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Biochar application to soil

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531947/shifts-in-the-relative-abundance-of-bacteria-after-wine-lees-derived-biochar-intervention-in-multi-metal-contaminated-paddy-soil
#1
Min Xu, Hongxia Xia, Jun Wu, Gang Yang, Xiaohong Zhang, Hong Peng, Xiaoyu Yu, Li Li, Hong Xiao, Hui Qi
The impact of biochar application on soil ecological functions depends on the diversity of soil conditions and of the feedstocks from which biochar is obtained. Moreover, little information is available on the effect of biochar on dynamic changes in microorganisms with the development of rice plants in multi-metal-contaminated paddy soil amended with wine-lees-derived biochar. In this paper, biochar obtained from the pyrolysis of wine lees at 600°C was used to investigate the potential role of biochar in maintaining soil ecological functions, with consideration of the alteration of the microbial population over periods of rice growth...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501770/effect-of-limestone-lignite-and-biochar-applied-alone-and-combined-on-cadmium-uptake-in-wheat-and-rice-under-rotation-in-an-effluent-irrigated-field
#2
Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Hinnan Khalid, Fatima Akmal, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Usman Khalid, Muhammad Azhar
Cadmium (Cd) uptake and accumulation in crop plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the main concerns for food security worldwide. A field experiment was done to investigate the effects of limestone, lignite, and biochar on growth, physiology and Cd uptake in wheat and rice under rotation irrigated with raw effluents. Initially, each treatment was applied alone at 0.1% and combined at 0.05% each and wheat was grown in the field and then, after wheat harvesting, rice was grown in the same field without additional application of amendments...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499232/co-application-of-sewage-sludge-with-biochar-increases-disappearance-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-fertilized-soil-in-long-term-field-experiment
#3
Magdalena Stefaniuk, Patryk Oleszczuk, Krzysztof Różyło
The application of sewage sludge with biochar as fertilizer may be a new method improves soil properties. Biochar increases of the crops productivity and reduction of bioavailability of contaminants. In the present study the persistence of sum of 16 (Σ16) PAHs (US EPA 16 PAHs) in a sewage sludge-amended soil (11t/h) and in a sewage sludge-amended soil with the addition of biochar (at a rate of 2.5, 5 or 10% of sewage sludge (dry weight basis)) was determined. This study was carried out as a plot experiment over a period of 18months...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493951/properties-of-biochar-derived-from-wood-and-high-nutrient-biomasses-with-the-aim-of-agronomic-and-environmental-benefits
#4
Rimena R Domingues, Paulo F Trugilho, Carlos A Silva, Isabel Cristina N A de Melo, Leônidas C A Melo, Zuy M Magriotis, Miguel A Sánchez-Monedero
Biochar production and use are part of the modern agenda to recycle wastes, and to retain nutrients, pollutants, and heavy metals in the soil and to offset some greenhouse gas emissions. Biochars from wood (eucalyptus sawdust, pine bark), sugarcane bagasse, and substances rich in nutrients (coffee husk, chicken manure) produced at 350, 450 and 750°C were characterized to identify agronomic and environmental benefits, which may enhance soil quality. Biochars derived from wood and sugarcane have greater potential for improving C storage in tropical soils due to a higher aromatic character, high C concentration, low H/C ratio, and FTIR spectra features as compared to nutrient-rich biochars...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466894/effect-of-ageing-on-the-properties-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-composition-of-biochar
#5
Gabriel Sigmund, Thomas D Bucheli, Isabel Hilber, Vesna Micić, Melanie Kah, Thilo Hofmann
The influence of ageing on biochar properties has been investigated by comparing three fresh biochars with biochars artificially aged by either H2O2 thermal oxidation or horseradish peroxidase enzymatic oxidation. In addition, a field-aged counterpart for one of the biochars was recovered from an agricultural field site, four years after application. Biochar properties, including surface areas and pore volumes (derived by N2 and CO2 physisorption) and elemental compositions, showed only minor changes following both artificial and field ageing, indicating high biochar stability...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460235/first-charosphere-view-towards-the-transport-and-transformation-of-cd-with-addition-of-manure-derived-biochar
#6
Lu Wang, Jun Meng, Zhangtao Li, Xingmei Liu, Fang Xia, Jianming Xu
The specific area between biochar and soil surfaces is termed the "charosphere", which is analogous to the rhizosphere between plant roots and soil. Physicochemical properties of charosphere soil differ from natural soil. A double-layer mesh bag experiment was conducted to separate the charosphere soil (>2 mm) from biochar (derived from manure pyrolyzed at 300, 500, 700 °C) and the bulk soil. A 95-day experiment determined the availability, total concentration and speciation of Cd in charosphere soil and the total and available Cd in biochar...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454068/biochar-based-water-treatment-systems-as-a-potential-low-cost-and-sustainable-technology-for-clean-water-provision
#7
REVIEW
Willis Gwenzi, Nhamo Chaukura, Chicgoua Noubactep, Fungai N D Mukome
Approximately 600 million people lack access to safe drinking water, hence achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030) calls for rapid translation of recent research into practical and frugal solutions within the remaining 13 years. Biochars, with excellent capacity to remove several contaminants from aqueous solutions, constitute an untapped technology for drinking water treatment. Biochar water treatment has several potential merits compared to existing low-cost methods (i...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448621/biochar-from-kon-tiki-flame-curtain-and-other-kilns-effects-of-nutrient-enrichment-and-kiln-type-on-crop-yield-and-soil-chemistry
#8
Naba Raj Pandit, Jan Mulder, Sarah Elisabeth Hale, Hans Peter Schmidt, Gerard Cornelissen
Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone), brick-made traditional kiln, traditional earth-mound kiln and top lift up draft (TLUD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447234/remediation-of-soils-contaminated-with-heavy-metals-with-an-emphasis-on-immobilization-technology
#9
REVIEW
Zahra Derakhshan Nejad, Myung Chae Jung, Ki-Hyun Kim
The major frequent contaminants in soil are heavy metals which may be responsible for detrimental health effects. The remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils is considered as one of the most complicated tasks. Among different technologies, in situ immobilization of metals has received a great deal of attention and turned out to be a promising solution for soil remediation. In this review, remediation methods for removal of heavy metals in soil are explored with an emphasis on the in situ immobilization technique of metal(loid)s...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437741/use-of-nuclear-receptor-luciferase-based-bioassays-to-detect-endocrine-active-chemicals-in-a-biosolids-biochar-amended-soil
#10
Carolyn G Anderson, Geetika Joshi, Daniel A Bair, Charlotte Oriol, Guochun He, Sanjai J Parikh, Michael S Denison, Kate M Scow
Biosolids are a potentially valuable source of carbon and nutrients for agricultural soils; however, potential unintended impacts on human health and the environment must be considered. Virtually all biosolids contain trace amounts endocrine-disrupting chemicals derived from human use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). One potential way to reduce the bioavailability of PPCPs is to co-apply biosolids with biochar to soil, because biochar's chemical (e.g., aromaticity) and physical properties (e...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436040/synergistic-use-of-biochar-compost-and-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-for-enhancing-cucumber-growth-under-water-deficit-conditions
#11
Sajid M Nadeem, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Y Khan, Maqshoof Ahmad, Zahir A Zahir, David E Crowley
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available about effectiveness of biochar with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and compost. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar in combination with compost and PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) for alleviating water deficit stress. The inoculated and un-inoculated cucumber seeds were sown in soil treated with biochar, compost and biochar + compost. Three water levels [field capacity (D0), 75% field capacity (D1) and 50% field capacity (D2)] were maintained...
April 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427272/biological-technologies-for-the-remediation-of-co-contaminated-soil
#12
Shujing Ye, Guangming Zeng, Haipeng Wu, Chang Zhang, Juan Dai, Jie Liang, Jiangfang Yu, Xiaoya Ren, Huan Yi, Min Cheng, Chen Zhang
Compound contamination in soil, caused by unreasonable waste disposal, has attracted increasing attention on a global scale, particularly since multiple heavy metals and/or organic pollutants are entering natural ecosystem through human activities, causing an enormous threat. The remediation of co-contaminated soil is more complicated and difficult than that of single contamination, due to the disparate remediation pathways utilized for different types of pollutants. Several modern remediation technologies have been developed for the treatment of co-contaminated soil...
April 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424945/date-palm-waste-biochars-alter-a-soil-respiration-microbial-biomass-carbon-and-heavy-metal-mobility-in-contaminated-mined-soil
#13
Mohammad I Al-Wabel, Adel Rabie A Usman, Abdullah S Al-Farraj, Yong Sik Ok, Adel Abduljabbar, Abdulelah I Al-Faraj, Abdelazeem S Sallam
A 30-day incubation experiment was conducted using a heavy metal-contaminated mined soil amended with date palm feedstock (FS) and its derivative biochars (BCs) at three pyrolysis temperatures of 300 (BC-300), 500 (BC-500), and 700 °C (BC-700) with different application rates (0.0, 5, 15, and 30 g kg(-1)) to investigate their short-term effects on soil respiration (CO2-C efflux), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil organic carbon (SOC), mobile fraction of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC)...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407550/potential-phosphorus-eutrophication-mitigation-strategy-biochar-carbon-composition-thermal-stability-and-ph-influence-phosphorus-sorption
#14
L W Ngatia, Y P Hsieh, D Nemours, R Fu, R W Taylor
Phosphorus (P) eutrophication is a major pollution problem globally, with unprecedented amount of P emanating from agricultural sources. But little is known about the optimization of soil-biochar P sorption capacity. The study objective was to determine how biochar feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions influences carbon (C) thermal stability, C composition and pH and in turn influence the phosphorus sorption optimization. Biochar was produced from switchgrass, kudzu and Chinese tallow at 200, 300, 400, 500, 550, 650,750 °C...
April 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399630/a-direct-observation-of-the-fine-aromatic-clusters-and-molecular-structures-of-biochars
#15
Xin Xiao, Baoliang Chen
Biochar is a promising carbon material to improve soil quality and relieve global warming by adding it into soil. Though biochar has been used for millennia as a soil ingredient, fundamental studies on the structure of biochar have only recently attracted great interest, and molecular-level structures are being pursued. In this study, by applying solvent exfoliation, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with Cs-correction and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, we report, for the first time, an atomic-level observation of the fine aromatic cluster and molecular structure of the exfoliated biochars...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397121/effect-of-biochar-on-alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grown-on-cd-contaminated-saline-soil
#16
Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Adrees, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Yong Sik Ok, Ghulam Murtaza
Soil degradation by salinity and accumulation of trace elements such as cadmium (Cd) in the soils are expected to become one of the most critical issues hindering sustainable production and feeding the increasing population. Biochar (BC) has been known to protect the plants against soil salinity and heavy metal stress. A soil culture study was performed to evaluate the effect of BC on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, biomass, and reducing Cd and sodium (Na) uptake grown in Cd-contaminated saline soil under ambient conditions...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394116/improvement-of-soil-ecosystem-multifunctionality-by-dissipating-manure-induced-antibiotics-and-resistance-genes
#17
Yuting Liang, Meng Pei, Dandan Wang, Shengnan Cao, Xian Xiao, Bo Sun
The application of animal manure containing antibiotic residues to farmlands as an organic fertilizer causes a long-term potential threat to the ecological environment of farmland. This study analyzed the effects of abating typical antibiotics and resistance genes (ARGs) applied with pig manure on farmland soil as well as on soil ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF) and its influencing factor. The results showed that Lolium multiflorum exhibited significantly stronger abatement of typical antibiotics and ARGs when combined with biochar than when used alone (p < 0...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391921/selected-dark-sides-of-biomass-derived-biochars-as-environmental-amendments
#18
Zien Chen, Lei Luo, Diyi Xiao, Jitao Lv, Bei Wen, Yibing Ma, Shuzhen Zhang
With the rapid increase in the application of biochars as amendments, studies are needed to clarify the possible environmental risks derived from biochars to use safely the biomass resources. This work reported selected dark sides of maize straw- and swine manure-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 300 and 500°C. During the pyrolysis processes, total heavy metals in the biochars were enriched greatly accompanying with considerable emission of the heavy metals into atmosphere and the trends became increasingly obvious with pyrolysis temperature...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391157/contrasting-effects-of-composting-and-pyrolysis-on-bioavailability-and-speciation-of-cu-and-zn-in-pig-manure
#19
Jun Meng, Lu Wang, Libin Zhong, Xingmei Liu, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu, Hongjin Chen
The intensive and unregulated application of feed additives to commercial pig foods has resulted in high levels of Cu and Zn in pig manure. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of composting and pyrolysis processes on the bioavailability and chemical speciation of Cu and Zn in pig manure products by single and sequential extractions, and to compare metal bioavailability in composts and biochar-amended soils in incubation experiments. Composting and pyrolysis processes can convert exchangeable and carbonate-bound Cu and Zn to organic matter and residual fractions, and significantly reduce the potential availability of metals in composts and biochars...
April 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387235/streptomyces-pactum-assisted-phytoremediation-in-zn-pb-smelter-contaminated-soil-of-feng-county-and-its-impact-on-enzymatic-activities
#20
Amjad Ali, Di Guo, Amanullah Mahar, Fang Ma, Ronghua Li, Feng Shen, Ping Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
Anthropogenic activities, such as industrial expansion, smelting, mining and agricultural practices, have intensified the discharge of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) into the environment, threatening human health and other organisms. To assist phytoremediation by sorghum in soil contaminated by smelters/mines in Feng County (FC), a pot experiment was performed to examine the phytoremediation potential of Streptomyces pactum (Act12) + biochar. The results showed that root uptake of Zn and Cd was reduced by 45 and 22%, respectively, while the uptake of Pb and Cu increased by 17 and 47%, respectively...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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