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Schizophrenia stimulants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447622/modern-clinical-research-on-lsd
#1
REVIEW
Matthias E Liechti
All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442424/thioredoxin-is-not-a-marker-for-treatment-resistance-depression-but-associated-with-cognitive-function-an-rtms-study
#2
Efruz Pirdogan Aydın, Abdullah Genc, Mihriban Dalkıran, Ece Türkyilmaz Uyar, Ömer Akil Özer, Kayıhan Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu
Elevated oxidative stress is known to play an important role in development of depression and cognitive dysfunction. To date, thioredoxin (TRX), an antioxidant protein, has been investigated as a marker for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism but its relationship with depression is yet to be unknown. The aim of this study is to detect the TRX levels in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), analyse the effect of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) application on TRX levels and display the relationship of TRX with cognitive areas...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442422/effects-of-low-frequency-rtms-treatment-on-brain-networks-for-inner-speech-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#3
Leonie Bais, Edith Liemburg, Ans Vercammen, Richard Bruggeman, Rikus Knegtering, André Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) targeting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remains under debate. We assessed the influence of a 1Hz rTMS treatment on neural networks involved in a cognitive mechanism proposed to subserve AVH. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (N=24) experiencing medication-resistant AVH completed a 10-day 1Hz rTMS treatment. Participants were randomized to active stimulation of the left or bilateral TPJ, or sham stimulation...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425497/single-dose-memantine-improves-cortical-oscillatory-response-dynamics-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Gregory A Light, Wen Zhang, Yash B Joshi, Savita Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Neal R Swerdlow
Aberrant gamma band (30-80 Hz) oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Gamma oscillations and their regulation by NMDA receptors can be studied via their evoked power (γEP) and phase locking (γPL) in response to auditory steady state stimulation; these Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSRs) may be biomarkers for target engagement and early therapeutic effects. We previously reported that memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, enhanced 2 biomarkers of early auditory information processing: prepulse inhibition (PPI) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in SZ patients and healthy subjects (HS)...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419874/oral-administration-of-a-specific-kynurenic-acid-synthesis-kat-ii-inhibitor-attenuates-evoked-glutamate-release-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#5
D M Bortz, H-Q Wu, R Schwarcz, J P Bruno
Cognitive deficits represent core symptoms in schizophrenia (SZ) and predict patient outcome; however, they remain poorly treated by current antipsychotic drugs. Elevated levels of the endogenous alpha7 nicotinic receptor negative allosteric modulator and NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), are commonly seen in post-mortem tissue and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with SZ. When acutely or chronically elevated in rodents, KYNA produces cognitive deficits similar to those seen in the disease, making down-regulation of KYNA, via inhibition of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), a potential treatment strategy...
April 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416594/new-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-akt1-gene-predicts-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-stimulant-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-healthy-human-brain
#6
Elena Shumay, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Sung Won Kim, Colin A Hodgkinson, Hui Sun, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Daniel R Weinberger, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Nora D Volkow
The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood.Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 (major alleles: L- (8 repeats) and H- (9 repeats)) on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411046/different-influence-of-antipsychotics-on-the-balance-between-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-depends-on-glia-activation-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Ewa Obuchowicz, Anna M Bielecka-Wajdman, Monika Paul-Samojedny, Marta Nowacka
The microglial hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that its neuropathology is closely associated with neuroinflammation manifested, inter alia, by an increased expression of cytokines. However, clinical investigations imply that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease and in some groups of patients the activated inflammatory process does not contribute to the disease-associated impairment of brain function. Clinical studies revealed also an equivocal impact of antipsychotics on peripheral and CSF cytokines, whereas experimental research performed on the stimulated glia cultures showed their inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels...
April 11, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397113/managing-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-how-far-have-we-come
#8
REVIEW
Joshua T Kantrowitz
The specific efficacy of antipsychotics on negative symptoms is questionable, suggesting an urgent need for specific treatments for negative symptoms. This review includes studies published since 2014 with a primary or secondary focus on treating negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Special emphasis is given to recently published meta-analyses. Topics include novel pharmacological approaches, including glutamatergic-based and nicotinic-acetylcholinergic treatments, treatments approved for other indications by the US FDA (or other regulatory bodies) (antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers), brain stimulation, and behavioral- and activity-based approaches, including physical exercise...
April 10, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393897/olanzapine-but-not-clozapine-increases-glutamate-release-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-freely-moving-mice-by-inhibiting-d-aspartate-oxidase-activity
#9
Silvia Sacchi, Vito De Novellis, Giovanna Paolone, Tommaso Nuzzo, Monica Iannotta, Carmela Belardo, Marta Squillace, Paolo Bolognesi, Elena Rosini, Zoraide Motta, Martina Frassineti, Alessandro Bertolino, Loredano Pollegioni, Michele Morari, Sabatino Maione, Francesco Errico, Alessandro Usiello
D-aspartate levels in the brain are regulated by the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-aspartate activates NMDA receptors, and influences brain connectivity and behaviors relevant to schizophrenia in animal models. In addition, recent evidence reported a significant reduction of D-aspartate levels in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia-affected patients, associated to higher DDO activity. In the present work, microdialysis experiments in freely moving mice revealed that exogenously administered D-aspartate efficiently cross the blood brain barrier and stimulates L-glutamate efflux in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379529/reduced-short-latency-afferent-inhibition-in-prefrontal-but-not-motor-cortex-and-its-association-with-executive-function-in-schizophrenia-a-combined-tms-eeg-study
#10
Yoshihiro Noda, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Tarek K Rajji, Faranak Farzan, Robert Chen, Tony P George, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic dysfunction is increasingly assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm that has been shown to assay central cholinergic activity from the motor cortex (M1). Recently, we established a method to index SAI from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We investigated SAI in M1 and DLPFC in schizophrenia...
April 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379483/effectiveness-of-prescription-based-cns-stimulants-on-hospitalization-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-nation-wide-register-study
#11
Christopher Rohde, Christoffer Polcwiartek, Marton Asztalos, Jimmi Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are main features of schizophrenia but with limited treatment options. Earlier studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) stimulants have a small effect on these domains, but with inconclusive results. As the first study to date, we aimed to investigate whether CNS stimulants improve naturalistic outcomes (psychiatric admissions and antipsychotic use) in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: By using extensive health registers all patients with schizophrenia and their use of CNS stimulants in Denmark were identified...
April 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373685/early-neuromodulation-prevents-the-development-of-brain-and-behavioral-abnormalities-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia
#12
R Hadar, L Bikovski, M L Soto-Montenegro, J Schimke, P Maier, S Ewing, M Voget, F Wieske, T Götz, M Desco, C Hamani, J Pascau, I Weiner, C Winter
The notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which neuropathologies evolve gradually over the developmental course indicates a potential therapeutic window during which pathophysiological processes may be modified to halt disease progression or reduce its severity. Here we used a neurodevelopmental maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia to test whether early targeted modulatory intervention would affect schizophrenia's neurodevelopmental course. We applied deep brain stimulation (DBS) or sham stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent MIS rats and respective controls, and investigated its behavioral, biochemical, brain-structural and -metabolic effects in adulthood...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353231/multiplex-immunoassay-profiling-of-serum-in-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Laurie Stephen, Emanuel Schwarz, Paul C Guest
Multiplex immunoassays allow for the rapid profiling of biomarker proteins in biological fluids, using less sample and labour than in single immunoassays. This chapter details the methods to develop and manufacture a 5-plex immunoassay for the Luminex® platform. Although assay development is not included here, the same methods can be used to covalently couple antibodies to the Luminex beads and to label antibodies for the screening of sandwich pairs, if needed. An example will be given for the analysis of five hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1, growth hormone, insulin, leptin and thyroid-stimulating hormone) in serum samples from schizophrenia patients and controls...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350401/systemic-inflammation-enhances-stimulant-induced-striatal-dopamine-elevation
#14
J R Petrulli, B Kalish, N B Nabulsi, Y Huang, J Hannestad, E D Morris
Changes in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions including addiction, depression and schizophrenia. Dysfunction of the neuroimmune system is often comorbid with such conditions and affects similar areas of the brain. The goal of this study was to use positron emission tomography with the dopamine D2 antagonist tracer, (11)C-raclopride, to explore the effect of acute immune activation on striatal DA levels. DA transmission was modulated by an oral methylphenidate (MP) challenge in order to reliably elicit DA elevation...
March 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350371/a-neurophysiological-perspective-on-a-preventive-treatment-against-schizophrenia-using-transcranial-electric-stimulation-of-the-corticothalamic-pathway
#15
REVIEW
Didier Pinault
Schizophrenia patients are waiting for a treatment free of detrimental effects. Psychotic disorders are devastating mental illnesses associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Ongoing brain network gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations, naturally implicated in integrative function, are excessively amplified during hallucinations, in at-risk mental states for psychosis and first-episode psychosis. So, gamma oscillations represent a bioelectrical marker for cerebral network disorders with prognostic and therapeutic potential...
March 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348382/delta-frequency-stimulation-of-cerebellar-projections-can-compensate-for-schizophrenia-related-medial-frontal-dysfunction
#16
K L Parker, Y C Kim, R M Kelley, A J Nessler, K-H Chen, V A Muller-Ewald, N C Andreasen, N S Narayanan
Schizophrenia involves abnormalities in the medial frontal cortex that lead to cognitive deficits. Here we investigate a novel strategy to normalize medial frontal brain activity by stimulating cerebellar projections. We used an interval timing task to study elementary cognitive processing that requires both frontal and cerebellar networks that are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. We report three novel findings. First, patients with schizophrenia had dysfunctional delta rhythms between 1-4 Hz in the medial frontal cortex...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347261/dopamine-d4-receptor-stimulation-contributes-to-novel-object-recognition-relevance-to-cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia
#17
Masanori Miyauchi, Nichole M Neugebauer, Herbert Y Meltzer
Several atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have high affinity for the dopamine (DA) D4 receptor, but the relevance to the efficacy for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D4 receptor stimulation or blockade on novel object recognition (NOR) in normal rats and on the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP)-induced novel object recognition deficit. The effect of the D4 agonist, PD168077, and the D4 antagonist, L-745,870, were studied alone, and in combination with clozapine and lurasidone...
April 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343167/the-unappreciated-roles-of-the-cholecystokinin-receptor-cck-1-in-brain-functioning
#18
Santiago Ballaz
The CCK(1) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the sulfated forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), a gastrin-like peptide released in the gastrointestinal tract and mammal brain. A substantial body of research supports the hypothesis that CCK(1)r stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion in the gut, as well as satiety in brain. However, this receptor may also fulfill relevant roles in behavior, thanks to its widespread distribution in the brain. The strategic location of CCK(1)r in mesolimbic structures and specific hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei lead to complex interactions with neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate, as well as hypothalamic hormones and neuropeptides...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338977/effects-of-augmenting-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-signaling-on-working-memory-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-using-acute-d-cycloserine
#19
Jennifer K Forsyth, Peter Bachman, Daniel H Mathalon, Brian J Roach, Elissa Ye, Robert F Asarnow
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been hypothesized to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which the NMDAR contributes to individual cognitive functions differ. To explore how NMDAR signaling relates to specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we tested the effects of enhancing NMDAR signaling on working memory and experience-dependent plasticity using d-cycloserine (DCS). Plasticity was assessed using an EEG paradigm that utilizes high-frequency visual stimulation (HFvS) to induce neural potentiation, and 2 learning tasks, the information integration (IIT) and weather prediction (WPT) tasks...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336195/cognitive-correlates-of-visual-neural-plasticity-in-schizophrenia
#20
Carol Jahshan, Jonathan K Wynn, Daniel H Mathalon, Michael F Green
Neuroplasticity may be an important treatment target to improve the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Yet, it is poorly understood and difficult to assess. Recently, a visual high-frequency stimulation (HFS) paradigm that potentiates electroencephalography (EEG)-based visual evoked potentials (VEP) has been developed to assess neural plasticity in the visual cortex. Using this paradigm, we examined visual plasticity in SZ patients (N=64) and its correlations with clinical symptoms, neurocognition, functional capacity, and community functioning...
March 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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