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Schizophrenia methylphenidate

Philip Skoretz, Chin Tang
High violence prevalence is a common concern for forensic psychiatric settings. Categorizing underlying drivers of violence has helped to direct treatment and management efforts toward psychotic, predatory, and impulsively violent psychopathology. This article describes a series of cases in which clozapine provided adequate control of psychosis in women suffering schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Nevertheless, impulsive violence remained problematic. Add-on methylphenidate was found to be safe and effective in curbing impulsive violent behavior in this select group of patients...
May 16, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Camilla Lazzaretti, Grasielle Clotildes Kincheski, Pablo Pandolfo, Rachel Krolow, Ana Paula Toniazzo, Danusa Mar Arcego, Natividade de Sá Couto-Pereira, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá, Martin Galvalisi, Gustavo Costa, Cecilia Scorza, Tadeu Mello E Souza, Carla Dalmaz
Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients...
March 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Yu-Chiau Shyu, Shin-Sheng Yuan, Sheng-Yu Lee, Chun-Ju Yang, Kang-Chung Yang, Tung-Liang Lee, Liang-Jen Wang
This study estimated the risk of developing psychotic disorders by comparing children with ADHD to non-ADHD controls, and to examine whether methylphenidate (MPH) treatment influences the risks of psychotic disorders. A nationwide cohort of patients who were newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=73,049) and age- and gender-matched controls (n=73,049) were selected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database from January 2000 to December 2011. All participants were observed until December 31, 2011. Cox regression models were used to estimate the effects of ADHD diagnosis and MPH use on subsequent outcomes...
October 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Miho Ota, Shintaro Ogawa, Koichi Kato, Chiaki Masuda, Hiroshi Kunugi
Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia show greater sensitivity to psychostimulants than healthy subjects. Sensitization to psychostimulants and resultant alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission in rodents has been suggested as a useful model of schizophrenia. This study sought to examine the use of methylphenidate as a psychostimulant to induce dopamine release and that of [(18)F]fallypride as a radioligand to quantify the release in a primate model of schizophrenia. Four common marmosets were scanned by positron emission tomography twice, before and after methylphenidate challenge, to evaluate dopamine release...
December 2015: Neuroscience Research
Alexandra Patin, René Hurlemann
Social cognition is a major problem underlying deficiencies in interpersonal relationships in several psychiatric populations. And yet there is currently no gold standard for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illness that directly targets these social cognitive areas. This chapter serves to illustrate some of the most innovative attempts at pharmacological modulation of social cognition in psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder...
2015: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Miho Ota, Shintaro Ogawa, Koichi Kato, Chisato Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Previous studies demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia show greater sensitivity to psychostimulants than healthy subjects. Sensitization to psychostimulants and resultant alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission in rodents have been suggested as a useful model of schizophrenia. This study was aimed to examine the use of methylphenidate as a psychostimulant to induce dopamine release and that of [18F]fallypride as a radioligand to estimate the release in a rat model of schizophrenia. Six rats were scanned by positron emission tomography (PET) twice before and after methylphenidate challenge to evaluate dopamine release...
April 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Cristina Dobrea, Laura Cremaschi, Chiara Arici, A Carlo Altamura
Medications promoting wakefulness are currently used in psychopharmacology in different contexts and with different objectives. In particular, they may be used for the treatment of syndromes that primarily show significant impairment in alertness/wakefulness (e.g., excessive sleepiness and other sleep disorders) as well as for the symptomatic treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders that, in turn, are not exclusively characterized by sleep-wake disturbances (like mood disorders, for instance). In addition, several psychotropic compounds, including some antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and anxiolytics have well-established sedating side effects that may go beyond the therapeutic target and require the symptomatic use of wake-promoting agents...
December 2014: Current Psychiatry Reports
Mu-Hong Chen, Ya-Mei Bai, Ying-Sheue Chen, Kai-Lin Huang, Ju-Wei Hsu, Tung-Ping Su
A 13-year-old boy suffered from hypersomnia, fragmented nighttime sleep, and cataplexy since age 10 years, and then developed prominent psychotic symptoms (i.e., auditory and visual hallucination, hallucinatory behavior, delusions of reference, and misidentification) that occurred persistently during the wakeful and consciously clear period when he was aged 12 years. The child underwent additional medical evaluation and testing, and comorbidity of narcolepsy and schizophrenia was diagnosed. The child's psychotic symptoms and narcolepsy improved significantly upon treatment with methylphenidate 30 mg, olanzapine 25 mg, and haloperidol 10 mg...
November 2014: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Eugenia Sinita, David Coghill
Psychostimulants play a central role in the management of ADHD. Here we review the evidence pertaining to the use of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and related amphetamine salts, the prodrug lisdexamfetamine and modafinil for the management of comorbid ADHD and non-ADHD indications. There is a growing consensus that stimulant medications are helpful at improving the emotional dysregulation and lability, and oppositional and conduct symptoms that are often associated with ADHD. There is some evidence that psychostimulants may improve outcomes in those with treatment resistant depression, reduce negative symptoms and improve cognitive performance in schizophrenia, and that methylphenidate may reduce binge eating in those with bulimia nervosa...
December 2014: Neuropharmacology
V Kolparov, N Barykina, I Chepkasov
To study the relationship between three animal models of schizophrenia, i.e. genetically determined akinetic catatonia, stereotypies induced by amphetamine-like psychostimulators, and behavioural changes in chronic intoxication with such stimulators, the frequency of different types of reactions to a functional amphetamine analogue, methylphenidate, was studied in wild Norway rats, non-selected Wistar rats, and Wistar rats bred for predisposition to akinetic catatonia. A positive relationship between the predisposition to catatonia and the level of stereotypies in a single methylphenidate administration was found in wild rats, but not in Wistar bred for catatonia (the latter differed from the non-selected rats in a higher frequency of "hyperactive" reactions)...
October 1981: Behavioural Processes
V G Kolpakov, M A Gilinsky, T A Alekhina, N N Barykina, E M Nikulina, N N Voitenko, A V Kulikov, N I Shtilman
To check experimentally the hypothesis of schizophrenia being a manifestation of extremely low threshold of hypnotic (catatonic) type of reaction, changes of some neurophysiologic and neurochemical systems in rats with a genetic predisposition to catalepsy were compared to analogous changes found so far in schizophrenia or chronic amphetamine intoxication considered nowadays as the most adequate pharmacological model of schizophrenia. It is found that in rats predisposed to catalepsy the threshold of audiogenic seizures is elevated; the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase in striatum is higher in rats predisposed to catalepsy genetically and due to a chronic methylphenidate intoxication as compared to control animals; noradrenaline content and noradrenaline/dopamine ratio is lower in the diencephalon of rats predisposed to catalepsy than in controls; cataleptic rats have a higher content of homovanillic acid in N...
June 1987: Behavioural Processes
G Laux, A Brunnauer
There are only few data available regarding the effects of depressive disorders on road safety due to methodological shortcomings. Patients with acute severe depression or manias are unqualified for driving but after clinical remission driving ability can be attested under psychiatric supervision in most cases. So far there are only few data available about a patient's fitness to drive under psychotropic medication. Regarding the effects of antidepressants on road safety depressed patients obviously benefit from treatment with newer antidepressants; however, at least some subgroups of patients do not reach the performance level of healthy subjects...
July 2014: Der Nervenarzt
Alireza Ghaffarinejad, Ali Kheradmand
BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate is one of the classic amphetamines which can cause or exacerbate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients. CASE REPORT: In this paper, a young man is presented with injection of methylphenidate tablets with acute cellulitis due to this injection and the related symptoms. In the first hospitalization and after recovery from psychotic disorder due to tablet injections, he was under treatment with anti-psychotics because of other symptoms related to schizophrenia...
2009: Addiction & Health
Lucas A de Azeredo, Diego L Rovaris, Nina R Mota, Evelise R Polina, Francine Z Marques, Verônica Contini, Eduardo S Vitola, Paulo Belmonte-de-Abreu, Luis A Rohde, Eugenio H Grevet, Claiton H D Bau
The dopamine transporter (SLC6A3/DAT1) plays a key role in the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and is the major site of action for methylphenidate, a first-line medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most genetic association studies with ADHD have investigated a 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the DAT1, but these investigations have reported heterogeneous findings. The few studies focused on the 5' region have reported promising results...
August 2014: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
A C Issy, E A Del Bel
RATIONALE: The dopamine and nitric oxide (NO) interaction on sensorimotor gating modulation measured through the prepulse inhibition (PPI), has been described recently. The PPI impairment has been reported in several neuropsychiatric conditions, particularly in schizophrenia. We previously demonstrated that NO inhibitors, similarly to the antipsychotic drugs, attenuate the disruptive effect of amphetamine or its analogue methylphenidate in the PPI response. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine if the known expression of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos induced by methylphenidate may be modified by NO inhibition...
April 1, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
Gary Remington, George Foussias, Ofer Agid, Gagan Fervaha, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Margaret Hahn
Dopamine's proposed role in psychosis proved a starting point in our understanding of the neurobiology of relapse, fitting given the central role positive symptoms play. This link is reflected in early work examining neurotransmitter metabolite and drug (e.g. amphetamine, methylphenidate) challenge studies as a means of better understanding relapse and predictors. Since, lines of investigation have expanded (e.g. electrophysiological, immunological, hormonal, stress), an important step forward if relapse per se is the question...
February 2014: Schizophrenia Research
Thomas Del'Guidice, Francis Lemay, Morgane Lemasson, Jean Levasseur-Moreau, Stella Manta, Adeline Etievant, Guy Escoffier, François Y Doré, François S Roman, Jean-Martin Beaulieu
Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin synthesis enzyme Tph2 have been identified in mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder, major depression, autism, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Deficits in cognitive flexibility and perseverative behaviors are shared common symptoms in these disorders. However, little is known about the impact of Tph2 gene variants on cognition. Mice expressing a human TPH2 variant (Tph2-KI) were used to investigate cognitive consequences of TPH2 loss of function and pharmacological treatments...
April 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Chris P Jew, Chia-Shan Wu, Hao Sun, Jie Zhu, Jui-Yen Huang, Dinghui Yu, Nicholas J Justice, Hui-Chen Lu
The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been implicated in the pathology of various neurological disorders including schizophrenia, ADHD, and autism. mGluR5-dependent synaptic plasticity has been described at a variety of neural connections and its signaling has been implicated in several behaviors. These behaviors include locomotor reactivity to novel environment, sensorimotor gating, anxiety, and cognition. mGluR5 is expressed in glutamatergic neurons, inhibitory neurons, and glia in various brain regions...
2013: PloS One
Philip Seeman
It is known that schizophrenia patients are behaviorally supersensitive to dopamine-like drugs (amphetamine, methylphenidate). There is evidence for an increased release of dopamine, a slight increase of dopamine D2 receptors and an increase of dopamine D2High receptors in schizophrenia, all possibly explaining the clinical supersensitivity to dopamine. The elevation in apparent D2High receptors in vivo in schizophrenia matches the elevation in D2High receptors in many animal models of psychosis. The increased amounts of D2High receptors in psychotic-like behavior in animals may result from a loss of control of D2 by various factors...
October 1, 2013: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Philip Seeman
Schizophrenia patients are behaviorally supersensitive to dopamine-like drugs such as amphetamine or methylphenidate, meaning that patients respond to such drugs with increased psychotic symptoms, as compared to control subjects. A basis of such supersensitivity may be an increased pre-synaptic release of dopamine or a post-synaptic elevation of D2 receptors or of D2High receptors in active stages of schizophrenia. While the pre-synaptic release of dopamine is normal in stable patients with schizophrenia, brain imaging studies find that D2 receptors are increased by an average of 5...
September 2013: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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