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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321171/sgk1-foxo3-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-mediates-glucocorticoid-increased-adiposity
#1
Yalan Deng, Yuzhong Xiao, Feixiang Yuan, Yaping Liu, Xiaoxue Jiang, Jiali Deng, Geza Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray-Fejes-Toth, Shanghai Chen, Yan Chen, Hao Ying, Qiwei Zhai, Yousheng Shu, Feifan Guo
Although central nervous system has been implicated in glucocorticoid-induced fat mass gain, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of our current study was to investigate the possible involvement of hypothalamic serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) in glucocorticoid-increased adiposity. It is well-known that SGK1 expression is induced by acute glucocorticoid treatment, interestingly, we found its expression was decreased in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, including POMC neurons, following chronic dexamethasone (Dex) treatment...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317808/clinical-utility-of-the-revised-cardiac-risk-index-in-older-chinese-patients-with-known-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Lu Che, Li Xu, Yuguang Huang, Chunhua Yu
Objectives: The revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) is the most widely used risk prediction tool for postoperative cardiac adverse events. We aim to explore the predictive ability of the RCRI in older Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing noncardiac surgery, which has not been previously evaluated. Methods: We performed a multicenter, prospective study. We enrolled a total of 1,202 patients, aged >60 years, with a history of CAD who underwent noncardiac surgery...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316344/widespread-dynamic-and-pleiotropic-expression-of-the-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1r-system-is-conserved-across-chick-mouse-and-human-embryonic-development
#3
Anna C Thomas, Pauline Heux, Chloe Santos, Wisenave Arulvasan, Nita Solanky, Magalie E Carey, Dianne Gerrelli, Veronica A Kinsler, Heather C Etchevers
BACKGROUND: MC1R, a G-protein coupled receptor with high affinity for alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), modulates pigment production in melanocytes from many species and is associated with human melanoma risk. MC1R mutations affecting human skin and hair color also have pleiotropic effects on the immune response and analgesia. Variants affecting human pigmentation in utero alter the congenital phenotype of both oculocutaneous albinism and congenital melanocytic naevi, and have a possible effect on birthweight...
January 8, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289646/differential-contribution-of-pomc-and-agrp-neurons-to-the-regulation-of-regional-autonomic-nerve-activity-by-leptin
#4
Balyssa B Bell, Shannon M Harlan, Donald A Morgan, Deng-Fu Guo, Kamal Rahmouni
OBJECTIVES: The autonomic nervous system is critically involved in mediating the control by leptin of many physiological processes. Here, we examined the role of the leptin receptor (LepR) in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in mediating the effects of leptin on regional sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. METHODS: We analyzed how deletion of the LepR in POMC neurons (POMCCre/LepRfl/fl mice) or AgRP neurons (AgRPCre/LepRfl/fl mice) affects the ability of leptin to increase sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity...
December 18, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285858/hypothalamic-pomc-expression-is-required-for-peripheral-insulin-action-on-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-through-regulating-stat3-in-sepsis-rats
#5
Bin Feng, Nannan Zhang, Kaipeng Duan, Bimin Shi
Liver injury and dysregulated glucose homoeostasis are common manifestations during sepsis. Although plenty of studies reported insulin could protect against multiple organ injuries caused by critical infections among patients, little was known about the precise mechanism. We investigated whether liver inflammatory pathway and central neuropeptides were involved in the process. In sepsis rats, hepatic IKK/NF-κB pathway and STAT3 were strongly activated, along with reduced body weight, blood glucose and suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis (GNG)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275211/up-regulation-of-pomc-and-cart-mrnas-by-intermittent-hypoxia-via-gata-transcription-factors-in-human-neuronal-cells
#6
Ryogo Shobatake, Ken Takasawa, Hiroyo Ota, Asako Itaya-Hironaka, Akiyo Yamauchi, Sumiyo Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Tomoko Uchiyama, Mai Makino, Kazuma Sugie, Shin Takasawa, Satoshi Ueno
Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep. SAS and obesity are strongly related to each other. Here, we investigated the effect of IH on the expression of major appetite regulatory genes in human neuronal cells. We exposed NB-1, SH-SY5Y, and SK-N-SH human neuronal cells to IH (64 cycles of 5 min hypoxia and 10 min normoxia), normoxia, or sustained hypoxia for 24 h and measured the mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), galanin, galanin-like peptide, ghrelin, pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide, agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and melanocortin 4 receptor by real-time RT-PCR...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259155/central-igf1-improves-glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice
#7
Hao Hong, Zhen-Zhong Cui, Lu Zhu, Shu-Ping Fu, Mario Rossi, Ying-Hong Cui, Bing-Mei Zhu
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a key factor for tissue growth and fuel metabolism. The potential function of central IGF1 remains unclear. We previously observed that IGF1 expression is increased in the hypothalamus of obese mice lacking STAT5 in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we explored the potential metabolic function of central IGF1 by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of IGF1, over-expression of central IGF1 by administering an adeno-associated virus (AAV), and ICV injection of an anti-IGF1 antibody...
December 19, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250448/glucose-intake-alters-expression-of-neuropeptides-derived-from-proopiomelanocortin-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-fructose-preference-rats
#8
Guangfa Jiao, Guozhong Zhang, Haiying Wang, Weilin Zhao, Yanwei Cui, Yongjing Liu, Feng Gao, Fang Yuan, Yi Zhang
To study the neuroendocrine mechanism of sugar preference, we investigated the role of glucose feeding in the regulation of expression levels of neuropeptides derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in fructose preference rats. Fructose preference rats were induced by using the lithium chloride backward conditioning procedure. The fructose preference was confirmed by the two-bottle test. The drinking behavior of rats was assessed by the fructose concentration gradient test...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226825/desacetyl-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-and-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-are-required-to-regulate-energy-balance
#9
Kathleen G Mountjoy, Alexandre Caron, Kristina Hubbard, Avik Shome, Angus C Grey, Bo Sun, Sarah Bould, Martin Middleditch, Beau Pontré, Ailsa McGregor, Paul W R Harris, Renata Kowalczyk, Margaret A Brimble, Rikus Botha, Karen M L Tan, Sarah J Piper, Christina Buchanan, Syann Lee, Anthony P Coll, Joel K Elmquist
OBJECTIVE: Regulation of energy balance depends on pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is the predicted natural POMC-derived peptide that regulates energy balance. Desacetyl-α-MSH, the precursor for α-MSH, is present in brain and blood. Desacetyl-α-MSH is considered to be unimportant for regulating energy balance despite being more potent (compared with α-MSH) at activating the appetite-regulating MC4R in vitro...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215157/knockdown-of-the-transcript-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-in-the-brain-modulated-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-mediated-appetite-control-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#10
Ching-Han Yu, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Pei-Ni Chen, Jeng-Rung Chen, Dong-Yih Kuo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amphetamine (AMPH) is a releaser of dopamine stored in synaptic terminals, which can suppress appetite by changing the expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. This study explored whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) were involved in appetite control mediated by cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), NPY and POMC in AMPH-treated rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rats were given AMPH for four days and changes in feeding behavior and expression levels of pERK, pCREB, NPY and melanocortin receptor 3 (MC3R) were examined and compared...
December 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206201/selection-on-the-major-color-gene-melanocortin-1-receptor-shaped-the-evolution-of-the-melanocortin-system-genes
#11
Linda Dib, Luis M San-Jose, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Nicolas Salamin, Alexandre Roulin
Modular genetic systems and networks have complex evolutionary histories shaped by selection acting on single genes as well as on their integrated function within the network. However, uncovering molecular coevolution requires the detection of coevolving sites in sequences. Detailed knowledge of the functions of each gene in the system is also necessary to identify the selective agents driving coevolution. Using recently developed computational tools, we investigated the effect of positive selection on the coevolution of ten major genes in the melanocortin system, responsible for multiple physiological functions and human diseases...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203230/maternal-consumption-of-high-fat-diet-in-mice-alters-hypothalamic-notch-pathway-npy-cell-population-and-food-intake-in-offspring
#12
Simone Ferreira Lemes, Anelise Cristina Parras de Souza, Tanyara Baliani Payolla, Milena Diorio Versutti, Albina de Fátima da Silva Ramalho, Cristiano Mendes-da-Silva, Camilla Mendes Souza, Marciane Milanski, Adriana Souza Torsoni, Marcio Alberto Torsoni
Studies show that maternal consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) can impair the formation of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in mouse offspring. This damage can be mediated by Notch1/Hes5 signalling activation, leading to repression of proneural factors such as Mash1 and Ngn2/3, which are essential for neuronal differentiation and neurogenesis. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of maternal HFD consumption during gestation and lactation on the Notch1/Mash1 pathway in the hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus (ARC) of mouse offspring (neonates and 28 days old)...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196204/underground-cryptic-speciation-within-the-maghreb-multilocus-phylogeography-sheds-light-on-the-diversification-of-the-checkerboard-worm-lizard-trogonophis-wiegmanni
#13
Daniele Salvi, Ana Perera, Filipa L Sampaio, Salvador Carranza, D James Harris
Biogeographic and evolutionary patterns in the North African portion of the Western Palaearctic are poorly known. A high fraction of undescribed diversity is expected in this region, especially in groups such as reptiles. Here we used mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb) and nuclear (pomc, rag2, cmos) markers and morphological data to investigate phyletic diversification and phylogeographical structure in the amphisbaenian Trogonophis wiegmanni endemic to the Maghreb. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses based on gene trees and species trees support three deeply divergent lineages of Pliocene origin, two in Morocco and one in central Algeria and Tunisia...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184506/recent-advances-in-the-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-hypothalamic-neuronal-glucose-detection
#14
Xavier Fioramonti, Chloé Chrétien, Corinne Leloup, Luc Pénicaud
The hypothalamus have been recognized for decades as one of the major brain centers for the control of energy homeostasis. This area contains specialized neurons able to detect changes in nutrients level. Among them, glucose-sensing neurons use glucose as a signaling molecule in addition to its fueling role. In this review we will describe the different sub-populations of glucose-sensing neurons present in the hypothalamus and highlight their nature in terms of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide expression. This review will particularly discuss whether pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons from the arcuate nucleus are directly glucose-sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180108/palmitate-induces-neuroinflammation-er-stress-and-pomc-mrna-expression-in-hypothalamic-mhypoa-pomc-gfp-neurons-through-novel-mechanisms-that-are-prevented-by-oleate
#15
Erika K Tse, Denise D Belsham
Dietary fats can modulate brain function. How free fatty acids (FFAs) alter hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons remain undefined. The saturated FFA, palmitate, increased neuroinflammatory and ER stress markers, as well as Pomc mRNA levels, but did not affect insulin signaling, in mHypoA-POMC/GFP-2 neurons. This effect was mediated through the MAP kinases JNK and ERK. Further, the increase in Pomc was dependent on palmitoyl-coA synthesis, but not de novo ceramide synthesis, as inhibition of SPT enhanced palmitate-induced Pomc expression, while methylpalmitate had no effect...
November 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168299/17%C3%AE-estradiol-acts-through-hypothalamic-pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing-neurons-to-reduce-feeding-behavior
#16
Frederik J Steyn, Shyuan T Ngo, Vicky Ping Chen, Lora C Bailey-Downs, Teresa Y Xie, Martin Ghadami, Stephen Brimijoin, Willard M Freeman, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Michael B Stout
Weight loss is an effective intervention for diminishing disease burden in obese older adults. Pharmacological interventions that reduce food intake and thereby promote weight loss may offer effective strategies to reduce age-related disease. We previously reported that 17α-estradiol (17α-E2) administration elicits beneficial effects on metabolism and inflammation in old male mice. These observations were associated with reduced calorie intake. Here, we demonstrate that 17α-E2 acts through pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) to reduce food intake and body mass in mouse models of obesity...
November 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165691/estradiol-protects-proopiomelanocortin-neurons-against-insulin-resistance
#17
Jian Qiu, Martha A Bosch, Cecilia Meza, Uyen-Vy Navarro, Casey C Nestor, Edward J Wagner, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
Insulin resistance is at the core of the metabolic syndrome, and men exhibit a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in early adult life, but this sex advantage diminishes sharply when women reach the postmenopausal state. Since 17β-estradiol (E2) augments the excitability of the anorexigenic POMC neurons, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of E2 against insulin resistance in POMC neurons from diet-induced obese (DIO) female and male mice. The efficacy of insulin to activate canonical transient receptor potential 5 (TRPC5) channels and depolarize POMC neurons was significantly reduced in DIO male but not in DIO female mice...
November 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164831/udenafil-a-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor-reduces-body-weight-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#18
Seong Yul Ryu, Yoon Jung Choi, So Young Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Yong Dae Kim, Yong Woon Kim
PURPOSE: High-fat (HF) feeding induces hypothalamic leptin resistance via the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). TLR4 deficiency confers resistance to diet-induced obesity. Udenafil, an anti-impotence drug, inhibits TLR4 in airway epithelial cells in vitro. In this study, we evaluated whether udenafil suppressed the hypothalamic expression of TLR4 and reduced body weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hypothalamic expression of TLR4, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction after treating mice for 2 days with udenafil (0, 12, 120, or 600 μg/d)...
November 16, 2017: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156018/risk-factors-of-myasthenic-crisis-after-thymectomy-for-thymoma-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis
#19
Liang Xue, Lin Wang, Jihong Dong, Yunfeng Yuan, Hong Fan, Yi Zhang, Qun Wang, Jianyong Ding
OBJECTIVES: Total thymectomy should be performed on thymoma patients with myasthenia gravis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors of postoperative myasthenic crisis (POMC) occurrence in these patients. METHODS: The clinical records of 127 thymoma patients with myasthenia gravis (68 men, 59 women; median age, 50 years) who underwent total thymectomy at our institution from 2005 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The following factors were analysed in relation to POMC: gender, age, duration of symptoms, bulbar symptoms, smoking history, history of myasthenic crisis, comorbidities, perioperative pyridostigmine and prednisolone therapy, spirometric and blood gas parameters, Osserman stage, operation approach, major complications, World Health Organization (WHO) histologic classification, Masaoka stage and use of immunoglobulins or plasmapheresis...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#20
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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