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Schizophrenia methylphenidate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knock-out-rats
#1
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Mariia Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia V Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Giovanni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats in which the gene encoding DAT knockout Rats (DAT-KO) has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332255/profiling-attention-and-cognition-enhancing-drugs-in-a-rat-touchscreen-based-continuous-performance-test
#2
Zhiyong Ding, Jordan W Brown, Lynne E Rueter, Eric G Mohler
RATIONALE: A novel rodent continuous performance test (CPT) was developed as one of the goals of the NEWMEDS (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia) consortium to improve its translatability to the CPT test used in human subjects. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of attention and cognition enhancing drugs in rodent CPT. METHODS: A single cohort of rats were trained to asymptotic performance in the test...
April 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959903/the-effect-of-methylphenidate-treatment-on-suspiciousness-in-children-with-adhd-alone-or-comorbid-with-odd
#3
Pavel Golubchik, Abraham Weizman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of the suspiciousness in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in comparison to ADHD alone and the response of suspiciousness symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. METHODS: In this open-label comparative study, children with DSM-IV-TR ADHD, aged 8-18 years, with (N = 30) or without (N = 30) ODD received MPH treatment for 12 weeks. The severity of ODD symptoms was assessed by the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia...
June 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816243/dopamine-synthesis-capacity-is-associated-with-d2-3-receptor-binding-but-not-dopamine-release
#4
Anne S Berry, Vyoma D Shah, Daniella J Furman, Robert L White III, Suzanne L Baker, James P O'Neil, Mustafa Janabi, Mark D'Esposito, William J Jagust
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging allows the estimation of multiple aspects of dopamine function including dopamine synthesis capacity, dopamine release, and D2/3 receptor binding. Though dopaminergic dysregulation characterizes a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and addiction, there has been relatively little investigation into the nature of relationships across dopamine markers within healthy individuals. Here we used PET imaging in 40 healthy adults to compare, within individuals, the estimates of dopamine synthesis capacity (Ki ) using 6-[18 F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine ([18 F]FMT; a substrate for aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), baseline D2/3 receptor-binding potential using [11 C]raclopride (a weak competitive D2/3 receptor antagonist), and dopamine release using [11 C]raclopride paired with oral methylphenidate administration...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806385/a-naturalistic-comparison-of-methylphenidate-and-risperidone-monotherapy-in-drug-naive-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-and-aggression
#5
Gabriele Masi, Azzurra Manfredi, Giulia Nieri, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Pfanner, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a consecutive sample of 40 drug-naive male youths diagnosed as having ADHD-combined presentation, comorbid with ODD and aggression, without psychiatric comorbidities, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version)...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710695/serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-treated-with-methylphenidate-an-8-week-observational-pretest-posttest-study
#6
Aynur Pekcanlar Akay, Halil Resmi, Sevay Alsen Güney, Handan Özek Erkuran, Gonca Özyurt, Enis Sargin, Ahmet Topuzoglu, Ali Evren Tufan
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neurotrophin in the brain that modulates dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in serum BDNF levels of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in response to OROS methylphenidate treatment. We also aimed to determine whether there were any pre-post-differences between ADHD subtypes and comorbid psychiatric disorders in serum BDNF levels. Fifty male children with ADHD and 50 male healthy controls within the age range of 6-12 years were recruited to the study...
January 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416594/new-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-akt1-gene-predicts-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-stimulant-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-healthy-human-brain
#7
Elena Shumay, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Sung Won Kim, Colin A Hodgkinson, Hui Sun, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Daniel R Weinberger, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Nora D Volkow
The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 [major alleles: L- (eight repeats) and H- (nine repeats)] on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350401/systemic-inflammation-enhances-stimulant-induced-striatal-dopamine-elevation
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
J R Petrulli, B Kalish, N B Nabulsi, Y Huang, J Hannestad, E D Morris
Changes in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions including addiction, depression and schizophrenia. Dysfunction of the neuroimmune system is often comorbid with such conditions and affects similar areas of the brain. The goal of this study was to use positron emission tomography with the dopamine D2 antagonist tracer,11 C-raclopride, to explore the effect of acute immune activation on striatal DA levels. DA transmission was modulated by an oral methylphenidate (MP) challenge in order to reliably elicit DA elevation...
March 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336432/behavioral-abnormalities-and-reduced-norepinephrine-in-ep4-receptor-associated-protein-eprap-deficient-mice
#9
Risako Fujikawa, Sei Higuchi, Taichi Ikedo, Manabu Nagata, Kosuke Hayashi, Tao Yang, Takeshi Miyata, Masayuki Yokode, Manabu Minami
EP4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP) is a newly identified molecule that regulates macrophage activation. We recently demonstrated the presence of EPRAP in the mice brain; however, little is known about the function of EPRAP in this tissue. Therefore, we investigated the role of EPRAP in behavior and emotion using behavioral analysis in mice. In this study, we subjected EPRAP-deficient (KO) mice and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. EPRAP-KO mice tended to have shorter latencies to fall in the wire hang test, but had normal neuromuscular strength...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251031/olanzapine-induced-priapism-in-a-child-with-asperger-s-syndrome
#10
Hasan Bozkurt, Serkan Şahin
BACKGROUND: Priapism is a potentially painful and prolonged erection that occurs in the absence of any stimulation. Olanzapine has been reported to induce priapism in several adult cases with schizophrenia and/or mood disorders but very rarely reported in children. CASE REPORT: 9-year-old male with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) referred to our clinic with the complaints of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. He was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and given methylphenidate treatment which ameliorated his ADHD symptoms...
January 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181114/stimulants-for-impulsive-violence-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disordered-women-a-case-series-and-brief-review
#11
REVIEW
Philip Skoretz, Chin Tang
High violence prevalence is a common concern for forensic psychiatric settings. Categorizing underlying drivers of violence has helped to direct treatment and management efforts toward psychotic, predatory, and impulsively violent psychopathology. This article describes a series of cases in which clozapine provided adequate control of psychosis in women suffering schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Nevertheless, impulsive violence remained problematic. Add-on methylphenidate was found to be safe and effective in curbing impulsive violent behavior in this select group of patients...
December 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26620193/neonatal-handling-causes-impulsive-behavior-and-decreased-pharmacological-response-to-methylphenidate-in-male-adult-wistar-rats
#12
Camilla Lazzaretti, Grasielle Clotildes Kincheski, Pablo Pandolfo, Rachel Krolow, Ana Paula Toniazzo, Danusa Mar Arcego, Natividade de Sá Couto-Pereira, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá, Martin Galvalisi, Gustavo Costa, Cecilia Scorza, Tadeu Mello E Souza, Carla Dalmaz
Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients...
March 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26363968/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-methylphenidate-use-and-the-risk-of-developing-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#13
Yu-Chiau Shyu, Shin-Sheng Yuan, Sheng-Yu Lee, Chun-Ju Yang, Kang-Chung Yang, Tung-Liang Lee, Liang-Jen Wang
This study estimated the risk of developing psychotic disorders by comparing children with ADHD to non-ADHD controls, and to examine whether methylphenidate (MPH) treatment influences the risks of psychotic disorders. A nationwide cohort of patients who were newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=73,049) and age- and gender-matched controls (n=73,049) were selected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database from January 2000 to December 2011. All participants were observed until December 31, 2011. Cox regression models were used to estimate the effects of ADHD diagnosis and MPH use on subsequent outcomes...
October 2015: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26232153/striatal-and-extrastriatal-dopamine-release-in-the-common-marmoset-brain-measured-by-positron-emission-tomography-and-18-f-fallypride
#14
Miho Ota, Shintaro Ogawa, Koichi Kato, Chiaki Masuda, Hiroshi Kunugi
Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia show greater sensitivity to psychostimulants than healthy subjects. Sensitization to psychostimulants and resultant alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission in rodents has been suggested as a useful model of schizophrenia. This study sought to examine the use of methylphenidate as a psychostimulant to induce dopamine release and that of [(18)F]fallypride as a radioligand to quantify the release in a primate model of schizophrenia. Four common marmosets were scanned by positron emission tomography twice, before and after methylphenidate challenge, to evaluate dopamine release...
December 2015: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25977087/social-cognition
#15
REVIEW
Alexandra Patin, René Hurlemann
Social cognition is a major problem underlying deficiencies in interpersonal relationships in several psychiatric populations. And yet there is currently no gold standard for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illness that directly targets these social cognitive areas. This chapter serves to illustrate some of the most innovative attempts at pharmacological modulation of social cognition in psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder...
2015: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25703679/methamphetamine-sensitized-rats-show-augmented-dopamine-release-to-methylphenidate-stimulation-a-positron-emission-tomography-using-18f-fallypride
#16
Miho Ota, Shintaro Ogawa, Koichi Kato, Chisato Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Previous studies demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia show greater sensitivity to psychostimulants than healthy subjects. Sensitization to psychostimulants and resultant alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission in rodents have been suggested as a useful model of schizophrenia. This study was aimed to examine the use of methylphenidate as a psychostimulant to induce dopamine release and that of [18F]fallypride as a radioligand to estimate the release in a rat model of schizophrenia. Six rats were scanned by positron emission tomography (PET) twice before and after methylphenidate challenge to evaluate dopamine release...
April 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25312027/wake-promoting-pharmacotherapy-for-psychiatric-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Cristina Dobrea, Laura Cremaschi, Chiara Arici, A Carlo Altamura
Medications promoting wakefulness are currently used in psychopharmacology in different contexts and with different objectives. In particular, they may be used for the treatment of syndromes that primarily show significant impairment in alertness/wakefulness (e.g., excessive sleepiness and other sleep disorders) as well as for the symptomatic treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders that, in turn, are not exclusively characterized by sleep-wake disturbances (like mood disorders, for instance). In addition, several psychotropic compounds, including some antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and anxiolytics have well-established sedating side effects that may go beyond the therapeutic target and require the symptomatic use of wake-promoting agents...
December 2014: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25107499/comorbidity-of-narcolepsy-and-schizophrenia-in-an-adolescent-patient
#18
Mu-Hong Chen, Ya-Mei Bai, Ying-Sheue Chen, Kai-Lin Huang, Ju-Wei Hsu, Tung-Ping Su
A 13-year-old boy suffered from hypersomnia, fragmented nighttime sleep, and cataplexy since age 10 years, and then developed prominent psychotic symptoms (i.e., auditory and visual hallucination, hallucinatory behavior, delusions of reference, and misidentification) that occurred persistently during the wakeful and consciously clear period when he was aged 12 years. The child underwent additional medical evaluation and testing, and comorbidity of narcolepsy and schizophrenia was diagnosed. The child's psychotic symptoms and narcolepsy improved significantly upon treatment with methylphenidate 30 mg, olanzapine 25 mg, and haloperidol 10 mg...
November 2014: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24951855/the-use-of-stimulant-medications-for-non-core-aspects-of-adhd-and-in-other-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Eugenia Sinita, David Coghill
Psychostimulants play a central role in the management of ADHD. Here we review the evidence pertaining to the use of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and related amphetamine salts, the prodrug lisdexamfetamine and modafinil for the management of comorbid ADHD and non-ADHD indications. There is a growing consensus that stimulant medications are helpful at improving the emotional dysregulation and lability, and oppositional and conduct symptoms that are often associated with ADHD. There is some evidence that psychostimulants may improve outcomes in those with treatment resistant depression, reduce negative symptoms and improve cognitive performance in schizophrenia, and that methylphenidate may reduce binge eating in those with bulimia nervosa...
December 2014: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24925817/genetic-predisposition-to-catatonic-behaviour-and-methylphenidate-sensitivity-in-rats
#20
V Kolparov, N Barykina, I Chepkasov
To study the relationship between three animal models of schizophrenia, i.e. genetically determined akinetic catatonia, stereotypies induced by amphetamine-like psychostimulators, and behavioural changes in chronic intoxication with such stimulators, the frequency of different types of reactions to a functional amphetamine analogue, methylphenidate, was studied in wild Norway rats, non-selected Wistar rats, and Wistar rats bred for predisposition to akinetic catatonia. A positive relationship between the predisposition to catatonia and the level of stereotypies in a single methylphenidate administration was found in wild rats, but not in Wistar bred for catatonia (the latter differed from the non-selected rats in a higher frequency of "hyperactive" reactions)...
October 1981: Behavioural Processes
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