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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771138/rate-of-upper-extremity-injury-in-high-school-baseball-pitchers-who-played-catcher-as-a-secondary-position
#1
Elizabeth E Hibberd, Sakiko Oyama, Joseph B Myers
CONTEXT:   Many high school pitchers play another position after they have finished pitching for the day or on their rest days from pitching. Because of the cumulative demands on the arm, pitchers who also play catcher may have a greater risk of developing a throwing-related shoulder or elbow injury. OBJECTIVE:   To compare the rate of throwing-related upper extremity injuries between high school baseball pitchers who also played catcher as a secondary position and those who did not play catcher...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746146/predictors-of-elbow-torque-among-youth-and-adolescent-baseball-pitchers
#2
Kelechi R Okoroha, Vincent A Lizzio, Fabien Meta, Christopher S Ahmad, Vasilios Moutzouros, Eric C Makhni
BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing incidence of overuse elbow injuries among youth and adolescent pitchers. Pitch type has been implicated as a risk factor for excess torque at the medial elbow; however, this has not been definitively demonstrated. PURPOSE: To assess predictors of torque across the medial elbow in youth and adolescent pitchers with a mobile sensor. In addition, the authors aimed to determine the differences in elbow torque produced according to pitch type (fastball, curveball, changeup) and pitcher demographics...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712541/refractory-ulnar-nerve-symptoms-in-an-adolescent-pitcher-with-medial-apophysitis
#3
Aaron R Hellem, Elena J Jelsing, Wendy J Hurd
A 16-year-old high school baseball pitcher with a 3-week history of acute-onset pain in his medial elbow during throwing presented to physical therapy. Following examination, physical therapy was initiated and the patient was referred for imaging, with suspicion of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury. Radiographs were noncontributory. Ultrasound imaging, however, was performed by a physiatrist and was suggestive of a partial-thickness tear of the UCL and ulnar nerve enlargement. The physiatrist ordered magnetic resonance imaging, which confirmed a medial apophyseal stress reaction, a mild UCL sprain, and reactive ulnar nerve edema...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687013/effects-of-game-pitch-count-and-body-mass-index-on-pitching-biomechanics-in-9-to-10-year-old-baseball-athletes
#4
Jim D Darke, Eshan M Dandekar, Arnel L Aguinaldo, Scott J Hazelwood, Stephen M Klisch
Background: Pitching while fatigued and body composition may increase the injury risk in youth and adult pitchers. However, the relationships between game pitch count, biomechanics, and body composition have not been reported for a study group restricted to 9- to 10-year-old athletes. Hypothesis: During a simulated game with 9- to 10-year-old athletes, (1) participants will experience biomechanical signs of fatigue, and (2) shoulder and elbow kinetics will correlate with body mass index (BMI)...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687011/incidence-of-elbow-ulnar-collateral-ligament-surgery-in-collegiate-baseball-players
#5
Marcus A Rothermich, Stan A Conte, Kyle T Aune, Glenn S Fleisig, E Lyle Cain, Jeffrey R Dugas
Background: Recent reports have highlighted the progressive increase in the incidence of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries to the elbow in baseball players of all levels. However, knowledge of the incidence and other epidemiological factors regarding UCL injuries, specifically in college baseball players, is currently lacking. Purpose: To evaluate, over a period of 1 year, the incidence of UCL injuries requiring surgery in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I baseball programs...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651893/differences-among-overhand-three-quarter-and-sidearm-pitching-biomechanics-in-professional-baseball-players
#6
Rafael F Escamilla, Jonathan S Slowik, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig
The purpose of this study was to assess biomechanical differences among overhand, three-quarter, and sidearm arm-slot professional baseball pitchers. It was hypothesized that kinematic-and-kinetic differences would be found among the three groups, with sidearm pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the transverse plane, and overhead pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the sagittal plane. Based upon arm-slot-angle at ball-release, 30-overhand, 156-three-quarter, and 21-sidearm pitchers were tested using a 240-Hz-motion-analysis-system, and 37 kinematic-and-kinetic parameters were calculated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629813/summative-report-on-time-out-of-play-for-major-and-minor-league-baseball-an-analysis-of-49-955-injuries-from-2011-through-2016
#7
Christopher L Camp, Joshua S Dines, Jelle P van der List, Stan Conte, Justin Conway, David W Altchek, Struan H Coleman, Andrew D Pearle
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiologic reports have demonstrated rising injury rates in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB). Although several studies have recently been published on specific injuries, the majority of injuries have not yet been formally studied. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to (1) generate a summative analysis of all injuries that occur in MLB and MiLB, (2) identify the 50 most common injuries, and (3) generate focused reports and fact sheets on the characteristics of each of those diagnoses...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601208/performance-and-return-to-sport-after-tommy-john-surgery-among-major-league-baseball-position-players
#8
Robert A Jack, Matthew B Burn, Kyle R Sochacki, Patrick C McCulloch, David M Lintner, Joshua D Harris
BACKGROUND: The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary restraint to valgus stress at the elbow and is often injured among overhead throwing athletes. Despite prevention strategies, injuries to the elbow UCL are on the rise. PURPOSE: To determine (1) the return-to-sport (RTS) rate of Major League Baseball (MLB) position players after elbow medial UCL reconstruction, (2) postoperative career length and games per season, (3) pre- and postoperative performance, (4) postoperative performance versus matched control players, and (5) whether position players changed positions after UCL reconstruction...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581995/role-of-rotational-kinematics-in-minimizing-elbow-varus-torques-for-professional-versus-high-school-pitchers
#9
Micheal J Luera, Brittany Dowling, Mitchel A Magrini, Tyler W D Muddle, Ryan J Colquhoun, Nathaniel D M Jenkins
Background: Elbow injury rates among baseball pitchers are rapidly rising. However, this increase has been most dramatic among high school (HS) pitchers. Purpose: To examine pitch velocity and the kinetic and kinematic characteristics of HS versus professional (PRO) pitchers to identify potential differences that may play a role in the increased risk of ulnar collateral ligament injury in youth pitchers. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545682/correlation-of-upper-limb-joint-load-withsimultaneous-throwing-mechanics-including-acceleration-parameters-in-amateur-baseball-pitchers
#10
Yoichi Kaizu, Hideomi Watanabe, Takehiko Yamaji
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the knowledge of mechanical principles related to the load applied to the shoulder and elbow during the pitching motion. [Subjects and Methods] The three-dimensional kinematics of body segments were measured in 19 amateur baseball players with a VICON motion capture system. The correlation between maximum shoulder internal torque, maximum elbow varus torque, and simultaneous kinematic parameters including joint angular acceleration and ball acceleration was investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543598/decreased-hip-internal-rotation-increases-the-risk-of-back-and-abdominal-muscle-injuries-in-professional-baseball-players-analysis-of-258-player-seasons
#11
Christopher L Camp, Andrea M Spiker, John M Zajac, Dave Pearson, Alec M Sinatro, Joshua S Dines, Anil S Ranawat, Struan H Coleman
INTRODUCTION: The relationship of hip range of motion (ROM) to shoulder, elbow, abdominal, and back injuries remains undefined. METHODS: We assessed hip ROM on players reporting to Major League Spring Training for an organization over six seasons (2010 to 2015). Hip ROM was correlated with player abdominal, back, shoulder, and elbow injury status for those seasons using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 258 player-seasons (129 pitchers and 129 position players) resulted in 20 back and 35 abdominal injuries across all players and 28 elbow and 25 shoulder injuries in pitchers...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543498/effect-of-predraft-ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction-on-future-performance-in-professional-baseball-a-matched-cohort-comparison
#12
Christopher L Camp, Stan Conte, John D'Angelo, Stephen A Fealy, Christopher S Ahmad
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in the annual number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions performed in amateur baseball pitchers. Accordingly, increasing numbers of players are entering professional baseball having already undergone the procedure; however, the effect of prior UCL reconstruction on future success remains unknown. PURPOSE: (1) To provide an epidemiologic report on baseball players who undergo UCL reconstruction before being selected in the Major League Baseball (MLB) Draft, (2) to define the outcomes in terms of statistical performance, and (3) to compare these results with those of matched controls (ie, non-UCL reconstruction)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484242/trunk-lean-during-a-single-leg-squat-is-associated-with-trunk-lean-during-pitching
#13
Hillary A Plummer, Gretchen D Oliver, Christopher M Powers, Lori A Michener
Background: Impaired trunk motion during pitching may be a risk factor for upper extremity injuries. Specifically, increased forces about the shoulder and elbow have been observed in pitchers with excessive contralateral trunk lean during pitching. Because of the difficulty in identifying abnormal trunk motions during a high-speed task such as pitching, a clinical screening test is needed to identify pitchers who have impaired trunk motion during pitching. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the degree of lateral trunk lean during the single-leg squat and amount of trunk lean during pitching and if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450826/return-to-throwing-after-shoulder-or-elbow-injury
#14
REVIEW
Terrance A Sgroi, John M Zajac
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Throwing places high demands on the human body, and specific characteristics are developed over time unique to these athletes. When returning to throw after injury, it is important to follow a criterion-based progression that allows the body to be prepared appropriately for the stresses that throwing will require. There is currently a void in the literature for criteria-based progression that helps these athletes return to the highest level of play. RECENT FINDINGS: As injury rates continue to rise in baseball, there is increased evidence showing contributions of the core and lower extremity to the baseball pitch...
March 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349094/upper-extremity-functional-status-of-female-youth-softball-pitchers-using-the-kerlan-jobe-orthopaedic-clinic-questionnaire
#15
Kaila A Holtz, Russell J O'Connor
Background: Softball is a popular sport with a high incidence of upper extremity injuries. The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) questionnaire is a validated performance and functional assessment tool used in overhead athletes. Upper extremity pain patterns and baseline KJOC scores have not been reported for active female youth softball pitchers. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of upper extremity pain and its effect in female youth softball pitchers over a competitive season...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318169/reasons-for-retirement-following-ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction-among-major-league-baseball-pitchers
#16
Brandon J Erickson, Junyoung Ahn, Peter N Chalmers, Christopher S Ahmad, Bernard R Bach, Nikhil N Verma, Anthony A Romeo
Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become an increasingly common procedure among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. The long-term effects of this procedure on the career of an MLB pitcher are largely unknown. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine why and when MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR during their careers retired from baseball as compared with controls. We hypothesized that pitchers who underwent UCLR are no more likely than control pitchers to retire from elbow or shoulder problems...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289396/assessment-of-elbow-torque-and-other-parameters-during-the-pitching-motion-comparison-of-fastball-curveball-and-change-up
#17
Eric C Makhni, Vincent A Lizzio, Fabien Meta, Jeffrey P Stephens, Kelechi R Okoroha, Vasilios Moutzouros
PURPOSE: To assess the precision of a new wearable device in detecting medial elbow torque during the pitching motion in competitive baseball pitchers and to determine the differences in torque across pitch types and thrower demographic characteristics. METHODS: High school and collegiate baseball pitchers were recruited from August 1, 2016, to January 31, 2017, through direct request by athletic trainers and coaches. Body dimensions and throwing arm measurements of the participants were collected...
March 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153478/reliability-of-upper-limb-and-trunk-joint-angles-in-healthy-adults-during-activities-of-daily-living
#18
Susannah M Engdahl, Deanna H Gates
Assessments of upper limb performance should require participants to perform tasks that challenge the limits of their ability. In order to select appropriate tasks, it is important to know which joints are used to perform the movement and how reliably those movements can be measured. The purpose of this work was to quantify the reliability of upper limb and trunk joint angles in healthy adults during common activities of daily living (ADLs). Nineteen participants performed six ADLs with the right arm (applying deodorant, turning a doorknob, answering a desk telephone, placing a pushpin in a bulletin board, wiping a plate with a towel, and pouring water from a pitcher) during two separate sessions...
February 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090988/youth-baseball-pitching-mechanics-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Samuel F Thompson, Trent M Guess, Andreas C Plackis, Seth L Sherman, Aaron D Gray
CONTEXT: Pitching injuries in youth baseball are increasing in incidence. Poor pitching mechanics in young throwers have not been sufficiently evaluated due to the lack of a basic biomechanical understanding of the "normal" youth pitching motion. OBJECTIVE: To provide a greater understanding of the kinetics and kinematics of the youth baseball pitching motion. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from database inception through February 2017...
March 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068752/an-epidemiological-comparison-of-elbow-injuries-among-united-states-high-school-baseball-and-softball-players-2005-2006-through-2014-2015
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Andrew V Pytiak, Matthew J Kraeutler, Dustin W Currie, Eric C McCarty, R Dawn Comstock
BACKGROUND: Pitching is a common mechanism of injury in baseball, with known risk factors for elbow injuries among adolescent pitchers. HYPOTHESIS: Elbow injury rates and mechanisms will differ between high school baseball and softball players. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Baseball- and softball-related injury data from the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 academic years were collected from the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) Internet-based data collection tool...
March 2018: Sports Health
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