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Biochar application to soil

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437741/use-of-nuclear-receptor-luciferase-based-bioassays-to-detect-endocrine-active-chemicals-in-a-biosolids-biochar-amended-soil
#1
Carolyn G Anderson, Geetika Joshi, Daniel A Bair, Charlotte Oriol, Guochun He, Sanjai J Parikh, Michael S Denison, Kate M Scow
Biosolids are a potentially valuable source of carbon and nutrients for agricultural soils; however, potential unintended impacts on human health and the environment must be considered. Virtually all biosolids contain trace amounts endocrine-disrupting chemicals derived from human use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). One potential way to reduce the bioavailability of PPCPs is to co-apply biosolids with biochar to soil, because biochar's chemical (e.g., aromaticity) and physical properties (e...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436040/synergistic-use-of-biochar-compost-and-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-for-enhancing-cucumber-growth-under-water-deficit-conditions
#2
Sajid M Nadeem, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Y Khan, Maqshoof Ahmad, Zahir A Zahir, David E Crowley
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available about effectiveness of biochar with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and compost. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar in combination with compost and PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) for alleviating water deficit stress. The inoculated and un-inoculated cucumber seeds were sown in soil treated with biochar, compost and biochar + compost. Three water levels [field capacity (D0), 75% field capacity (D1) and 50% field capacity (D2)] were maintained...
April 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427272/biological-technologies-for-the-remediation-of-co-contaminated-soil
#3
Shujing Ye, Guangming Zeng, Haipeng Wu, Chang Zhang, Juan Dai, Jie Liang, Jiangfang Yu, Xiaoya Ren, Huan Yi, Min Cheng, Chen Zhang
Compound contamination in soil, caused by unreasonable waste disposal, has attracted increasing attention on a global scale, particularly since multiple heavy metals and/or organic pollutants are entering natural ecosystem through human activities, causing an enormous threat. The remediation of co-contaminated soil is more complicated and difficult than that of single contamination, due to the disparate remediation pathways utilized for different types of pollutants. Several modern remediation technologies have been developed for the treatment of co-contaminated soil...
April 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424945/date-palm-waste-biochars-alter-a-soil-respiration-microbial-biomass-carbon-and-heavy-metal-mobility-in-contaminated-mined-soil
#4
Mohammad I Al-Wabel, Adel Rabie A Usman, Abdullah S Al-Farraj, Yong Sik Ok, Adel Abduljabbar, Abdulelah I Al-Faraj, Abdelazeem S Sallam
A 30-day incubation experiment was conducted using a heavy metal-contaminated mined soil amended with date palm feedstock (FS) and its derivative biochars (BCs) at three pyrolysis temperatures of 300 (BC-300), 500 (BC-500), and 700 °C (BC-700) with different application rates (0.0, 5, 15, and 30 g kg(-1)) to investigate their short-term effects on soil respiration (CO2-C efflux), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil organic carbon (SOC), mobile fraction of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC)...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407550/potential-phosphorus-eutrophication-mitigation-strategy-biochar-carbon-composition-thermal-stability-and-ph-influence-phosphorus-sorption
#5
L W Ngatia, Y P Hsieh, D Nemours, R Fu, R W Taylor
Phosphorus (P) eutrophication is a major pollution problem globally, with unprecedented amount of P emanating from agricultural sources. But little is known about the optimization of soil-biochar P sorption capacity. The study objective was to determine how biochar feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions influences carbon (C) thermal stability, C composition and pH and in turn influence the phosphorus sorption optimization. Biochar was produced from switchgrass, kudzu and Chinese tallow at 200, 300, 400, 500, 550, 650,750 °C...
April 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399630/a-direct-observation-of-the-fine-aromatic-clusters-and-molecular-structures-of-biochars
#6
Xin Xiao, Baoliang Chen
Biochar is a promising carbon material to improve soil quality and relieve global warming by adding it into soil. Though biochar has been used for millennia as a soil ingredient, fundamental studies on the structure of biochar have only recently attracted great interest, and molecular-level structures are being pursued. In this study, by applying solvent exfoliation, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with Cs-correction and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, we report, for the first time, an atomic-level observation of the fine aromatic cluster and molecular structure of the exfoliated biochars...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397121/effect-of-biochar-on-alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grown-on-cd-contaminated-saline-soil
#7
Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Adrees, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Yong Sik Ok, Ghulam Murtaza
Soil degradation by salinity and accumulation of trace elements such as cadmium (Cd) in the soils are expected to become one of the most critical issues hindering sustainable production and feeding the increasing population. Biochar (BC) has been known to protect the plants against soil salinity and heavy metal stress. A soil culture study was performed to evaluate the effect of BC on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, biomass, and reducing Cd and sodium (Na) uptake grown in Cd-contaminated saline soil under ambient conditions...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394116/improvement-of-soil-ecosystem-multifunctionality-by-dissipating-manure-induced-antibiotics-and-resistance-genes
#8
Yuting Liang, Meng Pei, Dandan Wang, Shengnan Cao, Xian Xiao, Bo Sun
The application of animal manure containing antibiotic residues to farmlands as an organic fertilizer causes a long-term potential threat to the ecological environment of farmland. This study analyzed the effects of abating typical antibiotics and resistance genes (ARGs) applied with pig manure on farmland soil as well as on soil ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF) and its influencing factor. The results showed that Lolium multiflorum exhibited significantly stronger abatement of typical antibiotics and ARGs when combined with biochar than when used alone (p < 0...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391921/selected-dark-sides-of-biomass-derived-biochars-as-environmental-amendments
#9
Zien Chen, Lei Luo, Diyi Xiao, Jitao Lv, Bei Wen, Yibing Ma, Shuzhen Zhang
With the rapid increase in the application of biochars as amendments, studies are needed to clarify the possible environmental risks derived from biochars to use safely the biomass resources. This work reported selected dark sides of maize straw- and swine manure-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 300 and 500°C. During the pyrolysis processes, total heavy metals in the biochars were enriched greatly accompanying with considerable emission of the heavy metals into atmosphere and the trends became increasingly obvious with pyrolysis temperature...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391157/contrasting-effects-of-composting-and-pyrolysis-on-bioavailability-and-speciation-of-cu-and-zn-in-pig-manure
#10
Jun Meng, Lu Wang, Libin Zhong, Xingmei Liu, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu, Hongjin Chen
The intensive and unregulated application of feed additives to commercial pig foods has resulted in high levels of Cu and Zn in pig manure. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of composting and pyrolysis processes on the bioavailability and chemical speciation of Cu and Zn in pig manure products by single and sequential extractions, and to compare metal bioavailability in composts and biochar-amended soils in incubation experiments. Composting and pyrolysis processes can convert exchangeable and carbonate-bound Cu and Zn to organic matter and residual fractions, and significantly reduce the potential availability of metals in composts and biochars...
April 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387235/streptomyces-pactum-assisted-phytoremediation-in-zn-pb-smelter-contaminated-soil-of-feng-county-and-its-impact-on-enzymatic-activities
#11
Amjad Ali, Di Guo, Amanullah Mahar, Fang Ma, Ronghua Li, Feng Shen, Ping Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
Anthropogenic activities, such as industrial expansion, smelting, mining and agricultural practices, have intensified the discharge of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) into the environment, threatening human health and other organisms. To assist phytoremediation by sorghum in soil contaminated by smelters/mines in Feng County (FC), a pot experiment was performed to examine the phytoremediation potential of Streptomyces pactum (Act12) + biochar. The results showed that root uptake of Zn and Cd was reduced by 45 and 22%, respectively, while the uptake of Pb and Cu increased by 17 and 47%, respectively...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380572/biochars-reduce-mine-land-soil-bioavailable-metals
#12
J A Ippolito, C M Berry, D G Strawn, J M Novak, J Levine, A Harley
Biochar has been proposed as an amendment to remediate mine land soils; however, it could be advantageous and novel if feedstocks local to mine land sites were used for biochar production. Two different feedstocks (pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine [] and tamarisk [ spp.]), within close proximity to mine land-affected soils, were used to create biochars to determine if they have the potential to reduce metal bioavailability. Four different mine land soils, contaminated with various amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, received increasing amounts of biochar (0, 5, 10, and 15% by wt)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380558/toward-a-better-assessment-of-biochar-nitrous-oxide-mitigation-potential-at-the-field-scale
#13
Elizabeth Verhoeven, Engil Pereira, Charlotte Decock, Emma Suddick, Teri Angst, Johan Six
Through meta-analysis, we synthesize results from field studies on the effect of biochar application on NO emissions and crop yield. We aimed to better constrain the effect of biochar on NO emissions under field conditions, identify significant predictor variables, assess potential synergies and tradeoffs between NO mitigation and yield, and discuss knowledge gaps. The response ratios for yield and NO emissions were weighted by one of two functions: (i) the inverse of the pooled variance or (ii) the inverse of number of observations per field site...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376424/life-cycle-analysis-of-pistachio-production-in-greece
#14
Georgios Bartzas, Kostas Komnitsas
In the present paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study regarding pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivation in Aegina island, Greece, was performed to evaluate the energy use footprint and the associated environmental impacts. In this context, a detailed life cycle inventory was created based on site-survey data and used for a holistic cradle-to-farm gate LCA analysis using the GaBi 6.5 software. The main impact categories assessed were acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) and cumulative energy demand (CED)...
April 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372755/immobilization-of-cu-2-and-cd-2-by-earthworm-manure-derived-biochar-in-acidic-circumstance
#15
Zhanghong Wang, Fei Shen, Dekui Shen, Yahui Jiang, Rui Xiao
Earthworm manure, the by-product obtained from the disposing of biowastes by earthworm breeding, is largely produced and employed as a feedstock for biochar preparation through pyrolysis. For repairing acidic soil or acidic electroplating effluent, biochar physicochemical properties would suffer from some changes like an acidic washing process, which hence affected its application functions. Pristine biochar (UBC) from pyrolysis of earthworm manure at 700°C and biochar treated by HCl (WBC) were comparatively investigated regarding their physicochemical properties, adsorption capability and adsorption mechanism of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution to explore the immobilization characteristics of biochar in acidic environment...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353349/biochar-soil-additions-affect-herbicide-fate-importance-of-application-timing-and-feedstock-species
#16
Beatriz Gámiz, Pilar Velarde, Kurt A Spokas, M Carmen Hermosín, Lucía Cox
Biochar (BC), solid biomass subjected to pyrolysis, can alter the fate of pesticides in soil. We investigated the effect of soil amendment with several biochars on the efficacy of two herbicides, clomazone (CMZ) and bispyribac sodium (BYP). To this aim, we evaluated CMZ and BYP sorption, persistence, and leaching in biochar-amended soil. Sorption of CMZ and BYP was greater in soil amended with BC produced at high temperature (700 °C). Significant sorption of the neutral CMZ herbicide also occurred in amended soil with BC prepared at low temperature (350 and 500 °C)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349546/enhanced-growth-of-halophyte-plants-in-biochar-amended-coastal-soil-roles-of-nutrient-availability-and-rhizosphere-microbial-modulation
#17
Hao Zheng, Xiao Wang, Lei Chen, Zhenyu Wang, Yang Xia, Yipeng Zhang, Hefang Wang, Xianxiang Luo, Baoshan Xing
Soil health is essential and irreplaceable for plant growth and global food production, which has been threatened by climate change and soil degradation. Degraded coastal soils are urgently required to reclaim using new sustainable technologies. Interest in applying biochar to improve soil health and promote crop yield has rapidly increased because of its multiple benefits. However, effects of biochar addition on the saline-sodic coastal soil health and halophyte growth were poorly understood. Response of two halophytes, Sesbania (Sesbania cannabina) and Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya virginica), to the individual or co-application of biochar and inorganic fertilizer into a coastal soil was investigated using a 52-day pot experiment...
March 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346908/different-effects-of-biochar-and-a-nitrification-inhibitor-application-on-paddy-soil-denitrification-a-field-experiment-over-two-consecutive-rice-growing-seasons
#18
Shuwei Wang, Jun Shan, Yongqiu Xia, Quan Tang, Longlong Xia, Jinghui Lin, Xiaoyuan Yan
Biochar and nitrification inhibitors are increasingly being proposed as amendments to improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, their effects on soil denitrification and the major N loss in rice paddies over an entire rice-growing season are not well understood. In this study, using intact soil core incubation combined with N2/Ar technique, the impacts of biochar and a nitrification inhibitor (Ni), 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine, on rice yield and soil denitrification, as well as ammonia (NH3) volatilization, were investigated over two rice-growing seasons in the Taihu Lake region of China...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342413/efficacies-of-biochar-and-biochar-based-amendment-on-vegetable-yield-and-nitrogen-utilization-in-four-consecutive-planting-seasons
#19
Hefang Wang, Hao Zheng, Zhixiang Jiang, Yanhui Dai, Guocheng Liu, Lei Chen, Xianxiang Luo, Minhui Liu, Zhenyu Wang
Biochar has been suggested as a potential tailored technology for mediating soil conditions and improving crop yields. However, the efficacies of biochar and biochar-based amendments (e.g., composted biochar) in agricultural soils under a rotation system remain uncertain. In this study, an arable soil was subjected to peanut shell biochar (PBC) and biochar-based amendment (PAD) combined with or without nitrogen (N) fertilizer to evaluate their effects on vegetable yield, N bioavailability, and their relative contribution to vegetable biomass in four consecutive planting seasons...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342082/quantitative-characterization-of-pore-structure-of-several-biochars-with-3d-imaging
#20
Jari Hyväluoma, Sampo Kulju, Markus Hannula, Hanne Wikberg, Anssi Källi, Kimmo Rasa
Pore space characteristics of biochars may vary depending on the used raw material and processing technology. Pore structure has significant effects on the water retention properties of biochar amended soils. In this work, several biochars were characterized with three-dimensional imaging and image analysis. X-ray computed microtomography was used to image biochars at resolution of 1.14 μm and the obtained images were analysed for porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and structural anisotropy...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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