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Biochar application to soil

Honghong Lyu, Hang Zhao, Jingchun Tang, Yanyan Gong, Yao Huang, Qihang Wu, Bin Gao
Biochar supported carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized nanoscale iron sulfide (FeS) composite (CMC-FeS@biochar) was prepared and tested for immobilization of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in soil. Results of UV-vis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the backbone of biochar suppressed the aggregation of FeS, resulting in smaller particle size and more sorption sites than bare FeS. The composite at a dosage of 2.5 mg per gram soil displayed an enhanced Cr(VI) immobilization efficiency (a 94...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Munir Ahmad, Adel R A Usman, Abdullah S Al-Faraj, Mahtab Ahmad, Abdelazeem Sallam, Mohammad I Al-Wabel
Biochar (BC) was produced by pyrolyzing the date palm leaf waste at 600 °C and then loaded with phosphorus (P) via sorption process. Greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the application effects of BC and P-loaded biochar (BCP) on growth and availability of P and heavy metals to maize (Zea mays L.) plants grown in contaminated mining soil. The treatments consisted of BC and BCP (at application rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 g kg-1 of soil), recommended NK and NPK, and a control (no amendment)...
November 28, 2017: Chemosphere
Santanu Bakshi, Chumki Banik, David A Laird
The C:N ratios of biochar labile fractions is important for assessing biochar stability and N cycling in soil. Here we compare chemically and thermally labile fractions for nine biochars produced from five biomass feedstocks using four production techniques. Biochar fractionation methods included proximate analysis, hot water extraction, acid and base extractions (0.05 M, 0.5 M, 1 M, 2 M, 3 M, and 6 M of either H2SO4 or NaOH), and oxidation with 15% H2O2 and 0.33 M KMnO4 (pH 7.2). Results show chemical addition reactions cause underestimation of mass of the labile fraction for chemical extraction and oxidation procedures but not the thermal procedure...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Nadejda Andreev, Mariska Ronteltap, Boris Boincean, Piet N L Lens
Studies show that source separated human excreta have a fertilizing potential with benefits to plant growth and crop yield similar or exceeding that of mineral fertilizers. The main challenges in fertilizing with excreta are pathogens, and an increased risk of eutrophication of water bodies in case of runoff. This review shows that lactic acid fermentation of excreta reduces the amount of pathogens, minimizes the nutrient loss and inhibits the production of malodorous compounds, thus increasing its agricultural value...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
James Tsz Fung Wong, Zhongkui Chen, Annie Yan Yan Wong, Charles Wang Wai Ng, Ming Hung Wong
Compacted clay is widely used as capillary barriers in landfill final cover system. Recently, biochar amended clay (BAC) has been proposed as a sustainable alternative cover material. However, the effects of biochar on saturated hydraulic conductivity (ksat) of clay with high degree of compaction is not yet understood. The present study aims to investigate the effects of biochar on ksat of compacted kaolin clay. Soil specimens were prepared by amending kaolin clay with biochar derived from peanut-shell at 0, 5 and 20% (w/w)...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Zhongxin Tan, Zhixiong Ye, Limei Zhang, Qiaoyun Huang
Biochar nitrogen is key to improving soil fertility, but the distribution of biochar nitrogen in the biomass-biochar-plant system is still unclear. To provide clarity, the 15N tracer method was utilised to study the distribution of biochar nitrogen in the biochar both before and after its addition to the soil. The results can be summarised as follows. 1) The retention rate of 15N in biochar decreases from 45.23% to 20.09% with increasing pyrolysis temperature from 400 to 800°C in a CO2 atmosphere. 2) The retention rate of 15N in biochar prepared in a CO2 atmosphere is higher than that prepared in a N2 atmosphere when the pyrolysis temperature is below 600°C...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Adrees, Abid Mahmood, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum
Cadmium (Cd) and drought stress in plants is a worldwide problem, whereas little is known about the effect of biochar (BC) under combined Cd and drought stress. The current study was conducted to determine the impact of BC on Cd uptake in wheat sown in Cd-contaminated soil under drought stress. Wheat was grown in a soil after incubating the soil for 15 days with three levels of BC (0%, 3.0% and 5.0% w/w). Three levels of drought stress (well-watered, mild drought and severe drought containing 70%, 50%, and 35% of soil water holding capacity respectively) were applied to 45-d-old wheat plants...
November 30, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ping Wu, Pei-Xin Cui, Guo-Dong Fang, Yu Wang, Shen-Qiang Wang, Dong-Mei Zhou, Wei Zhang, Yu-Jun Wang
Zn deficiency is a critical problem for many crops and human populations worldwide. Soil biochar amendment has recently been promoted as a sustainable agricultural practice. However, its effect on the bioavailability of micronutrients (especially Zn) to crops has not been fully addressed. This study investigated the impact of long-term biochar application in soils on Zn bioavailability to rice and wheat, using field experiments, and batch sorption/desorption experiments, in combination with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS)...
November 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yilu Xu, Balaji Seshadri, Binoy Sarkar, Hailong Wang, Cornelia Rumpel, Donald Sparks, Mark Farrell, Tony Hall, Xiaodong Yang, Nanthi Bolan
Soil organic carbon is essential to improve soil fertility and ecosystem functioning. Soil microorganisms contribute significantly to the carbon transformation and immobilisation processes. However, microorganisms are sensitive to environmental stresses such as heavy metals. Applying amendments, such as biochar, to contaminated soils can alleviate the metal toxicity and add carbon inputs. In this study, Cd and Pb spiked soils treated with macadamia nutshell biochar (5% w/w) were monitored during a 49days incubation period...
November 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
David O'Connor, Tianyue Peng, Junli Zhang, Daniel C W Tsang, Daniel S Alessi, Zhengtao Shen, Nanthi S Bolan, Deyi Hou
Polluted land is a global issue, especially for developing countries. It has been reported that soil amendment with biochar may reduce the bioavailability of a wide range of contaminants, including heavy metal(loids), potentially reclaiming contaminated soils for agricultural use. However, there have been only limited reports on the in situ application of biochar at the field scale. This review was devoted to providing preliminary scientific evidence from these field trials, based on a review of 29 publications involving field applications of biochar in 8 different countries...
November 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ali Khan Shahbaz, Muhammad Iqbal, Abdul Jabbar, Sabir Hussain, Muhammad Ibrahim
Application of immobilizing agents may efficiently reduce the bioavailability of nickel (Ni) in the soil. Here we report the effect of biochar (BC), gravel sludge (GS) and zeolite (ZE) as a sole treatment and their combinations on the bioavailability of Ni after their application into a Ni-polluted soil. The bioavailability of Ni after the application of immobilizing agents was assessed through an indicator plant (red clover) and chemical indicators of bioavailability like soil water extract (SWE), DTPA and Ca(NO3)2 extracts...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Souradeep Gupta, Harn Wei Kua, Hui Jun Koh
Landfilling of food waste due to its low recycling rate is raising serious concerns because of associated soil and water contamination, and emission of methane and other greenhouse gases during the degradation process. This paper explores feasibility of using biochar derived from mixed food waste (FWBC), rice waste (RWBC) and wood waste (mixed wood saw dust, MWBC) as carbon sequestering additive in mortar. RWBC is prepared from boiled plain rice, while FWBC is prepared from combination of rice, meat, and vegetables in fixed proportion...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yue Zhang, Yu-Rong Liu, Pei Lei, Yong-Jie Wang, Huan Zhong
There is growing evidence that incorporating crop straw into soils, which is being widely encouraged in many parts of the world, could increase net methylmercury (MeHg) production in soils and MeHg accumulation in crops. We explored the possibility of mitigating the risk of increased MeHg levels under straw amendment by transforming straw into biochar (BC). Greenhouse and batch experiments were conducted, in which soil MeHg concentrations, MeHg phytoavailability and accumulation in rice, dynamics of sulfate, nitrate and abundances of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were compared in 'Control' (Hg contaminated soil), 'Straw' (soil with 1% rice straw), 'Straw+BC' (soil with 1% straw and 1% biochar), and 'Straw+BC+N' (soil with 1% straw, 1% biochar and 0...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Krzysztof Gondek, Agnieszka Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka Baran, Tomasz Bajda
Production of biochar from sewage sludge may be a promising solution for sewage sludge management and improvement of soil properties, including carbon dioxide sequestration. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of biochars derived from different sewage sludges on soil physicochemical and biological properties, ecotoxicity and plant yield. Three biochars (produced at a temperature of 300 °C) were applied into sandy acid soil in doses of 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/w). Depending on the kind and dose, the application of sewage sludge biochars into the soil caused diverse effects on the parameters of soil biological activity (microbial biomass, soil respiration, and value of metabolic quotient)...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Fei Lian, Baoshan Xing
Black carbon (BC) is ubiquitous in the environments and participates in various biogeochemical processes. Both positive and negative effects of BC (especially biochar) on the ecosystem have been identified, which are mainly derived from its diverse physicochemical properties. Nevertheless, few studies systematically examined the linkage between the evolution of BC molecular structure with the resulted BC properties, environmental functions as well as potential risk, which is critical for understanding the BC environmental behavior and utilization as a multifunctional product...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Aleksandra Bogusz, Patryk Oleszczuk, Ryszard Dobrowolski
The goal of the study was to evaluate the application of biochar (BC) to the sewage sludge (SL) on the adsorption and desorption capacity of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). The effect of biochar contribution in the sewage sludge (2.5, 5 and 10%) was investigated. The isotherms data were fitted to the Langmiur (LM), Freundlich (FM) and Temkin (TM) models. The best fitting for kinetic study was obtained for the pseudo-second-order equation. The best fitting of the experimental data was observed for the LM in the case of SL and BC, and for the FM in the case of SL- and SL/BC-amended soil...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Qing-Fang Bi, Qiu-Hui Chen, Xiao-Ru Yang, Hu Li, Bang-Xiao Zheng, Wei-Wei Zhou, Xiao-Xia Liu, Pei-Bin Dai, Ke-Jie Li, Xian-Yong Lin
Soil amended with single biochar or nitrogen (N) fertilizer has frequently been reported to alter soil nitrification process due to its impact on soil properties. However, little is known about the dynamic response of nitrification and ammonia-oxidizers to the combined application of biochar and N fertilizer in intensive vegetable soil. In this study, an incubation experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of biochar and N fertilizer application on soil nitrification, abundance and community shifts of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hangzhou greenhouse vegetable soil...
November 7, 2017: AMB Express
Xin Peng, Yinger Deng, Yan Peng, Kai Yue
Consuming food contaminated by toxic elements (TEs) could pose a substantial risk to human health. Recently, biochar has been extensively studied as an effective soil ameliorant in situ because of its ability to suppress the phytoavailability of TEs. However, despite the research interest, the effects of biochar applications to soil on different TE concentrations in different plant parts remain unclear. Here, we synthesize 1813 individual observations data collected from 97 articles to evaluate the effects of biochar addition on TE concentrations in plant parts...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Juan-Ying Li, Wenxuan Shi, Zhenhua Li, Yiqin Chen, Liu Shao, Ling Jin
Mariculture product safety in relation to sediment quality has attracted increasing attention because of the accumulation of potentially hazardous chemicals, including pyrethroid insecticides, in sediment. Passive sampling has been widely used to assess the bioavailability of sediment-associated hydrophobic organic contaminants and predict their body residue in benthic organisms. Therefore, in this study, we introduced polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer as a biomimetic "chemometer" for freely-dissolved concentrations (Cfree) to assess the efficacy of different carbon sorbents in reducing the bioavailability of pyrethroids in the process of sediment remediation...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Steffen Werner, Korbinian Kätzl, Marc Wichern, Andreas Buerkert, Christoph Steiner, Bernd Marschner
In many water-scarce countries, waste water is used for irrigation which poses a health risk to farmers and consumers. At the same time, it delivers nutrients to the farming systems. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that biochar can be used as a filter medium for waste water treatment to reduce pathogen loads. At the same time, the biochar is becoming enriched with nutrients and therefore can act as a fertilizer for soil amendment. We used biochar as a filter medium for the filtration of raw waste water and compared the agronomic effects of this "filterchar" (FC) and the untreated biochar (BC) in a greenhouse pot trial on spring wheat biomass production on an acidic sandy soil from Niger...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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