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Biochar application to soil

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099087/effects-of-biochar-on-the-emissions-soil-distribution-and-nematode-control-of-1-3-dichloropropene
#1
Daniel J Ashworth, Scott R Yates, Guoqing Shen
Emissions of volatile soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) from soil to air are a significant concern in relation to air quality, and cost-effective strategies to reduce such emissions are urgently required by growers to help them comply with increasingly stringent regulations. In this work, application of a rice husk-derived biochar to the surface of a sandy loam soil chamber reduced soil-air emissions of 1,3-D from 42% in a control (no biochar) to 8% due to adsorption onto the biochar. This adsorbed 1,3-D showed a potential for re-volatilization into air and solubilization into the soil-liquid phase...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074369/mitigating-cadmium-accumulation-in-greenhouse-lettuce-production-using-biochar
#2
Ruilun Zheng, Guoxin Sun, Cui Li, Brian J Reid, Zubin Xie, Bo Zhang, Qinghai Wang
Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of rice straw biochar (RSB) on soil cadmium (Cd) availability and accumulation in lettuce. The RSB was applied either in bands or broadcast in the test site of four greenhouses with soil Cd concentrations ranging from 1.70-3.14 μg g(-1). Biochar doses applied in bands were half of those broadcast. The Cd levels in the shoots of lettuce were observed to be reduced by up to 57% with increasing RSB application rate (0, 6, 12, 18 t ha(-1))...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063654/biochar-decreases-nitrogen-oxide-and-enhances-methane-emissions-via-altering-microbial-community-composition-of-anaerobic-paddy-soil
#3
Ning Wang, Zhi-Zhou Chang, Xi-Mei Xue, Jian-Guang Yu, Xiao-Xia Shi, Lena Q Ma, Hong-Bo Li
Biochar application to agricultural soil is an appealing approach to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions. However, the underlying microbial mechanisms are unclear. In this study, a paddy soil slurry was incubated anaerobically for 14d with biochar amendments produced from rice straw at 300, 500, or 700°C (B300, B500, and B700) to study their influences on greenhouse gas emissions. Illumina sequencing was used to characterize shift of soil bacterial and archaeal community composition. After peaking at day 1, N2O emission then sharply decreased to low levels while CH4 started to emit at day 3 then continually increased with incubation...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057373/effects-of-the-amendment-of-biochars-and-carbon-nanotubes-on-the-bioavailability-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-hbcds-in-soil-to-ecologically-different-species-of-earthworms
#4
Bing Li, Hongkai Zhu, Hongwen Sun, Jiayao Xu
Biochar is a promising material used in soil amendment and carbon nanotubes may enter soil due to its increasing application. These carbonaceous materials may change the bioavailability of pollutants in soil. In this concern, 0.5% w/w multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3 corn-straw biochars acquired at different pyrolyzing temperatures were used in soil amendment and their influences on the bioavailability of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), a brominated flame retardant, to 2 ecologically different earthworm species were studied...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052201/rice-husk-silica-derived-nanomaterials-for-battery-applications-a-literature-review
#5
Yafei Shen
Silica-rich rice husk (RH) is an abundant and sustainable agricultural waste. The recovery of value added products from RH or its ash to explore an economic way for the valorization of agricultural wastes have attracted wide attention. For instance, RH can be converted to biofuels and biochars simultaneously via thermochemical processes. In general, the applications of RH biochars include soil remediation, pollutants removal, silicon battery materials, etc. This review article concludes recent progresses in the synthesis of RH-derived silicon materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) applications...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050057/aggregate-size-distribution-in-a-biochar-amended-tropical-ultisol-under-conventional-hand-hoe-tillage
#6
Bernard Fungo, Johannes Lehmann, Karsten Kalbitz, Margaret Thionģo, Irene Okeyo, Moses Tenywa, Henry Neufeldt
Biochar (or pyrogenic organic matter) is increasingly proposed as a soil amendment for improving fertility, carbon sequestration and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, little is known about its effects on aggregation, an important indicator of soil quality and functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Eucalyptus wood biochar (B, pyrolyzed at 550 °C, at 0 or 2.5 t ha(-1)), green manure (T, from Tithonia diversifolia at 0, 2.5 or 5.0 t ha(-1)) and mineral nitrogen (U, urea, at 0, or 120 kg N ha(-1)) on soil respiration, aggregate size distribution and SOC in these aggregate size fractions in a 2-year field experiment on a low-fertility Ultisol in western Kenya under conventional hand-hoe tillage...
January 2017: Soil & Tillage Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013080/bioavailability-assessment-of-thiacloprid-in-soil-as-affected-by-biochar
#7
Yao Li, Yulong Zhu, Xingang Liu, Xiaohu Wu, Fengshou Dong, Jun Xu, Yongquan Zheng
Biochars can significantly sorb pesticides, and reduce their bioavailability in agricultural soils. In this study, the effects of a type of biochar (BC500) on the sorption, degradation, bioaccumulation and bioavailability of thiacloprid, which is a commonly used insecticide, were investigated. The thiacloprid sorption constant (Kf values) increased by 14 times after 2% BC500 application, and the degradation of the insecticide decreased with increasing amounts of the biochars in the soil. Coupled with the exhaustive extraction and single-point Tenax method, the bioavailability of thiacloprid was predicted in the presence of the biochar...
December 18, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008997/gas-entrapment-and-microbial-n2o-reduction-reduce-n2o-emissions-from-a-biochar-amended-sandy-clay-loam-soil
#8
Johannes Harter, Ivan Guzman-Bustamante, Stefanie Kuehfuss, Reiner Ruser, Reinhard Well, Oliver Spott, Andreas Kappler, Sebastian Behrens
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that is produced during microbial nitrogen transformation processes such as nitrification and denitrification. Soils represent the largest sources of N2O emissions with nitrogen fertilizer application being the main driver of rising atmospheric N2O concentrations. Soil biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising tool to mitigate N2O emissions from soils. However, the underlying processes that cause N2O emission suppression in biochar-amended soils are still poorly understood...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931390/thermal-effects
#9
Ming Yan, Panyue Zhang, Guangming Zeng
This review focuses on the research literatures published in 2015 relating to topics of thermal effects in water pollution control. This review is divided into the following sections: biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, wastewater treatment for organic conversion, industrial wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and solid waste, sludge biochar preparation and application, pyrolysis of sewage sludge, reduction heavy metal in sewage sludge and soil, and other issues of wastewater and sludge treatment...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919533/biochar-applied-at-an-appropriate-rate-can-avoid-increasing-nh3-volatilization-dramatically-in-rice-paddy-soil
#10
Yanfang Feng, Haijun Sun, Lihong Xue, Yang Liu, Qian Gao, Kouping Lu, Linzhang Yang
Biochar application can increase carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gases emissions in paddy soils. However, its influence on ammonia (NH3) volatilization is neglected. This soil column study was conducted using two biochars (wheat straw pyrolyzed at 500 °C and 700 °C) with two application rates (0.5 wt% and 3 wt%) to evaluate their impact on NH3 volatilization from rice paddy. Results showed that biochar application did not change NH3 volatilization fluxes pattern after N fertilization. Four biochar treatments recorded higher NH3 volatilization (20...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916262/effect-of-co-application-of-nano-zero-valent-iron-and-biochar-on-the-total-and-freely-dissolved-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-removal-and-toxicity-of-contaminated-soils
#11
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to investigate co-application of biochar and nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) in order to increase the degradation of PAHs and reduce the toxicity of soils historically contaminated with these compounds. To performed the experiment biochar, biochar with nZVI (2 g kg(-1) or 10 g kg(-1) soil), or nZVI alone (2 g kg(-1) or 10 g kg(-1) soil) were added to the PAHs contaminated soils. The soils alone and soils with amendments were aged by mixing for 7 and 30 days. After that the chemical analysis were carried out and total (Ctot) and Cfree PAH content in the samples were determined...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898796/sorption-of-pharmaceuticals-heavy-metals-and-herbicides-to-biochar-in-the-presence-of-biosolids
#12
Daniel A Bair, Fungai N D Mukome, Inna E Popova, Temitope A Ogunyoku, Allie Jefferson, Daoyuan Wang, Sarah C Hafner, Thomas M Young, Sanjai J Parikh
Agricultural practices are increasingly incorporating recycled waste materials, such as biosolids, to provide plant nutrients and enhance soil functions. Although biosolids provide benefits to soil, municipal wastewater treatment plants receive pharmaceuticals and heavy metals that can accumulate in biosolids, and land application of biosolids can transfer these contaminants to the soil. Environmental exposure of these contaminants may adversely affect wildlife, disrupt microbial communities, detrimentally affect human health through long-term exposure, and cause the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886540/the-effect-of-different-pyrolysis-temperatures-on-the-speciation-and-availability-in-soil-of-p-in-biochar-produced-from-the-solid-fraction-of-manure
#13
Sander Bruun, Sarah L Harmer, Georgios Bekiaris, Wibke Christel, Lucia Zuin, Yongfeng Hu, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Enzo Lombi
Biochar application to agricultural land has been proposed as a means for improving phosphorus (P) availability in soil. The purpose of the current study was to understand how pyrolysis temperature affects P speciation in biochar and how this affects availability of P in the amended soil. Biochar was produced at different temperatures from digestate solids. The primary species of P in digestate solids were simple calcium phosphates. However, a high co-occurrence of magnesium (Mg) and P, indicated that struvite or other magnesium phosphates may also be important species...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870995/agronomic-assessment-of-pyrolysed-food-waste-digestate-for-sandy-soil-management
#14
Suraj Adebayo Opatokun, Lina F Yousef, Vladimir Strezov
The digestate (DFW) of an industrial food waste treatment plant was pyrolysed for production of biochar for its direct application as bio-fertilizer or soil enhancer. Nutrient dynamics and agronomic viability of the pyrolysed food waste digestate (PyD) produced at different temperatures were evaluated using germination index (GI), water retention/availability and mineral sorption as indicators when applied on arid soil. The pyrolysis was found to enrich P, K and other micronutrients in the biochar at an average enrichment factor of 0...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858276/enhanced-iron-iii-reduction-following-amendment-of-paddy-soils-with-biochar-and-glucose-modified-biochar
#15
Rong Jia, Lina Li, Dong Qu, Nana Mi
Although biochar application to paddy fields has been widely studied, its effects on Fe(III) reduction have not yet been investigated. Paddy soil slurry and soil microbial inoculation incubation were conducted with unmodified biochar (UMB) or glucose-modified biochar (GMB) additions at different particle sizes. The Fe(II) concentration and pH value were determined regularly, and Fe(III) reducing capacity (FeRC) was evaluated by modeling. Fe(III) reduction potential (a) was increased by 0-1.96 mg g(-1) in response to UMBs addition, and a more remarkable increase in a was related to the decrease of particle size...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855328/nutrient-conservation-during-spent-mushroom-compost-application-using-spent-mushroom-substrate-derived-biochar
#16
Zimo Lou, Yue Sun, Shuping Bian, Shams Ali Baig, Baolan Hu, Xinhua Xu
Spent mushroom compost (SMC), a spent mushroom substrate (SMS) derived compost, is always applied to agriculture land to enhance soil organic matter and nutrient contents. However, nitrogen, phosphate and organic matter contained in SMC can leach out and contaminate ground water during its application. In this study, biochars prepared under different pyrolytic temperatures (550 °C, 650 °C or 750 °C) from SMS were applied to soil as a nutrient conservation strategy. The resultant biochars were characterized for physical and mineralogical properties...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815006/the-effects-of-straw-or-straw-derived-gasification-biochar-applications-on-soil-quality-and-crop-productivity-a-farm-case-study
#17
Veronika Hansen, Dorette Müller-Stöver, Valentina Imparato, Paul Henning Krogh, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Anders Dolmer, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen
Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810533/effects-of-manganese-oxide-modified-biochar-composites-on-arsenic-speciation-and-accumulation-in-an-indica-rice-oryza-sativa-l-cultivar
#18
Zhihong Yu, Weiwen Qiu, Fei Wang, Ming Lei, Di Wang, Zhengguo Song
A pot experiment was used to investigate arsenic (As) speciation and accumulation in rice, as well as its concentration in both heavily contaminated and moderately contaminated soils amended with manganese oxide-modified biochar composites (MBC) and biochar alone (BC). In heavily As-contaminated soil, application of BC and MBC improved the weight of above-ground part and rice root, whereas in moderately As-contaminated soil, the application of MBC and low rate BC amendment increased rice root, grain weight and the biomass of the plant...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784579/effects-of-biochars-derived-from-chicken-manure-and-rape-straw-on-speciation-and-phytoavailability-of-cd-to-maize-in-artificially-contaminated-loess-soil
#19
Baowei Zhao, Renzhi Xu, Fengfeng Ma, Yewei Li, Lu Wang
While biochar can reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals in acidic soils and reduce their risk of entering the food chain, conditions for alkaline soils such as loess soils with high pH values, high carbonate content and low organic matter content remain unclear. Pot experiments were conducted to assess the effects of four rates (1%, 5%, 10%, and 15% w/w) of biochars prepared at 600 °C from chicken manure and rape straw (CBC and RBC) on soil properties, Cd speciation and phytoavailability, and plant growth in Cd contaminated (20 mg kg(-1)) light sierozem using maize (Zea mays L...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782159/particulate-matter-emissions-from-biochar-amended-soils-as-a-potential-tradeoff-to-the-negative-emission-potential
#20
Sujith Ravi, Brenton S Sharratt, Junran Li, Stuart Olshevski, Zhongju Meng, Jianguo Zhang
Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
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