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Pulsed led

Florian Knoll, Kerstin Hammernik, Erich Kobler, Thomas Pock, Michael P Recht, Daniel K Sodickson
PURPOSE: Although deep learning has shown great promise for MR image reconstruction, an open question regarding the success of this approach is the robustness in the case of deviations between training and test data. The goal of this study is to assess the influence of image contrast, SNR, and image content on the generalization of learned image reconstruction, and to demonstrate the potential for transfer learning. METHODS: Reconstructions were trained from undersampled data using data sets with varying SNR, sampling pattern, image contrast, and synthetic data generated from a public image database...
May 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Catherine Fortier, Marie-Pier Desjardins, Mohsen Agharazii
Background: Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is used for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. This mini-review describes the nonlinear relationship between cf-PWV and operational blood pressure, presents the proposed methods to adjust for this relationship, and discusses a potential place for aortic-brachial PWV ratio (a measure of arterial stiffness gradient) as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. Summary: PWV is inherently dependent on the operational blood pressure...
March 2018: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
C J Boos, C M Lamb, M Midwinter, A Mellor, D R Woods, M Howley, T Stansfield, M Foster, J P O'hara
The binding of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) to the membrane receptor for advanced glycation end-products (mRAGE) is a key early mediator of non-infectious inflammation and its triggers include ischaemia/hypoxia. The effects of acute hypoxia on soluble RAGE (sRAGE) are unknown. Fourteen healthy adults (50% women; 26.6+/-3.8 years) were assessed at baseline normoxia (T0), followed by four time-points (T90, 95, 100 and 180 minutes) over three hours of continuous normobaric hypoxia (NH, 4450m equivalent) and again 60 minutes after return to normoxia (T240)...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
Mihail Simion Beldean-Galea, Florina-Maria Copaciu, Maria-Virginia Coman
The textile industry uses many raw materials (natural and synthetic dyes and fibers) and different dyeing techniques that can be considered important pollutants with a negative impact on the environment (toxic working conditions, discharged wastewater, and contamination). Although synthetic dyes are intensively used, offer a wide range of colors and hues and properties of adhesion, longevity, and resistance to sunshine and chemical processes, and are cost-effective, they have begun to be restricted by many textile producers because they are nonbiodegradable and have toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic effects that generate some imbalances in plant, animal, and human life...
May 9, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Weihong Shi, Mingyang Duan, Ligang Jie, Weifeng Sun
RATIONALE: A 27-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE) developed hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) secondary due to an unrecognized infection that led to severe SLE with a prolonged recovery. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient showed a high spiking fever and myalgia. Laboratory data revealed pancytopenia and immunological abnormalities. Pulse methylprednisone plus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) failed to improve the clinical symptoms and laboratory data...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Haibo Yuan, Yanfeng Liu, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Guocheng Du, Zhongping Shi, Jian Chen, Long Liu
The compound, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), has attracted much attention due to its versatility as an important bio-based platform chemical. Here, we engineered Raoultella ornithinolytica BF60 as a whole-cell biocatalyst for highly efficient synthesis of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) from HMF. Specifically, various expression cassettes of key genes, such as hmfH (gene encoding HMF/furfural oxidoreductase [HmfH]) and hmfo (gene encoding HMF oxidase [HMFO]) were designed and constructed for fine-tuning FDCA synthesis from HMF...
May 7, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Cid A F de Paula Gomes, Ernesto C P Leal-Junior, Almir V Dibai-Filho, Adriano R de Oliveira, André S Bley, Daniela A Biasotto-Gonzalez, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effects of incorporation of phototherapy in a therapeutic exercise program for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) when compared to a group that received exercise alone and to a group that received exercise + placebo phototherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a randomized, blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Thus, sixty male and female individuals aged 40-80 years with knee pain in the previous 6 months participated of the study, with diagnosis of unilateral knee OA based on the criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology and radiographic confirmation and Grades 2 or 3 of the Kellgren-Lawrence Classification...
May 7, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Shady S Hassan, Gwilym A Williams, Amit K Jaiswal
Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to overcome its intrinsic recalcitrant nature prior to the production of valuable chemicals has been studied for nearly 200 years. Research has targeted eco-friendly, economical and time-effective solutions, together with a simplified large-scale operational approach. Commonly used pretreatment methods, such as chemical, physico-chemical and biological techniques are still insufficient to meet optimal industrial production requirements in a sustainable way. Recently, advances in applied chemistry approaches conducted under extreme and non-classical conditions has led to possible commercial solutions in the marketplace (e...
April 25, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Katarina Znidar, Masa Bosnjak, Nina Semenova, Olga Pakhomova, Loree Heller, Maja Cemazar
Cytosolic DNA sensors are a subgroup of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and are activated by the abnormal presence of the DNA in the cytosol. Their activation leads to the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and can also induce cell death. The presence of cytosolic DNA sensors and inflammatory cytokines in TS/A murine mammary adenocarcinoma and WEHI 164 fibrosarcoma cells was demonstrated using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
Raphaël Florentin, Vincent Kermene, Agnès Desfarges-Berthelemot, Alain Barthelemy
Ultrashort light pulse transport and amplification in a 1.3 m long step-index multimode fiber with gain and with weak coupling has been investigated. An adaptive shaping of the input wavefront, only based on the output intensity pattern, has led to an amplified pulse focused both in space (1/32) and in time (1/10) despite a strong modal group delay dispersion. Optimization of the input owing to the two-photon detection of the amplified signal permitted to excite the fastest and more intense principal mode of the fiber and to get an output pulse duration limited by group velocity dispersion...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Yingzi Zhang, Yulong Hou, Yanjun Zhang, Yanjun Hu, Liang Zhang, Xiaolong Gao, Huixin Zhang, Wenyi Liu
A quasi-distributed liquid leakage (QDLL) sensor in local area is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, providing a real-time yet low-cost method than the existing local QDLL sensor. The sensor mainly consists of a flexible lamp belt (FLB) with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a polymer optical fiber (POF) processed with side-coupling structures. The side-coupling structures are illuminated by the LEDs one by one, forming a series of sensing probes. The lights are side-coupled into the POF through the side-coupling structure and pulse sequences are obtained from the power meters connected to the both ends of the POF...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Ke Xu, Xiaodan Liu, Yuchun Wang, Chouin Wong, Yan Song
Understanding how cellular identity naturally interconverts with high efficiency and temporospatial precision is crucial for regenerative medicine. Here we revealed a natural midgut-to-renal lineage conversion event during Drosophila metamorphosis and identified the evolutionarily-conserved homeodomain protein Cut as a master switch in this process. A steep Wnt/Wingless morphogen gradient intersects with a pulse of steroid hormone ecdysone to induce cut expression in a subset of midgut progenitors and reprogram them into renal progenitors...
May 1, 2018: ELife
Michael Garwood, Kamil Uğurbil
The first use of a surface coil to obtain a 31 P NMR spectrum from an intact rat by Ackerman and colleagues initiated a revolution in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS). Today, we take it for granted that one can detect signals in regions external to an RF coil; at the time, however, this concept was most unusual. In the approximately four decade long period since its introduction, this simple idea gave birth to an increasing number of innovations that has led to transformative changes in the way we collect data in an in vivo magnetic resonance experiment, particularly with MRI of humans...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Jessica Ausborn, Hidehiko Koizumi, William H Barnett, Tibin T John, Ruli Zhang, Yaroslav I Molkov, Jeffrey C Smith, Ilya A Rybak
The circuit organization within the mammalian brainstem respiratory network, specifically within and between the pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) and Bötzinger (BötC) complexes, and the roles of these circuits in respiratory pattern generation are continuously debated. We address these issues with a combination of optogenetic experiments and modeling studies. We used transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 under the VGAT-promoter to investigate perturbations of respiratory circuit activity by site-specific photostimulation of inhibitory neurons within the pre-BötC or BötC...
April 26, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Xun Yuan, Andreas Mitsis, Mohammed Ghonem, Ilias Iakovakis, Christoph A Nienaber
Background: Type B aortic dissection is a life-threatening acute aortic condition often with acute ischemic signs or symptoms. With initial management focusing on alleviating malperfusion and pain, and avoiding propagation of dissection or rupture both systolic blood and pulse pressure should be reduced initially by an aggressive medical approach. In the setting of persistent signs of complications endovascular strategies have replaced open surgery and led to a fourfold increase in early survival and better long-term outcomes...
2018: Journal of visualized surgery
Maya Korem, Nahum S Goldberg, Amos Cahan, Matan J Cohen, Isaac Nissenbaum, Allon E Moses
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) damages cell membranes and is used in medicine for non-thermal ablation of malignant tumors. Our aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of IRE. The pathogenic microorganisms, S. aureus, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans were subjected to IRE. Survival was measured as a function of voltage and the number of pulses applied. Combined use of IRE and oxacillin for eradication of S. aureus was also tested. Log10 reduction of microorganisms positively correlated with the number of applied pulses...
April 21, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Dui Qin, Lei Zhang, Nan Chang, Pengying Ni, Yujin Zong, Ayache Bouakaz, Mingxi Wan, Yi Feng
In this study, the bioeffects of acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) on adjacent cells were investigated by evaluating the real-time cell response at the single-cell level in situ, using a combined ultrasound-exposure and optical imaging system. Two imaging modalities, high-speed and fluorescence imaging, were used to observe ADV bubble dynamics and to evaluate the impact on cell membrane permeabilization (i.e., sonoporation) using propidium iodide (PI) uptake as an indicator. The results indicated that ADV mainly led to irreversible rather than reversible sonoporation...
February 6, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Thomas P Nicholls, Johnathon C Robertson, Michael G Gardiner, Alex C Bissember
It has been reported that pulsed irradiation can improve photosynthetic activity and phytochemical production in plants. Intrigued and inspired by these observations, we postulated that pulsed irradiation strategies may have broader implications in organic synthesis. We report here the results of a proof-of-concept study demonstrating that pulsed LED irradiation enhances the efficiency of a visible light-mediated photoredox-catalysed reaction. The design and construction of an inexpensive multiphase circuit (∼US$5) enabling power and pulse frequency modulation, which is connected to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), provides a source of pulsed visible light...
April 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Laura Engelke, Gerhard Winter, Julia Engert
The intradermal delivery of biologics has long been recognized as attractive approach for cutaneous immunotherapy, particularly vaccination. Although intradermal (i.d.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection provide reproducible dosing and good cost- and delivery efficiency, the major objective to avoid sharps and the need for enhanced storage stability have renewed the interest in alternative needle-free delivery strategies. This study presents a new concept for the delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to viable skin layers with a high density of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Annick Judenherc-HaouzI, Takashi Sonobe, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Philippe Haouzi
This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of epinephrine, followed by chest compressions, in producing a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cyanide (CN)- or hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)-induced toxic cardiac pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in the rat. Thirty-nine anesthetized rats were exposed to either intravenous KCN (n = 27) or H2 S solutions (n = 12), at a rate that led to a PEA within less than 10 min. In the group intoxicated by CN, 20 rats were mechanically ventilated and received either epinephrine (0...
April 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
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