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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914091/short-term-carbon-dynamics-in-a-temperate-grassland-and-heathland-ecosystem-exposed-to-104-days-of-drought-followed-by-irrigation
#1
Kavita Srivastava, Anke Jentsch, Juergen Kreyling, Bruno Glaser, Guido L B Wiesenberg
Temperate ecosystems are susceptible to drought events. The effect of a severe drought (104 days) followed by irrigation on the plant C uptake, its assimilation and input of C in soil were examined using a triple (13)CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiment in model grassland and heathland ecosystems. First (13)CO2 pulse at day 0 of the experiment revealed much higher (13)C tracer uptake for shoots, roots and soil compared to the second pulse (day 44), where all plants showed significantly lower (13)C tracer uptake...
September 15, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912813/silicone-substrate-with-collagen-and-carbon-nanotubes-exposed-to-pulsed-current-for-msc-osteodifferentiation
#2
Daniyal Jamal, Roche C de Guzman
Autologous human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential for clinical translation through their induction into osteoblasts for regeneration. Bone healing can be driven by biophysical stimulation using electricity for activating quiescent adult stem cells. It is hypothesized that application of electric current will enhance their osteogenic differentiation, and addition of conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the cell substrate will provide increased efficiency in current transmission...
2017: International Journal of Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893929/distinct-patterns-of-temporal-and-directional-connectivity-among-intrinsic-networks-in-the-human-brain
#3
James M Shine, Aaron Kucyi, Brett L Foster, Stephan Bickel, Danhong Wang, Hesheng Liu, Russell A Poldrack, Liang-Tien Hsieh, Jen Chun Hsiang, Josef Parvizi
To determine the spatiotemporal relationships among intrinsic networks of the human brain, we recruited seven neurosurgical patients (4 males; 3 females) who were implanted with intracranial depth electrodes. We first identified canonical resting state networks at the individual subject level using an iterative matching procedure on each subject's resting state fMRI data. We then introduced single electrical pulses to fMRI pre-identified nodes of the default (DN), frontoparietal (FPN) and salience networks (SN) while recording evoked responses in other recording sites within the same networks...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888977/emerging-technologies-for-the-non-invasive-characterization-of-physical-mechanical-properties-of-tablets
#4
REVIEW
Vivek S Dave, Hend I Shahin, Susanne R Youngren-Ortiz, Mahavir B Chougule, Rahul V Haware
The density, porosity, breaking force, viscoelastic properties, and the presence or absence of any structural defects or irregularities are important physical-mechanical quality attributes of popular solid dosage forms like tablets. The irregularities associated with these attributes may influence the drug product functionality. Thus, an accurate and efficient characterization of these properties is critical for successful development and manufacturing of a robust tablets. These properties are mainly analyzed and monitored with traditional pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial methods...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887316/prognostic-value-of-aortic-stiffness-in-patients-after-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#5
Hans-Josef Feistritzer, Gert Klug, Sebastian J Reinstadler, Martin Reindl, Lea Niess, Timo Nalbach, Christian Kremser, Agnes Mayr, Bernhard Metzler
BACKGROUND: High aortic stiffness has been shown to be a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in the general population and several patient cohorts. However, in patients after ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the prognostic value of high aortic stiffness is unknown so far. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective observational study included 160 consecutive patients with first acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured 2 (interquartile range 2-4 days) days after infarction using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging...
September 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878330/the-impact-of-wavelengths-of-led-light-therapy-on-endothelial-cells
#6
Sabrina Rohringer, Wolfgang Holnthoner, Sidrah Chaudary, Paul Slezak, Eleni Priglinger, Martin Strassl, Karoline Pill, Severin Mühleder, Heinz Redl, Peter Dungel
Low level light therapy receives increasing interest in the fields of tissue regeneration and wound healing. Several in vivo studies demonstrated the positive effects of LLLT on angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the underlying properties in vitro by comparing the effects of light therapy by light emitting diodes of different wavelengths on endothelial cells in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with either 475 nm, 516 nm or 635 nm light. Control cells were not illuminated...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873260/rotational-spectroscopy-probes-water-flipping-by-full-fluorination-of-benzene
#7
Luca Evangelisti, Kai Brendel, Heinrich Mäeder, Walther Caminati, Sonia Melandri
The topology of the interaction of water with benzene changes drastically upon full HF substitution on the aromatic ring: the weak O-H*** hydrogen bond is replaced by a O*** linkage, with about the same strength. Hexafluorobenzene-water appears to be the prototype system to investigate this kind of weak bond. Pulsed Fourier transform microwave technique has been used for the observation of the rotational spectra of the normal species and five isotopologues which unambiguously led to the identification of the geometry...
September 5, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863629/pulsed-characterization-of-a-uv-led-for-pulsed-power-applications-on-a-silicon-carbide-photoconductive-semiconductor-switch
#8
Nicholas Wilson, Daniel Mauch, Vincent Meyers, Shannon Feathers, James Dickens, Andreas Neuber
The electrical and optical characteristics of a high-power UV light emitting diode (LED) (365 nm wavelength) were evaluated under pulsed operating conditions at current amplitudes several orders of magnitude beyond the LED's manufacturer specifications. Geared towards triggering of photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) for pulsed power applications, measurements were made over varying pulse widths (25 ns-100 μs), current (0 A-250 A), and repetition rates (single shot-5 MHz). The LED forward voltage was observed to increase linearly with increasing current (∼3...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861179/impact-on-dietary-intake-of-a-self-directed-gender-tailored-diabetes-prevention-program-in-men
#9
Megan E Rollo, Elroy J Aguiar, Kirrilly M Pursey, Philip J Morgan, Ronald C Plotnikoff, Myles D Young, Clare E Collins, Robin Callister
AIM: To investigate changes in dietary intake following a 6-mo randomised controlled trial of the self-directed, gender-tailored type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Prevention Using LifeStyle Education (PULSE) program in men. METHODS: Men aged 18-65 years, with a body mass index (BMI) 25-40 kg/m(2), and at high risk for developing T2DM were recruited from the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. Eligible participants were randomised into one of two groups: (1) waitlist control; or (2) PULSE intervention...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852807/construction-of-a-highly-sensitive-signal-on-aptasensor-based-on-gold-nanoparticles-functionalized-silica-nanoparticles-for-selective-detection-of-tryptophan
#10
Ayemeh Bagheri Hashkavayi, Jahan Bakhsh Raoof, Reza Ojani
In this work, a highly sensitive, low-cost, and label-free aptasensor based on signal-on mechanisms of response was developed by immobilizing the aptamer on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/amine-functionalized silica nanoparticle (FSN)/screen-printed electrode (SPE) surface for highly selective electrochemical detection of tryptophan (Trp). The hemin (Hem), which interacted with the guanine bases of the aptamer, worked as a redox indicator to generate a readable electrochemical signal. The changes in the charge transfer resistance have been monitored using the voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) techniques...
August 29, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851224/a-pulse-of-mercury-and-major-ions-in-snowmelt-runoff-from-a-small-arctic-alaska-watershed
#11
Thomas Alexander Douglas, Matthew Sturm, Joel D Blum, Christopher Polashenski, Sveta Stuefer, Christopher Hiemstra, Alexandra Steffen, Simon Filhol, Romain Prevost
Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is deposited to Polar Regions during springtime atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) that require halogens and snow or ice surfaces. The fate of this Hg during and following snowmelt is largely unknown. We measured Hg, major ions, and stable water isotopes from the snowpack through the entire spring melt runoff period for two years. Our small (2.5 ha) watershed is near Barrow (now Utqiaġvik), Alaska. We measured discharge, made 10,000 snow depth measurements, and collected over 100 snow and meltwater samples for chemical analysis in 2008 and 2009...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846910/fate-of-organic-microcontaminants-in-wastewater-treatment-and-river-systems-an-uncertainty-assessment-in-view-of-sampling-strategy-and-compound-consumption-rate-and-degradability
#12
I Aymerich, V Acuña, C Ort, I Rodríguez-Roda, Ll Corominas
The growing awareness of the relevance of organic microcontaminants on the environment has led to a growing number of studies on attenuation of these compounds in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and rivers. However, the effects of the sampling strategies (frequency and duration of composite samples) on the attenuation estimates are largely unknown. Our goal was to assess how frequency and duration of composite samples influence uncertainty of the attenuation estimates in WWTPs and rivers. Furthermore, we also assessed how compound consumption rate and degradability influence uncertainty...
August 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840157/evaluation-of-evoked-responses-to-pulse-matched-high-frequency-and-intermittent-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-using-simultaneous-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#13
Adrian Curtin, Junfeng Sun, Hasan Ayaz, Zhenying Qian, Banu Onaral, Jijun Wang, Shanbao Tong
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method used to excite or inhibit cortical activity for experimental, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions. However, nonmotor regions of the brain targeted in TMS therapies, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), offer no extrinsic response to stimulation, resulting in a need for a practical method for the evaluation of treatment. We sought to determine the capability of a continuous-wave light emitting diodes (LED)-based functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system to measure evoked cortical hemoglobin changes in the DLPFC during the simultaneous application of TMS to the left-DLPFC under brief stimulation paradigms used in the clinic...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835250/dark-blood-late-gadolinium-enhancement-without-additional-magnetization-preparation
#14
Robert J Holtackers, Amedeo Chiribiri, Torben Schneider, David M Higgins, René M Botnar
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates a novel dark-blood late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) method, without using additional magnetization preparation, and compares it to conventional bright-blood LGE, for the detection of ischaemic myocardial scar. LGE is able to clearly depict myocardial infarction and macroscopic scarring from viable myocardium. However, due to the bright signal of adjacent left ventricular blood, the apparent volume of scar tissue can be significantly reduced, or even completely obscured...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832638/the-potential-impact-of-new-andean-dams-on-amazon-fluvial-ecosystems
#15
Bruce R Forsberg, John M Melack, Thomas Dunne, Ronaldo B Barthem, Michael Goulding, Rodrigo C D Paiva, Mino V Sorribas, Urbano L Silva, Sabine Weisser
Increased energy demand has led to plans for building many new dams in the western Amazon, mostly in the Andean region. Historical data and mechanistic scenarios are used to examine potential impacts above and below six of the largest dams planned for the region, including reductions in downstream sediment and nutrient supplies, changes in downstream flood pulse, changes in upstream and downstream fish yields, reservoir siltation, greenhouse gas emissions and mercury contamination. Together, these six dams are predicted to reduce the supply of sediments, phosphorus and nitrogen from the Andean region by 69, 67 and 57% and to the entire Amazon basin by 64, 51 and 23%, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813167/lipophagy-maintains-energy-homeostasis-in-the-kidney-proximal-tubule-during-prolonged-starvation
#16
Satoshi Minami, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomoko Namba, Jun Matsuda, Tomonori Kimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Taiji Matsusaka, Fumio Niimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a self-degradation process that combats starvation. Lipids are the main energy source in kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs). During starvation, PTCs increase fatty acid (FA) uptake, form intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), and hydrolyze them for use. The involvement of autophagy in lipid metabolism in the kidney remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the autophagy-mediated regulation of renal lipid metabolism during prolonged starvation using PTC-specific Atg5-deficient (atg5-TSKO) mice and an in vitro serum starvation model...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809758/optimizing-timing-performance-of-cdte-detectors-for-pet
#17
Mohammad Nakhostin
Despite several attractive properties, the poor timing performance of compound semiconductor detectors such as CdTe and CdZnTe has hindered their use in commercial PET imaging systems. The standard method of pulse timing with such detectors is to employ a constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) at the output of a timing filter which is fed by the pulses from a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The method has led to a time resolution of about 10 ns at full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with 1 mm thick CdTe detectors...
August 15, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805429/the-effect-of-scopolamine-on-matching-behavior-and-the-estimation-of-relative-reward-magnitude
#18
Matthew I Leon, Vanessa Rodriguez-Barrera, Aldo Amaya
We investigated the behavioral effects of scopolamine on rats that bar pressed for trains of electrically stimulating pulses under concurrent variable interval schedules of reward. For the first half of the session (30 min) a 1:4 ratio in the programmed number of stimulation trains delivered at each option was in effect. At the start of the second half of the session, an unsignaled reversal in the relative train number (4:1) occurred. We tracked the relative magnitude of reward estimated for each contiguous pair of reinforced visits to competing options...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800107/sequestration-effect-on-the-open-cyclic-switchable-property-of-warfarin-induced-by-cyclodextrin-time-resolved-fluorescence-study
#19
Naji Al-Dubaili, Na'il Saleh
The excited-state lifetimes of the anticoagulant drug warfarin (W) in water and in the absence and presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (Me-β-CD) were recorded using time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Selective excitation of the open and cyclic protonated isomers of W were acquired with laser emitting diodes (LED) producing 320 and 280 nm excitation pulses, respectively. Formation of the inclusion complex was checked by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and the values of binding constants (2.9 × 10³ M(-1) and 4...
August 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781982/influence-of-cathode-geometry-on-electron-dynamics-in-an-ultrafast-electron-microscope
#20
Shaozheng Ji, Luca Piazza, Gaolong Cao, Sang Tae Park, Bryan W Reed, Daniel J Masiel, Jonas Weissenrieder
Efforts to understand matter at ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolutions have led to the development of instruments such as the ultrafast transmission electron microscope (UEM) that can capture transient processes with combined nanometer and picosecond resolutions. However, analysis by UEM is often associated with extended acquisition times, mainly due to the limitations of the electron gun. Improvements are hampered by tradeoffs in realizing combinations of the conflicting objectives for source size, emittance, and energy and temporal dispersion...
September 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
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