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Biochar application to soil

Lulu Kong, Yuanyuan Gao, Qixing Zhou, Xuyang Zhao, Zhongwei Sun
Sawdust and wheat straw biochars prepared at 300°C and 500°C were applied to petroleum-polluted soil for an 84-day incubation to estimate their effectiveness on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal. Biochars alone were most effective at reducing PAHs contents. However, adding biochar to soils in company with NaN3 solution resulted in a decreasing trend in terms of PAHs removal, which was even lower than treatment CK without biochar. Moreover, it was discovered by PCR-DGGE files and sequencing analysis that the predominant bacterial diversity slightly decreased but the abundance of some specific taxa, including PAHs degraders, was promoted with biochar input...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Teresa Fresno, Eduardo Moreno-Jiménez, Pilar Zornoza, Jesús M Peñalosa
An aided phytostabilisation strategy consisting of several composite amendments of iron sulphate and organic materials combined with Lupinus albus L. (white lupin) was evaluated for remediation of an As- and Cu-contaminated soil. Iron sulphate was combined with lime, paper mill sludge (PS), olive mill waste compost (OMWC) or holm oak biochar (BC) and applied to a slightly acidic soil with high concentration of As (∼2200 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (∼150 mg kg(-1)). White lupin was grown for 48 days in pots containing amended and non-amended soils and the effect of soil treatments on soluble and extractable trace elements, soil fertility and plant growth and composition was evaluated...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Qiwen Zhou, Bohan Liao, Lina Lin, Weiwen Qiu, Zhengguo Song
Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water bodies necessitates the continuous development of effective decontamination techniques. To address this issue, ferromanganese binary oxide-biochar composites (FMBC) were prepared using impregnation/sintering methods, and their physicochemical properties and morphologies were examined. Kinetic modeling and adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) on FMBC, revealing that adsorption was well represented by pseudo-second-order kinetics (R(2)>0...
September 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yan Xiao, Yang Li, Yeye Che, Shaojun Deng, Mohan Liu
Biochar is an organic amendment used for soil remediation, there are only a few studies documenting the effects of nitrogen on the role of biochar in contaminated soils. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of biochar (0%, 1% and 2.5%, w/w) and nitrogen (0, 100 and 200 mg N kg(-1)) on plant growth, nutrient and Cd uptake of Cichorium intybus. N, P, Ca, Mg and Cd concentrations increased with N level in 0 and 1% biochar treatments. In plants treated with 2.5% biochar, 200 mg N kg(-1) addition caused significant reductions of N, P, Ca, Mg and Cd concentrations in comparison to 100 mg N kg(-1) treatments...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Mahdi Safaei Khorram, Akram Fatemi, Md Asaduzzaman Khan, Rudolf Kiefer, Sasan Jafarnia
BACKGROUND: Biochar amendment as a promising tool to improve the soil quality and consequently, higher crop yield has received more attention during last decades. The positive effects of biochar have been getting more attention especially in the areas with low precipitation rate like Middle East, due to low soil organic carbon content, higher drought intensity, and increasing demands for food production. However, biochar can lead to lower herbicide efficacy, resulting in higher consumption of herbicides...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Xuebin Xu, Xin Hu, Zhuhong Ding, Yijun Chen
The potential release of toxic elements and the stability of carbon in sludge-based biochars are important on their application in soil remediation and wastewater treatment. In this study, municipal sludge was co-pyrolyzed with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium dihydrogen phosphate [Ca(H2PO4)2] under 300 and 600 °C, respectively. The basic physicochemical properties of the resultant biochars were characterized and laboratory chemical oxidation and leaching experiments of toxic elements were conducted to evaluate the chemical stability of carbon in biochars and the potential release of toxic elements from biochars...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Fangjie Qi, Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu, Nanthi S Bolan, Yubo Yan, Yong Sik Ok, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Girish Choppala
This study was designed to investigate the effects of acidic and neutral biochars on solubility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in soils with contrasting properties. Four Cd contaminated (50mg/kg) soils (EN: Entisol, AL: Andisol, VE: Vertisol, IN: Inceptisol) were amended with 5% acidic wood shaving biochar (WS, pH=3.25) and neutral chicken litter biochar (CL, pH=7.00). Following a 140-day incubation, the solubility and bioavailability/bioaccessibility of cadmium (Cd) were assessed. Results showed that both biochars had no effect on reducing soluble (pore water) and bioavailable (CaCl2 extractable) Cd for higher sorption capacity soils (AL, IN) while CL biochar reduced those in lower sorption capacity soils (EN, VE) by around 50%...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hongcui Dai, Yuanquan Chen, Xiaolei Yang, Jixiao Cui, Peng Sui
To effectively improve soil productivity and optimize organic fertilizer management while reducing environmental pollution and resource wasting in farmland system, the present study was conducted in Wuqiao Experiment Station of China Agricultural University, Hebei Province. Taking crop straw treatment as control, four kinds of organic materials including pig manure (PM), biogas residue (BR), biochar (BC) and crop straw (ST) were applied to soil at the same nitrogen (N) level. The soil bacteria community characteristics were explored using Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing technologies...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Volker Häring, Delphine Manka'abusi, Edmund K Akoto-Danso, Steffen Werner, Kofi Atiah, Christoph Steiner, Désiré J P Lompo, Samuel Adiku, Andreas Buerkert, Bernd Marschner
In large areas of sub-Saharan Africa crop production must cope with low soil fertility. To increase soil fertility, the application of biochar (charred biomass) has been suggested. In urban areas, untreated waste water is widely used for irrigation because it is a nutrient-rich year-round water source. Uncertainty exists regarding the interactions between soil properties, biochar, waste water and fertilization over time. The aims of this study were to determine these interactions in two typical sandy, soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient depleted soils under urban vegetable production in Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) over two years...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jing Zhu, Min Li, Mick Whelan
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients for crop productivity and P deficiency is a common phenomenon in agricultural soils worldwide. Despite long-term application of phosphate fertilizers to increase crop yields, P availability is often low, due to the high affinity of phosphate for the soil solid phase. It has been suggested that the accumulated (surplus) P in agricultural soils is sufficient to sustain crop yields worldwide for about 100years. In this paper, we try to clear up the potential for making use of legacy P in soils for crop growth potentially alleviating the global P resource shortage...
August 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Fernanda R Oliveira, Anil K Patel, Deb P Jaisi, Sushil Adhikari, Hui Lu, Samir Kumar Khanal
In recent years, there has been a significant interest on biochar for various environmental applications, e.g., pollutants removal, carbon sequestration, and soil amelioration. Biochar has several unique properties, which makes it an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly material for diverse contaminants removal. The variability in physicochemical properties (e.g., surface area, microporosity, and pH) provides an avenue for biochar to maximize its efficacy to targeted applications. This review aims to highlight the vital role of surface architecture of biochar in different environmental applications...
August 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Guangming Han, Jiayang Lan, Quanqiu Chen, Cui Yu, Shu Bie
The bacterial community in soils of cotton that have continuously been cropped for 2 years, 6 years, 11 years and 14 years and treated with biochar (B0, 0 t·ha(-1); B1, 12.5 t·ha(-1); and B2, 20 t·ha(-1)) was investigated using next-generation sequencing. Of the 45 bacterial genera (relative abundance ratio of genera greater than 0.3%), 21 genera were affected (p < 0.05) by the biochar treatment, whereas 20 genera were affected by the continuous cropping. Between the soils that have been continuously cropped for 2 years and 14 years, 12 different genera were significantly observed (p < 0...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
S W Kang, J H Park, S H Kim, D C Seo, Y S Ok, J S Cho
This study was conducted to establish the optimal application conditions of barley straw biochar (BC) for rice cultivation and to determine the effects of combined application of BC and inorganic fertilizer (IF) on rice cultivation in a paddy field. Based on the characteristics of rice growth in pot-based experiments, the selected optimal application conditions of BC were application of 20 ton ha(-1) at 14 days before rice transplanting. The effects of BC application on rice cultivation in a paddy field when using those conditions were then evaluated...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Kai Ling Yu, Beng Fye Lau, Pau Loke Show, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Tau Chuan Ling, Wei-Hsin Chen, Eng Poh Ng, Jo-Shu Chang
Algal biomass is known as a promising sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and other valuable products. However, since last decade, massive amount of interests have turned to converting algal biomass into biochar. Due to their high nutrient content and ion-exchange capacity, algal biochars can be used as soil amendment for agriculture purposes or adsorbents in wastewater treatment for the removal of organic or inorganic pollutants. This review describes the conventional (e.g., slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis) and newly developed (e...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
M T Moreira, I Noya, G Feijoo
Biochar is obtained from the thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Beyond its use for soil amendment and carbon sequestration, other value-added applications, such as a green environmental sorbent for different types of pollutants, are also of increasing interest. This paper reviews the available literature on the use of various feedstocks for biochar production as an initial step to compile the required inventory data from material flow data analysis. The environmental evaluation of different schemes of biochar production in a life cycle perspective reports the environmental impacts of the different alternatives, with more sustainable profiles than the use of activated carbon as conventional adsorption material...
August 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Lina Lin, Minling Gao, Weiwen Qiu, Di Wang, Qing Huang, Zhengguo Song
The effects of biochar (BC) and ferromanganese oxide biochar composites (FMBC1 and FMBC2) on As (Arsenic) accumulation in rice were determined using a pot experiment. Treatments with BC or FMBC improved the dry weights of rice roots, stems, leaves, and grains in soils containing different As contamination levels. Compared to BC treatment, FMBC treatments significantly reduced As accumulation in different parts of the rice plants (P < 0.05), and FMBC2 performed better than FMBC1 did. Furthermore, exposure to 2% FMBC2 decreased the total As concentration in the grain by 68...
August 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Afeng Zhang, Xu Zhou, Ming Li, Haiming Wu
Biochar amendment in soil has the potential to sequester carbon, improve soil quality and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in agriculture, but the impact of biochar amendments on dissolved organic matter (DOM) properties of soils in the fertilized agro-ecosystem has received little research attention. This study performed a long-term field experiment to assess the influence of biochar amendments (different addition rate: 4 t ha(-1) and 8 t ha(-1)) on DOM characteristics in soils in wheat-maize rotation system in Loess Plateau of China by exploiting fluorescence excitation-emission spectrophotometry and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
November 2017: Chemosphere
Zhujian Huang, Qin Lu, Jun Wang, Xian Chen, Xiaoyun Mao, Zhenli He
Agricultural application of sewage sludge (SS) after carbonization is a plausible way for disposal. Despite its benefits of improving soil fertility and C sequestration, heavy metals contained in sewage sludge biochars (SSB) are still a concern. In this study, two types of heavy metal stabilizers were chosen: fulvic acid (FA) and phosphogypsum (with CaSO4, CS, as the main component). The two stabilizers were incorporated into SS prior to 350°C carbonization for 1 h at the rates of 1%, 2%, or 4%. The obtained SSBs were then analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
2017: PloS One
Daixia Yin, Xin Wang, Bo Peng, Changyin Tan, Lena Q Ma
In this study, the effects of biochar derived from rice-straw (biochar) and iron-impregnated biochar (Fe-biochar) on Cd and As mobility in rice rhizosphere and transfer from soil to rice were investigated with different application rates. 1-3% biochar reduced porewater Cd in rhizosphere but elevated soluble As, resulting in 49-68% and 26-49% reduction in the root and grain Cd, with a simultaneous increase in root As. Unlike biochar, 0.5% Fe-biochar decreased porewater As throughout rice growth, resulting in reduced root As, which, however, increased Cd uptake by root...
November 2017: Chemosphere
Chris Bamminger, Christian Poll, Sven Marhan
Global warming will likely enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. Due to its slow decomposability, biochar is widely recognized as effective in long-term soil carbon (C) sequestration and in mitigation of soil GHG emissions. In a long-term soil warming experiment (+2.5 °C, since July 2008) we studied the effect of applying high-temperature Miscanthus biochar (0, 30 t ha(-1) , since August 2013) on GHG emissions and their global warming potential (GWP) during two years in a temperate agroecosystem...
August 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
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