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in all hormone-producing pituitary cell types. SelT knockdown in corticotrope cells promotes unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER stress and lowers endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) and hormone production...
September 19, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919782/inhibitory-effects-of-a-selective-jak2-inhibitor-on-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-production-and-proliferation-of-corticotroph-tumor-att20-cells
#3
Yuko Asari, Kazunori Kageyama, Yuki Nakada, Mizuki Tasso, Shinobu Takayasu, Kanako Niioka, Noriko Ishigame, Makoto Daimon
PURPOSE: The primary cause of Cushing's disease is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenomas. EGFR signaling induces POMC mRNA-transcript levels and ACTH secretion from corticotroph tumors. The Jak-STAT pathway is located downstream of EGFR signaling; therefore, a Jak2 inhibitor could be an effective therapy for EGFR-related tumors. In this study, we determined the effect of a potent and selective Jak2 inhibitor, SD1029, on ACTH production and proliferation in mouse AtT20 corticotroph tumor cells...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919503/a-multilocus-phylogeny-of-the-genus-sarcohyla-anura-hylidae-and-an-investigation-of-species-boundaries-using-statistical-species-delimitation
#4
Itzue W Caviedes Solis, Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca
The genus Sarcohyla is composed by 24 species endemic to México. Despite the large number of phylogenetic studies focusing on the family Hylidae, the relationships among the species of Sarcohyla are still poorly known, and the scarce numbers of specimens and tissue samples available for some of the species has hampered an appropriate phylogenetic analysis. We present the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study of Sarcohyla to date. We included 17 species of the genus Sarcohyla using data from two mitochondrial (ND1 and 12S) and three nuclear genes (Rag-1, Rhod, and POMc)...
September 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915118/delayed-diagnosis-of-proopiomelanocortin-pomc-deficiency-with-type-1-diabetes-in-a-9-year-old-girl-and-her-infant-sibling
#5
Elif Ozsu, Allison Bahm
BACKGROUND: Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) protein, encoded by the POMC gene, is the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that is released from the anterior pituitary gland. Homozygous mutations in the POMC gene is associated with hyperphagia, severe and early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, hypopigmentation of the skin and red hair. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year-old girl from a consanguineous family of Iraqi origin was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913358/central-modulation-of-neuroinflammation-by-neuropeptides-and-energy-sensing-hormones-during-obesity
#6
REVIEW
Roger Maldonado-Ruiz, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Alberto Camacho
Central nervous system (CNS) senses energy homeostasis by integrating both peripheral and autonomic signals and responding to them by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides release. Although it is previously considered an immunologically privileged organ, we now know that this is not so. Cells belonging to the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, can be recruited into the CNS to face damage or infection, in addition to possessing resident immunological cells, called microglia. In this way, positive energy balance during obesity promotes an inflammatory state in the CNS...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911267/the-behavioral-and-molecular-evaluation-of-effects-of-social-instability-stress-as-a-model-of-stress-related-disorders-in-adult-female-rats
#7
Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Ewa Obuchowicz, Andrzej Małecki
The study aimed to test the hypotheses that chronic social instability stress (CSIS) alters behavioral and physiological parameters and expression of selected genes important for stress response and social behaviors. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the 4-week CSIS procedure, which involves unpredictable rotation between phases of isolation and overcrowding. Behavioral analyses (Experiment 1) were performed on the same rats before and after CSIS (n = 16) and physiological and biochemical measurements (Experiment 2) were made on further control (CON; n = 7) and stressed groups (CSIS; n = 8)...
September 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904020/gtrap3-18-regulates-food-intake-and-body-weight-by-interacting-with-pro-opiomelanocortin
#8
Koji Aoyama, Wattanaporn Bhadhprasit, Masahiko Watabe, Fan Wang, Nobuko Matsumura, Toshio Nakaki
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons provide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which stimulates melanocortin 4 receptor to induce hypophagia by AMPK inhibition in the hypothalamus. α-MSH is produced by POMC cleavage in secretory granules and released. However, it is not known yet whether any posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of POMC signaling exists upstream of the secretory granules in neurons. Here we show that glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18), an anchor protein that retains interacting proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a critical regulator of food intake and body weight by interacting with POMC...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903914/long-term-treatment-with-the-ghrelin-receptor-antagonist-d-lys3-ghrp-6-does-not-improve-glucose-homeostasis-in-non-obese-diabetic-mkr-mice
#9
Rasha Mosa, Lili Huang, Hongzhuo Li, Michael Grist, Derek LeRoith, Chen Chen
Ghrelin secretion has been associated with increased caloric intake and adiposity. The expressions of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in pancreas have raised the interest about the role of ghrelin in glucose homeostasis. Most of the studies showed that ghrelin promoted hyperglycaemia and inhibited insulin secretion. This raised the interest in using GHS-R1a antagonists as therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. Available data of GHS-R antagonists are on a short-term basis. Moreover, the complexity of GHS-R1a signalling makes it difficult to understand the mechanism of action of GHS-R1a antagonists...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902910/pituitary-genomic-expression-profiles-of-steers-are-altered-by-grazing-of-high-vs-low-endophyte-infected-tall-fescue-forages
#10
Qing Li, Raquel Hegge, Phillip J Bridges, James C Matthews
Consumption of ergot alkaloid-containing tall fescue grass impairs several metabolic, vascular, growth, and reproductive processes in cattle, collectively producing a clinical condition known as "fescue toxicosis." Despite the apparent association between pituitary function and these physiological parameters, including depressed serum prolactin; no reports describe the effect of fescue toxicosis on pituitary genomic expression profiles. To identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, we compared the global and selected targeted mRNA expression patterns of pituitaries collected from beef steers that had been randomly assigned to undergo summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a high-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902709/effect-of-food-deprivation-on-the-hypothalamic-gene-expression-of-the-secretogranin-ii-derived-peptide-em66-in-rat
#11
Fatima Trebak, Isabelle Dubuc, Marie Picot, Abdelilah Alaoui, Jérôme Leprince, Gaëtan Prévost, Youssef Anouar, Rabia Magoul, Nicolas Chartrel
EM66 is a peptide derived from the chromogranin, secretogranin II (SG-II). Recent findings in mice indicate that EM66 is a novel anorexigenic neuropeptide that regulates hypothalamic feeding behavior, at least in part, by activating the POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of EM66 in the control of feeding behavior and, more specifically, its potential interactions with the NPY and POMC systems in rat. We analyzed by Q-PCR the gene expression of the EM66 precursor, SG-II, in hypothalamic extracts following 2, 3, or 4 days of food deprivation and compared it with the expression levels of the two major neuropeptidergic systems, that is, POMC and NPY, modulating feeding behavior...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902624/rna-seq-mou20170024se-brain-regions-expression-data-analysis-focus-on-apoe-functional-network
#12
Vladimir N Babenko, Dmitry A Smagin, Natalia N Kudryavtseva
ApoE expression status was proved to be a highly specific marker of energy metabolism rate in the brain. Along with its neighbor, Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 40 kDa (TOMM40) which is involved in mitochondrial metabolism, the corresponding genomic region constitutes the neuroenergetic hotspot. Using RNA-Seq data from a murine model of chronic stress a significant positive expression coordination of seven neighboring genes in ApoE locus in five brain regions was observed. ApoE maintains one of the highest absolute expression values genome-wide, implying that ApoE can be the driver of the neighboring gene expression alteration observed under stressful loads...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894993/effect-of-growth-hormone-overexpression-on-gastric-evacuation-rate-in-coho-salmon
#13
Jin-Hyoung Kim, Satid Chatchaiphan, Michelle T Crown, Samantha L White, Robert H Devlin
Growth hormone (GH) transgenic (T) coho salmon consistently show remarkably enhanced growth associated with increased appetite and food consumption compared to non-transgenic wild-type (NT) coho salmon. To improve understanding of the mechanism by which GH overexpression mediates food intake and digestion in T fish, feed intake and gastric evacuation rate (over 7 days) were measured in size-matched T and NT coho salmon. T fish displayed greatly enhanced feed intake levels (~ 2.5-fold), and more than 3-fold increase in gastric evacuation rates relative to NT coho salmon...
September 11, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892788/triptolide-suppresses-growth-and-hormone-secretion-in-murine-pituitary-corticotroph-tumor-cells-via-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#14
Ran Li, Zhuo Zhang, Junwen Wang, Yiming Huang, Wei Sun, Ruifan Xie, Feng Hu, Ting Lei
Triptolide is a principal diterpene triepoxide from the Chinese medical plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., whose extracts have been utilized in dealing with diverse diseases in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Recently, the antitumor effect of triptolide has been found in several pre-clinical neoplasm models, but its effect on pituitary corticotroph adenomas has not been investigated so far. In this study, we are aiming to figure out the antitumor effect of triptolide and address the underlying molecular mechanism in AtT20 murine corticotroph cell line...
September 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889722/effects-of-central-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-in-energy-balance
#15
L Recinella, S Leone, C Ferrante, A Chiavaroli, C Di Nisio, S Martinotti, M Vacca, L Brunetti, G Orlando
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a major metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of FGF21 was found to modulate feeding and energy expenditure in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting a central effect by the peptide. In this context, in the present work, we studied the effects of a single central FGF21 administration (0.5-5 µg) on feeding and energy expenditure by evaluating locomotor activity, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in BAT and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in Sprague-Dawley fed rats...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883210/developmental-changes-in-hypothalamic-sf-1-pomc-and-er%C3%AE-mrna-expression-and-their-sensitivity-to-fasting-in-male-and-female-rats
#16
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Yiliyasi Mayila, Kiyohito Yano, Minoru Irahara
Estrogen plays pivotal roles in body weight regulation through its effects on central estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression. ERα is found on neurons that express the hypothalamic anorexigenic factors steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mediate these effects of estrogen. As the gonadal hormonal milieu is drastically altered during the developmental period, the expression levels of SF-1 and POMC might also change during this period. In this study, we showed that hypothalamic SF-1 and ERα mRNA expression did not change during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period (from postnatal day 10 to 30), and there were no significant differences in the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of these molecules between males and females at any examined age...
September 6, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879214/chicken-domestication-changes-expression-of-stress-related-genes-in-brain-pituitary-and-adrenals
#17
Pia Løtvedt, Amir Fallahshahroudi, Lejla Bektic, Jordi Altimiras, Per Jensen
Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878021/ck1%C3%AE-ablation-in-keratinocytes-induces-p53-dependent-sunburn-protective-skin-hyperpigmentation
#18
Chung-Hsing Chang, Che-Jung Kuo, Takamichi Ito, Yu-Ya Su, Si-Tse Jiang, Min-Hsi Chiu, Yi-Hsiung Lin, Andrea Nist, Marco Mernberger, Thorsten Stiewe, Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Yi-An Hsueh, Sheau-Yann Shieh, Irit Snir-Alkalay, Yinon Ben-Neriah
Casein kinase 1α (CK1α), a component of the β-catenin destruction complex, is a critical regulator of Wnt signaling; its ablation induces both Wnt and p53 activation. To characterize the role of CK1α (encoded by Csnk1a1) in skin physiology, we crossed mice harboring floxed Csnk1a1 with mice expressing K14-Cre-ER(T2) to generate mice in which tamoxifen induces the deletion of Csnk1a1 exclusively in keratinocytes [single-knockout (SKO) mice]. As expected, CK1α loss was accompanied by β-catenin and p53 stabilization, with the preferential induction of p53 target genes, but phenotypically most striking was hyperpigmentation of the skin, importantly without tumorigenesis, for at least 9 mo after Csnk1a1 ablation...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865461/multihormonal-pituitary-adenoma-concomitant-with-pit-1-and-tpit-lineage-cells-causing-acromegaly-associated-with-subclinical-cushing-s-disease-a-case-report
#19
Tomoko Takiguchi, Hisashi Koide, Hidekazu Nagano, Akitoshi Nakayama, Masanori Fujimoto, Ai Tamura, Eri Komai, Akina Shiga, Takashi Kono, Seiichiro Higuchi, Ikki Sakuma, Naoko Hashimoto, Sawako Suzuki, Yui Miyabayashi, Norio Ishiwatari, Kentaro Horiguchi, Yukio Nakatani, Koutaro Yokote, Tomoaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: A functional pituitary adenoma can produce multiple anterior-pituitary hormones, such as growth hormone (GH) -producing adenomas (GHoma) with prolactin or thyrotropin stimulating hormone production in the same lineage. However, it is very rare that acromegaly shows subclinical Cushing's disease (SCD) beyond the lineage. Here we describe the involvement of intratumoral coexistence with 2 types of hormone-producing cells associated with different lineage in acromegaly concomitant with SCD...
September 2, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865224/direct-effect-of-hypothalamic-neuropeptides-on-the-release-of-catecholamines-by-adrenal-medulla-in-sheep-study-ex-vivo
#20
D Wrońska, B F Kania, M Błachuta
Stress causes the activation of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and sympatho-adrenal system, thus leading to the release from the adrenal medulla of catecholamines: adrenaline and, to a lesser degree, noradrenaline. It has been established that in addition to catecholamines, the adrenomedullary cells produce a variety of neuropeptides, including corticoliberine (CRH), vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OXY) and proopiomelanocortine (POMC) - a precursor of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)...
March 1, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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