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Schizophrenia stimulants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315614/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-treating-the-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-prisma-compliant-meta-analysis
#1
Hairong He, Jun Lu, Lihong Yang, Jie Zheng, Fan Gao, Yajing Zhai, Junqin Feng, Yajuan Fan, Xiancang Ma
OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacies of 1-Hz (low frequency) and 10-Hz (high frequency) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treating auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, respectively. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant literature. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) values were used to evaluate the effects of rTMS. The stability and sensitivity of the results, the source of heterogeneity, and the recommended grade of the evidence were also analyzed...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301776/neurotransmitter-switching-in-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#3
Nicholas C Spitzer
Neurotransmitter switching is the gain of one neurotransmitter and the loss of another in the same neuron in response to chronic stimulation. Neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic cells change to match the identity of the newly expressed neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitter switching often appears to change the sign of the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or from inhibitory to excitatory. In these cases, neurotransmitter switching and receptor matching thus change the polarity of the circuit in which they take place...
March 6, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294132/5-ht2c-agonists-modulate-schizophrenia-like-behaviors-in-mice
#4
Vladimir M Pogorelov, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Jianjun Cheng, Mei Huang, Claire M Schmerberg, Herbert Y Meltzer, Bryan L Roth, Alan P Kozikowski, William C Wetsel
All FDA-approved antipsychotic drugs (APDs) target primarily dopamine D2 or serotonin (5-HT2A) receptors, or both; however, these medications are not universally effective, they may produce undesirable side-effects, and provide only partial amelioration of negative and cognitive symptoms. The heterogeneity of pharmacological responses in schizophrenic patients suggests additional drug-targets may be effective in improving aspects of this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that 5-HT2C receptors may be a promising target for schizophrenia since their activation reduces mesolimbic nigrostriatal dopamine release (which conveys antipsychotic action), they are expressed almost exclusively in CNS, and have weight-loss promoting capabilities...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283227/clozapine-as-the-most-efficacious-antipsychotic-for-activating-erk-1-2-kinases-role-of-5-ht2a-receptor-agonism
#5
Stefano Aringhieri, Shivakumar Kolachalam, Claudio Gerace, Marco Carli, Valeria Verdesca, Maria Giulia Brunacci, Chiara Rossi, Chiara Ippolito, Anna Solini, Giovanni U Corsini, Marco Scarselli
Antipsychotics (APDs) are divided into first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) based on the concept that SGAs have reduced motor side effects. With this premise, this study examined in HeLa and other cell lines the effects of different APDs on the activation of ERK1/2 (Extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and AKT (Protein Kinase B) kinases, which may be affected in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Among the SGAs, Clozapine clearly resulted as the most effective drug inducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation with potency in the low micromolar range...
March 7, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282074/-epigenetics-2-0-the-multiple-faces-of-the-genome
#6
Marcelo Rubinstein
Epigenetics is the branch of genetics that studies the dynamic relationship between stable genotypes and varying phenotypes. To this end, epigenetics aims to discover the molecular mechanisms that explain how different nutrients and hormones, environmental changes, and emotional, social and cognitive experiences modify gene expression and behaviors, even permanently so. Psychiatry has learned that diseases with strong genetic predisposition, such as schizophrenia, show a concordance of around 50% between monozygotic twins, thus evidencing the importance of the genetic background and the presence of environmental variables that stimulate or block phenotypic development...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280463/notes-on-human-trials-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-between-1960-and-1998
#7
REVIEW
Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Pedro Schestatsky, Marom Bikson, André R Brunoni, Ada Pellegrinelli, Fernanda X Piovesan, Mariana M S A Santos, Renata B Menezes, Felipe Fregni
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function including cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychiatric therapies. While cases of human stimulation with rudimentary batteries date back more than 200 years, clinical trials with current controlled stimulation were published intermittently since the 1960s. The modern era of tDCS only started after 1998. Objectives: To review methods and outcomes of tDCS studies from old literature (between 1960 and 1998) with intention of providing new insight for ongoing tDCS trials and development of tDCS protocols especially for the purpose of treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261797/the-pro-cognitive-mechanisms-of-physical-exercise-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Joseph Firth, Jack Cotter, Rebekah Carney, Alison R Yung
Schizophrenia is associated with pervasive cognitive deficits which are unresponsive to antipsychotic medications. Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia, although the mechanisms for this are unclear. We conducted a systematic review of all exercise intervention studies which reported changes in either brain structure, connectivity or peripheral biomarkers which could underlie cognitive improvements from exercise in schizophrenia. An electronic database search was conducted on 22(nd) September 2016 using keywords relevant to exercise and neurocognition in schizophrenia...
March 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251031/olanzapine-induced-priapism-in-a-child-with-asperger-s-syndrome
#9
Hasan Bozkurt, Serkan Şahin
BACKGROUND: Priapism is a potentially painful and prolonged erection that occurs in the absence of any stimulation. Olanzapine has been reported to induce priapism in several adult cases with schizophrenia and/or mood disorders but very rarely reported in children. CASE REPORT: 9-year-old male with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) referred to our clinic with the complaints of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. He was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and given methylphenidate treatment which ameliorated his ADHD symptoms...
January 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250567/feasibility-of-online-neuromodulation-using-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-in-schizophrenia
#10
Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Vandita Shanbhag, Hema Nawani, Venkataram Shivakumar, Dinakaran Damodharan, Anushree Bose, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Abnormalities in resting and event-related brain oscillations are known to be associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) modulates these rhythms across the neuronal circuits and could have a potential therapeutic role in psychiatric disorders. In this report, we describe, for the first time, application of online tACS in a schizophrenia patient with working memory deficits. This case report supports the feasibility and potential utility of online tACS in schizophrenia, which needs further systematic research...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242871/attenuation-of-ketamine-induced-impairment-in-verbal-learning-and-memory-in-healthy-volunteers-by-the-ampa-receptor-potentiator-pf-04958242
#11
M Ranganathan, N DeMartinis, B Huguenel, F Gaudreault, M M Bednar, C L Shaffer, S Gupta, J Cahill, M A Sherif, J Mancuso, L Zumpano, D C D'Souza
There is a need to develop treatments for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). The significant role played by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in both the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and in neuronal plasticity suggests that facilitation of NMDAR function might ameliorate CIAS. One strategy to correct NMDAR hypofunction is to stimulate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as AMPAR and NMDAR functioning are coupled and interdependent. In rats and nonhuman primates (NHP), AMPAR potentiators reduce spatial working memory deficits caused by the nonselective NMDAR antagonist ketamine...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242439/kv3-1-kv3-2-channel-positive-modulators-enable-faster-activating-kinetics-and-increase-firing-frequency-in-fast-spiking-gabaergic-interneurons
#12
Kim Boddum, Charlotte Hougaard, Julie Xiao-Ying Lin, Nadia Lybøl von Schoubye, Henrik Sindal Jensen, Morten Grunnet, Thomas Jespersen
Due to their fast kinetic properties, Kv3.1 voltage gated potassium channels are important in setting and controlling firing frequency in neurons and pivotal in generating high frequency firing of interneurons. Pharmacological activation of Kv3.1 channels may possess therapeutic potential for treatment of epilepsy, hearing disorders, schizophrenia and cognitive impairments. Here we thoroughly investigate the selectivity and positive modulation of the two small molecules, EX15 and RE01, on Kv3 channels. Selectivity studies, conducted in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed a positive modulatory effect of the two compounds on Kv3...
February 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240740/investigating-cortical-inhibition-in-first-degree-relatives-and-probands-in-schizophrenia
#13
Natasha Radhu, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Tiffany A Greenwood, Faranak Farzan, Mawahib O Semeralul, Margaret A Richter, James L Kennedy, Daniel M Blumberger, Robert Chen, Paul B Fitzgerald, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Deficits in GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission are a reliable finding in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. Previous studies have reported that unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with SCZ demonstrate neurophysiological abnormalities that are intermediate between probands and healthy controls. In this study, first-degree relatives of patients with SCZ and their related probands were investigated to assess frontal cortical inhibition. Long-interval cortical inhibition (LICI) was measured from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237912/vestibular-stimulation-improves-insight-into-illness-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#14
Philip Gerretsen, David D Pothier, Carolyn Falls, Maxine Armstrong, Thushanthi Balakumar, Hiroyuki Uchida, David C Mamo, Bruce G Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Impaired insight into illness (IMP-INS) is common among individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), contributing to medication nonadherence and poor clinical outcomes. Caloric vestibular simulation (CVS) is typically used to assess peripheral vestibular system function. Left cold CVS is also a transiently effective treatment for IMP-INS and hemineglect secondary to right brain hemisphere stroke, and possibly for IMP-INS and mood stabilization in patients with SSD. Participants with SSD and moderate-to-severe IMP-INS participated in an exploratory double blind, crossover, randomized controlled study of the effects of CVS on IMP-INS...
February 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230171/impact-of-genetic-variation-on-human-camkk2-regulation-by-ca-2-calmodulin-and-multisite-phosphorylation
#15
Matthew T O'Brien, Jonathan S Oakhill, Naomi X Y Ling, Christopher G Langendorf, Ashfaqul Hoque, Toby A Dite, Anthony R Means, Bruce E Kemp, John W Scott
The Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase-2 (CaMKK2) is a key regulator of neuronal function and whole-body energy metabolism. Elevated CaMKK2 activity is strongly associated with prostate and hepatic cancers, whereas reduced CaMKK2 activity has been linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disease in humans. Here we report the functional effects of nine rare-variant point mutations that were detected in large-scale human genetic studies and cancer tissues, all of which occur close to two regulatory phosphorylation sites and the catalytic site on human CaMKK2...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210217/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-quantitative-review-of-cognitive-outcomes
#16
REVIEW
Joshua E Mervis, Riley J Capizzi, Elias Boroda, Angus W MacDonald
Cognitive deficits are a core and disabling feature of psychotic disorders, specifically schizophrenia. Current treatments for impaired cognition in schizophrenia remain insufficient. Recent research suggests transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can potentiate cognitive improvements in healthy individuals and those with psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. However, this burgeoning literature has not been quantitatively evaluated. Through a literature search and quantitative review, we identified 194 papers on tDCS, psychosis, and cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203084/use-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-auditory-hallucinations-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Pedro H Pondé, Eduardo P de Sena, Joan A Camprodon, Arão Nogueira de Araújo, Mário F Neto, Melany DiBiasi, Abrahão Fontes Baptista, Lidia Mvr Moura, Camila Cosmo
INTRODUCTION: Auditory hallucinations are defined as experiences of auditory perceptions in the absence of a provoking external stimulus. They are the most prevalent symptoms of schizophrenia with high capacity for chronicity and refractoriness during the course of disease. The transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - a safe, portable, and inexpensive neuromodulation technique - has emerged as a promising treatment for the management of auditory hallucinations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the level of evidence in the literature available for the use of tDCS as a treatment for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198409/electrical-stimulation-using-conductive-polymer-polypyrrole-counters-reduced-neurite-outgrowth-of-primary-prefrontal-cortical-neurons-from-nrg1-ko-and-disc1-li-mice
#18
Qingsheng Zhang, Dorna Esrafilzadeh, Jeremy M Crook, Robert Kapsa, Elise M Stewart, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Xu-Feng Huang
Deficits in neurite outgrowth, possibly involving dysregulation of risk genes neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) have been implicated in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Electrical stimulation using conductive polymers has been shown to stimulate neurite outgrowth of differentiating human neural stem cells. This study investigated the use of the electroactive conductive polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) to counter impaired neurite outgrowth of primary pre-frontal cortical (PFC) neurons from NRG1-knock out (NRG1-KO) and DISC1-locus impairment (DISC1-LI) mice...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189096/abnormal-agency-experiences-in-schizophrenia-patients-examining-the-role-of-psychotic-symptoms-and-familial-risk
#19
Merel Prikken, Anouk van der Weiden, Robert A Renes, Martijn G J C Koevoets, Henriette D Heering, René S Kahn, Henk Aarts, Neeltje E M van Haren
Experiencing self-agency over one's own action outcomes is essential for social functioning. Recent research revealed that patients with schizophrenia do not use implicitly available information about their action-outcomes (i.e., prime-based agency inference) to arrive at self-agency experiences. Here, we examined whether this is related to symptoms and/or familial risk to develop the disease. Fifty-four patients, 54 controls, and 19 unaffected (and unrelated) siblings performed an agency inference task, in which experienced agency was measured over action-outcomes that matched or mismatched outcome-primes that were presented before action performance...
November 1, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186690/reduced-levels-of-cacna1c-attenuate-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-function
#20
Chantelle E Terrillion, David T Dao, Roger Cachope, Mary Kay Lobo, Adam C Puche, Joseph F Cheer, Todd D Gould
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which codes for the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Cav 1.2, is associated with clinical diagnoses of bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is linked to these syndromes and LTCCs are required for normal DAergic neurotransmission between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). It is unclear, however, how variations in CACNA1C genotype, and potential subsequent changes in expression levels in these regions, modify risk...
February 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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