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Biochar application to soil

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919533/biochar-applied-at-an-appropriate-rate-can-avoid-increasing-nh3-volatilization-dramatically-in-rice-paddy-soil
#1
Yanfang Feng, Haijun Sun, Lihong Xue, Yang Liu, Qian Gao, Kouping Lu, Linzhang Yang
Biochar application can increase carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gases emissions in paddy soils. However, its influence on ammonia (NH3) volatilization is neglected. This soil column study was conducted using two biochars (wheat straw pyrolyzed at 500 °C and 700 °C) with two application rates (0.5 wt% and 3 wt%) to evaluate their impact on NH3 volatilization from rice paddy. Results showed that biochar application did not change NH3 volatilization fluxes pattern after N fertilization. Four biochar treatments recorded higher NH3 volatilization (20...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916262/effect-of-co-application-of-nano-zero-valent-iron-and-biochar-on-the-total-and-freely-dissolved-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-removal-and-toxicity-of-contaminated-soils
#2
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to investigate co-application of biochar and nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) in order to increase the degradation of PAHs and reduce the toxicity of soils historically contaminated with these compounds. To performed the experiment biochar, biochar with nZVI (2 g kg(-1) or 10 g kg(-1) soil), or nZVI alone (2 g kg(-1) or 10 g kg(-1) soil) were added to the PAHs contaminated soils. The soils alone and soils with amendments were aged by mixing for 7 and 30 days. After that the chemical analysis were carried out and total (Ctot) and Cfree PAH content in the samples were determined...
December 1, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898796/sorption-of-pharmaceuticals-heavy-metals-and-herbicides-to-biochar-in-the-presence-of-biosolids
#3
Daniel A Bair, Fungai N D Mukome, Inna E Popova, Temitope A Ogunyoku, Allie Jefferson, Daoyuan Wang, Sarah C Hafner, Thomas M Young, Sanjai J Parikh
Agricultural practices are increasingly incorporating recycled waste materials, such as biosolids, to provide plant nutrients and enhance soil functions. Although biosolids provide benefits to soil, municipal wastewater treatment plants receive pharmaceuticals and heavy metals that can accumulate in biosolids, and land application of biosolids can transfer these contaminants to the soil. Environmental exposure of these contaminants may adversely affect wildlife, disrupt microbial communities, detrimentally affect human health through long-term exposure, and cause the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886540/the-effect-of-different-pyrolysis-temperatures-on-the-speciation-and-availability-in-soil-of-p-in-biochar-produced-from-the-solid-fraction-of-manure
#4
Sander Bruun, Sarah L Harmer, Georgios Bekiaris, Wibke Christel, Lucia Zuin, Yongfeng Hu, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Enzo Lombi
Biochar application to agricultural land has been proposed as a means for improving phosphorus (P) availability in soil. The purpose of the current study was to understand how pyrolysis temperature affects P speciation in biochar and how this affects availability of P in the amended soil. Biochar was produced at different temperatures from digestate solids. The primary species of P in digestate solids were simple calcium phosphates. However, a high co-occurrence of magnesium (Mg) and P, indicated that struvite or other magnesium phosphates may also be important species...
November 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870995/agronomic-assessment-of-pyrolysed-food-waste-digestate-for-sandy-soil-management
#5
Suraj Adebayo Opatokun, Lina F Yousef, Vladimir Strezov
The digestate (DFW) of an industrial food waste treatment plant was pyrolysed for production of biochar for its direct application as bio-fertilizer or soil enhancer. Nutrient dynamics and agronomic viability of the pyrolysed food waste digestate (PyD) produced at different temperatures were evaluated using germination index (GI), water retention/availability and mineral sorption as indicators when applied on arid soil. The pyrolysis was found to enrich P, K and other micronutrients in the biochar at an average enrichment factor of 0...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858276/enhanced-iron-iii-reduction-following-amendment-of-paddy-soils-with-biochar-and-glucose-modified-biochar
#6
Rong Jia, Lina Li, Dong Qu, Nana Mi
Although biochar application to paddy fields has been widely studied, its effects on Fe(III) reduction have not yet been investigated. Paddy soil slurry and soil microbial inoculation incubation were conducted with unmodified biochar (UMB) or glucose-modified biochar (GMB) additions at different particle sizes. The Fe(II) concentration and pH value were determined regularly, and Fe(III) reducing capacity (FeRC) was evaluated by modeling. Fe(III) reduction potential (a) was increased by 0-1.96 mg g(-1) in response to UMBs addition, and a more remarkable increase in a was related to the decrease of particle size...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855328/nutrient-conservation-during-spent-mushroom-compost-application-using-spent-mushroom-substrate-derived-biochar
#7
Zimo Lou, Yue Sun, Shuping Bian, Shams Ali Baig, Baolan Hu, Xinhua Xu
Spent mushroom compost (SMC), a spent mushroom substrate (SMS) derived compost, is always applied to agriculture land to enhance soil organic matter and nutrient contents. However, nitrogen, phosphate and organic matter contained in SMC can leach out and contaminate ground water during its application. In this study, biochars prepared under different pyrolytic temperatures (550 °C, 650 °C or 750 °C) from SMS were applied to soil as a nutrient conservation strategy. The resultant biochars were characterized for physical and mineralogical properties...
November 14, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815006/the-effects-of-straw-or-straw-derived-gasification-biochar-applications-on-soil-quality-and-crop-productivity-a-farm-case-study
#8
Veronika Hansen, Dorette Müller-Stöver, Valentina Imparato, Paul Henning Krogh, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Anders Dolmer, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen
Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810533/effects-of-manganese-oxide-modified-biochar-composites-on-arsenic-speciation-and-accumulation-in-an-indica-rice-oryza-sativa-l-cultivar
#9
Zhihong Yu, Weiwen Qiu, Fei Wang, Ming Lei, Di Wang, Zhengguo Song
A pot experiment was used to investigate arsenic (As) speciation and accumulation in rice, as well as its concentration in both heavily contaminated and moderately contaminated soils amended with manganese oxide-modified biochar composites (MBC) and biochar alone (BC). In heavily As-contaminated soil, application of BC and MBC improved the weight of above-ground part and rice root, whereas in moderately As-contaminated soil, the application of MBC and low rate BC amendment increased rice root, grain weight and the biomass of the plant...
October 27, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784579/effects-of-biochars-derived-from-chicken-manure-and-rape-straw-on-speciation-and-phytoavailability-of-cd-to-maize-in-artificially-contaminated-loess-soil
#10
Baowei Zhao, Renzhi Xu, Fengfeng Ma, Yewei Li, Lu Wang
While biochar can reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals in acidic soils and reduce their risk of entering the food chain, conditions for alkaline soils such as loess soils with high pH values, high carbonate content and low organic matter content remain unclear. Pot experiments were conducted to assess the effects of four rates (1%, 5%, 10%, and 15% w/w) of biochars prepared at 600 °C from chicken manure and rape straw (CBC and RBC) on soil properties, Cd speciation and phytoavailability, and plant growth in Cd contaminated (20 mg kg(-1)) light sierozem using maize (Zea mays L...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782159/particulate-matter-emissions-from-biochar-amended-soils-as-a-potential-tradeoff-to-the-negative-emission-potential
#11
Sujith Ravi, Brenton S Sharratt, Junran Li, Stuart Olshevski, Zhongju Meng, Jianguo Zhang
Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771200/assessment-of-by-products-of-bioenergy-systems-anaerobic-digestion-and-gasification-as-potential-crop-nutrient
#12
Sampriti Kataki, Samarendra Hazarika, D C Baruah
Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk...
October 19, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766524/effects-of-biochar-and-maize-straw-on-the-short-term-carbon-and-nitrogen-dynamics-in-a-cultivated-silty-loam-in-china
#13
Li-Xia Zhu, Qian Xiao, Yu-Fang Shen, Shi-Qing Li
Application of maize straw and biochar can potentially improve soil fertility and sequester carbon (C) in the soil, but little information is available about the effects of maize straw and biochar on the mineralization of soil C and nitrogen (N). We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment with five treatments of a cultivated silty loam, biochar produced from maize straw and/or maize straw: soil only (control), soil + 1 % maize straw (S), soil + 4 % biochar (B1), soil + 4 % biochar + 1 % maize straw (B1S), and soil + 8 % biochar + 1 % maize straw (B2S)...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695763/co-transport-of-pesticide-acetamiprid-and-silica-nanoparticles-in-biochar-amended-sand-porous-media
#14
Hong Wang, Yuanfang Huang, Chongyang Shen, Junxue Wu, An Yan, Hongyan Zhang
The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the transport of acetamiprid, a widely used neonicotinoid pesticide, is little known. We conducted saturated column experiments to examine cotransport of acetamiprid and silica nanoparticles (NPs) in pure and biochar-amended sands. Retention of acetamiprid was minor in the pure sand, whereas application of biochar in the sand significantly increased retention. Retention was greater at lower ionic strengths and near neutral pH values and was attributed to biodegradation and sorption through π-π interaction and pore filling...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695752/biochar-properties-influencing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-tropical-soils-differing-in-texture-and-mineralogy
#15
Somchai Butnan, Jonathan L Deenik, Banyong Toomsan, Michael J Antal, Patma Vityakon
The ability of biochar applications to alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, CH, and NO) has been attracting research interest. However, inconsistent published results necessitate further exploration of potential influencing factors, including biochar properties, biochar rates, soil textures and mineralogy, and their interactions. Two short-term laboratory incubations were conducted to evaluate the effects of different biochars: a biochar with low ash (2.4%) and high-volatile matter (VM) (35.8%) contents produced under low-temperature (350°C) traditional kiln and a biochar with high ash (3...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693153/biochar-applied-with-appropriate-rates-can-reduce-n-leaching-keep-n-retention-and-not-increase-nh3-volatilization-in-a-coastal-saline-soil
#16
Haijun Sun, Haiying Lu, Lei Chu, Hongbo Shao, Weiming Shi
The impacts of biochar addition on nitrogen (N) leaching, (ammonia) NH3 volatilization from coastal saline soils are not well understood. In this soil column study, the effects of wheat straw biochar application at rates of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4% by weight to a coastal saline soil on N leaching, NH3 volatilization, soil pH and N retention were investigated. Results showed that 0.5% and 1% biochar amendments reduce the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N and total N concentrations of leachate and thereby significantly decrease their cumulative lost loads by 11...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681110/assessing-the-combination-of-iron-sulfate-and-organic-materials-as-amendment-for-an-arsenic-and-copper-contaminated-soil-a-chemical-and-ecotoxicological-approach
#17
Teresa Fresno, Eduardo Moreno-Jiménez, Jesús M Peñalosa
The efficiency of combining iron sulfate and organic amendments (paper mill sludge, olive mill waste compost and olive tree pruning biochar) for the remediation of an As- and Cu-contaminated soil was evaluated. Changes in As and Cu fractionation and solubility due to the application of the amendments was explored by leachate analysis, single and sequential extractions. Also, the effects on Arrhenatherum elatius growth, germination of Lactuca sativa and toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri were assessed...
December 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635349/thermal-treatment-and-leaching-of-biochar-alleviates-plant-growth-inhibition-from-mobile-organic-compounds
#18
Nigel V Gale, Tara E Sackett, Sean C Thomas
Recent meta-analyses of plant responses to biochar boast positive average effects of between 10 and 40%. Plant responses, however, vary greatly across systems, and null or negative biochar effects are increasingly reported. The mechanisms responsible for such responses remain unclear. In a glasshouse experiment we tested the effects of three forestry residue wood biochars, applied at five dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 t/ha) to a temperate forest drystic cambisol as direct surface applications and as complete soil mixes on the herbaceous pioneers Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628746/the-electron-donating-capacity-of-biochar-is-dramatically-underestimated
#19
Antonin Prévoteau, Frederik Ronsse, Inés Cid, Pascal Boeckx, Korneel Rabaey
Biochars have gathered considerable interest for agronomic and engineering applications. In addition to their high sorption ability, biochars have been shown to accept or donate considerable amounts of electrons to/from their environment via abiotic or microbial processes. Here, we measured the electron accepting (EAC) and electron donating (EDC) capacities of wood-based biochars pyrolyzed at three different highest treatment temperatures (HTTs: 400, 500, 600 °C) via hydrodynamic electrochemical techniques using a rotating disc electrode...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620109/thermal-effects
#20
Ming Yan, Panyue Zhang, Guangming Zeng
This review focuses on the research literatures published in 2015 relating to topics of thermal effects in water pollution control. This review is divided into the following sections: biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, wastewater treatment for organic conversion, industrial wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and solid waste, sludge biochar preparation and application, pyrolysis of sewage sludge, reduction heavy metal in sewage sludge and soil, and other issues of wastewater and sludge treatment...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
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