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Schizophrenia stimulants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806385/a-naturalistic-comparison-of-methylphenidate-and-risperidone-monotherapy-in-drug-naive-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-and-aggression
#1
Gabriele Masi, Azzurra Manfredi, Giulia Nieri, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Pfanner, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a consecutive sample of 40 drug-naive male youths diagnosed as having ADHD-combined presentation, comorbid with ODD and aggression, without psychiatric comorbidities, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801194/medial-septum-modulates-hippocampal-gamma-activity-and-prepulse-inhibition-in-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-model-of-schizophrenia
#2
L Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30-100Hz) oscillations...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782490/unmet-needs-in-schizophrenia
#3
Maurizio Pompili, Gloria Giordano, Mario Luciano, Valeria Del Vecchio, Gianluca Serafini, Gaia Sampogna, Denise Erbuto, Peter Falkai, Andrea Fiorillo
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776162/treatment-for-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-comprehensive-review
#4
REVIEW
Selene R T Veerman, Peter F J Schulte, Lieuwe de Haan
Negative symptoms (such as amotivation and diminished expression) associated with schizophrenia are a major health concern. Adequate treatment would mean important progress with respect to quality of life and participation in society. Distinguishing primary from secondary negative symptoms may inform treatment options. Primary negative symptoms are part of schizophrenia. Well-known sources of secondary negative symptoms are psychotic symptoms, disorganisation, anxiety, depression, chronic abuse of illicit drugs and alcohol, an overly high dosage of antipsychotic medication, social deprivation, lack of stimulation and hospitalisation...
August 3, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768598/mismatch-negativity-in-preclinical-models-of-schizophrenia
#5
Robert E Featherstone, Olya Melnychenko, Steven J Siegel
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder associated with profoundly disruptive positive and negative symptomology that result in difficulties building close relationships with others, performing daily tasks and sustaining independent living, resulting in poor social, vocational and occupational attainment (functional outcome). Mismatch Negativity (MMN) is a change in the sensory event-related potential that occurs in response to deviation from an established pattern of stimulation. Patients with schizophrenia show a reduction in MMN that is positively associated with impaired cognition and poor functional outcome...
July 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765677/efficacy-towards-negative-symptoms-and-safety-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-for-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#6
Junjie Wang, Yingqun Zhou, Hong Gan, Jiaoyan Pang, Hui Li, Jijun Wang, Chunbo Li
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms are one of the most difficult areas in the treatment of schizophrenia because antipsychotics are often less effective towards them. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new technique for cerebral cortex stimulation and is believed to be a safe and promising method for the treatment of mental disorders. As the clinical research and new treatment models have increased in recent years, the efficacy towards negative symptoms and safety evaluation of rTMS treatment should also be updated...
April 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758583/new-trends-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#7
Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
July 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747065/use-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-to-prevent-recurrent-clozapine-induced-neutropenia-on-drug-rechallenge-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-clinical-recommendations
#8
Nicholas Myles, Hannah Myles, Scott R Clark, Robert Bird, Dan Siskind
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the most effective medication for treatment-refractory schizophrenia; however, its use is contraindicated in people who have had previous clozapine-induced neutropenia. Co-prescription of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor may prevent recurrent neutropenia and allow continuation or rechallenge of clozapine. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Systematic review of literature reporting the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to allow rechallenge or continuation of clozapine in people with previous episodes of clozapine-induced neutropenia...
July 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729445/preferential-disruption-of-prefrontal-gabaergic-function-by-nanomolar-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-7nach-negative-modulator-kynurenic-acid
#9
Eden Flores-Barrera, Daniel R Thomases, Daryn K Cass, Ajay Bhandari, Robert Schwarcz, John P Bruno, Kuei Y Tseng
Increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to contribute to the development of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Although this view is consistent with pre-clinical studies showing a negative impact of prefrontal KYNA elevation on executive function, the mechanism underlying such a disruption remains unclear. Here we measured changes in local field potential responses to ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, and conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to reveal how nanomolar concentrations of KYNA alter synaptic transmission in the PFC of male adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728797/-prevalence-of-hypothyroidism-in-major-psychiatric-disorders-in-hospitalised-patients-in-montserrat-hospital-during-the-period-march-to-october-2010
#10
Pedro Vargas Navarro, Edgar Antonio Ibañez Pinilla, Alejandra Galeano España, Ana María Noguera Bravo, Sandra Milena Pantoja, Ana María Suárez Acosta
INTRODUCTION: Hypothyroidism results from inadequate production of thyroid hormone. It is known that there is a relationship between the major psychiatric disorders and hypothyroidism. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients admitted due to major psychiatric disorders in Montserrat Hospital during the period from March to October 2010. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 patients admitted to Montserrat Hospital with a primary diagnosis of major psychiatric disorder (major depression, bipolar affective disorder, generalised panic disorder, panic disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, and schizophrenia) in the aforementioned period...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711472/interactive-effects-of-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-and-a-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-on-mismatch-negativity-implications-for-schizophrenia
#11
Holly K Hamilton, Deepak C D'Souza, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Naomi S Kort, Kyung-Heup Ahn, Savita Bhakta, Mohini Ranganathan, Daniel H Mathalon
N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, including auditory processing abnormalities reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential component. Evidence suggesting cognitive benefits from nicotine administration, together with the high rate of cigarette use in patients with schizophrenia, has stimulated interest in whether nicotine modulates NMDAR hypofunction. We examined the interactive effects of ketamine, an NMDAR antagonist that produces transient schizophrenia-like neurophysiological effects, and nicotine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, in 30 healthy volunteers to determine whether nicotine prevents or attenuates MMN abnormalities...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702774/do-fsh-lh-ratio-and-gonadal-hormone-levels-predict-clinical-improvement-in-postmenopausal-schizophrenia-women
#12
Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Miquel Bernardo, Rafael Penadés, Bárbara Arias, Victoria Ruiz Cortés, Mary V Seeman, Rosa Catalán
Menopause is a process characterized by a decline in estrogen levels and is therefore a period of biological vulnerability for psychotic relapse in women with schizophrenia. Our goal was to correlate not only gonadal hormone levels but also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels with improvement in specific clinical symptoms. Thirty-seven acutely ill postmenopausal schizophrenia women with a newly initiated, clinically determined change in antipsychotic medication participated in a 12-week prospective observational outcome study...
July 12, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701225/association-of-schizophrenia-onset-age-and-white-matter-integrity-with-treatment-effect-of-d-cycloserine-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-study
#13
Kazuo Takiguchi, Akihito Uezato, Michio Itasaka, Hidenori Atsuta, Kenji Narushima, Naoki Yamamoto, Akeo Kurumaji, Makoto Tomita, Kazunari Oshima, Kosaku Shoda, Mai Tamaru, Masahito Nakataki, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Sayuri Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi Ishiwata, Masato Yasuhara, Kunimasa Arima, Tetsuro Ohmori, Toru Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that drugs which promote the N-Methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor function by stimulating the glycine modulatory site in the receptor improve negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients being treated with antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: We performed a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study involving 41 schizophrenia patients in which D-cycloserine 50 mg/day was added-on, and the influence of the onset age and association with white matter integrity on MR diffusion tensor imaging were investigated for the first time...
July 12, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700108/gpr88-in-a2a-receptor-expressing-neurons-modulates-locomotor-response-to-dopamine-agonists-but-not-sensorimotor-gating
#14
A C Meirsman, A de Kerchove d'Exaerde, B L Kieffer, A-M Ouagazzal
The orphan receptor, GPR88, is emerging as a key player in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric diseases, including psychotic disorders. Knockout (KO) mice lacking GPR88 throughout the brain exhibit many abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia including locomotor hyperactivity, behavioural hypersensitivity to dopaminergic psychostimulants and deficient sensorimotor gating. Here, we used conditional knockout (cKO) mice lacking GPR88 selectively in striatal medium spiny neurons expressing A2A receptor to determine neuronal circuits underlying these phenotypes...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687908/the-effect-of-bilateral-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-early-auditory-processing-in-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study
#15
Walter Dunn, Yuri Rassovsky, Jonathan Wynn, Allan D Wu, Marco Iacoboni, Gerhard Hellemann, Michael F Green
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied bilaterally over the auditory cortex in 12 schizophrenia patients to modulate early auditory processing. Performance on a tone discrimination task (tone-matching task-TMT) and auditory mismatch negativity were assessed after counterbalanced anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS. Cathodal stimulation improved TMT performance (p < 0.03) compared to sham condition. Post-hoc analyses revealed a stimulation condition by negative symptom interaction in which greater negative symptoms were associated with a better TMT performance after anodal tDCS...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673751/intensive-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-changes-eeg-microstates-in-schizophrenia-a-pilot-study
#16
Tomas Sverak, Lenka Albrechtova, Martin Lamos, Irena Rektorova, Libor Ustohal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671605/glycine-binding-site-stimulants-of-nmda-receptors-alleviate-extrapyramidal-motor-disorders-by-activating-the-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-pathway
#17
Saki Shimizu, Shunsaku Sogabe, Ryoto Yanagisako, Akiyoshi Inada, Megumi Yamanaka, Higor A Iha, Yukihiro Ohno
Dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Although agonists for the glycine-binding sites of NMDA receptors have potential as new medication for schizophrenia, their modulation of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) has not yet been clarified. We herein evaluated the effects of glycine-binding site stimulants of NMDA receptors on antipsychotic-induced EPS in mice and rats. d-cycloserine (DCS) and d-serine significantly improved haloperidol (HAL)-induced bradykinesia in mice, whereas glycine showed no effects...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663025/what-rodent-models-of-deep-brain-stimulation-can-teach-us-about-the-neural-circuit-regulation-of-prepulse-inhibition-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Kerstin Schwabe, Joachim K Krauss
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is routinely used for treatment of movement disorders and it is also under investigation for neuropsychiatric disorders with deficient sensorimotor gating, such as schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder. Electrical stimulation induces excitation and inhibition both at the stimulation site and at projection sites, thus modulating synchrony and oscillatory behavior of neuronal networks. We first provide background information on DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders accompanied by deficient sensorimotor gating...
June 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647739/antipsychotic-induced-dopamine-supersensitivity-psychosis-pharmacology-criteria-and-therapy
#19
Guy Chouinard, Anne-Noël Samaha, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Charles-Siegfried Peretti, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Masayuki Takase, Masaomi Iyo
The first-line treatment for psychotic disorders remains antipsychotic drugs with receptor antagonist properties at D2-like dopamine receptors. However, long-term administration of antipsychotics can upregulate D2 receptors and produce receptor supersensitivity manifested by behavioral supersensitivity to dopamine stimulation in animals, and movement disorders and supersensitivity psychosis (SP) in patients. Antipsychotic-induced SP was first described as the emergence of psychotic symptoms with tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a fall in prolactin levels following drug discontinuation...
2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646138/uniting-the-neuro-developmental-and-immunological-hypotheses-neuregulin-1-receptor-erbb-and-toll-like-receptor-activation-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#20
Szabolcs Kéri, Csilla Szabó, Oguz Kelemen
Current pathophysiological models of schizophrenia focus on neurodevelopmental and immunological mechanisms. We investigated a molecular pathway traditionally linked to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis (neuregulin 1 - ErbB), and pathogen-associated pattern recognition receptors associated with the immune hypothesis (Toll-like receptors, TLRs). We recruited 42 first-episode, drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 42 matched healthy control subjects. In monocytes TLR4/TLR5 and ErbB expressions were measured with flow-cytometry...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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