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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052863/double-stranded-rna-up-regulates-the-expression-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-human-aortic-valve-cells-through-the-tlr3-trif-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#1
Qiong Zhan, Rui Song, Fei Li, Lihua Ao, Qingchun Zeng, Dingli Xu, David A Fullerton, Xianzhong Meng
BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a chronic inflammatory condition and the inflammatory responses of aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) play a critical role in the disease progression. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) released from damaged or stressed cells is pro-inflammatory and may contribute to the mechanism of chronic inflammation observed in diseased aortic valves. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of dsRNA on AVIC inflammatory responses and the underlying mechanism...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035639/mycobacterium-infection-from-a-cardiopulmonary-bypass-heater-cooler-unit-in-a-patient-with-steroid-induced-immunosuppression
#2
Yi Cai, Kevin Landolfo, Johnathan R Renew
PURPOSE: To present a case of mycobacterium infection transmitted through a heater-cooler unit during cardiac bypass surgery. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 63-yr-old woman with a past medical history of aortic coarctation repair in 1963 and a mechanical aortic valve replacement in 2010 was prescribed antibiotics and steroids at an outpatient care facility in September 2015 for symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection. Four months later, she developed malaise and intermittent fever with anemia and acute kidney dysfunction...
December 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024939/rage-deficiency-alleviates-aortic-valve-calcification-in-apoe-mice-via-the-inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#3
Bo Wang, Zhejun Cai, Baoqing Liu, Zongtao Liu, Xianming Zhou, Nianguo Dong, Fei Li
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been shown to be involved in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). However, the association between RAGE and ER stress remains unknown in the pathogenesis of CAVD. The current study aims to test the hypothesis that RAGE deficiency alleviates aortic valve calcification via the inhibition of ER stress. Up-regulation of RAGE and ER stress markers in calcified human aortic valves were confirmed by immunoblotting. Aortic valve calcification was evaluated in atherosclerotic prone ApoE(-/-) mice or in mice with dual deficiencies of ApoE and RAGE (ApoE(-/-)RAGE(-/-)) fed with high cholesterol diet for 24weeks...
December 24, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024085/modeling-the-functional-role-of-valve-interstitial-cell-stress-fibers
#4
Yusuke Sakamoto, Rachel M Buchanan, Johannah S Adams, Farshid Guilak, Michael S Sacks
The function of the heart valve interstitial cells (VICs) are intimately connected to heart valve tissue remodeling and repair, as well as initiation of pathological processes. Given the complex three-dimensional VIC structure and associated biomechanical behaviors, we developed a VIC computational continuum mechanics model to determine changes in stress fibers contraction and strain rate sensitivity. Novel experimental data was acquired including stress fiber orientation, expression levels of F-actin and α-SMA, as well as microindentation studies...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999800/effects-of-raloxifene-on-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-human-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells
#5
Zhimin Fu, Bin Luo, Mingpeng Li, Bin Peng, Zheng Wang
We aimed to explore the effects of raloxifene (RAL) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Different concentrations of RAL were used to act on AVICs. MTS kit is used to test the effects of different concentrations of RAL on the proliferation of AVICs. Cell cycle and apoptosis test used flow cytometry after seven-day treatment. The relative expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-8 are tested with RT-qPCR and Western blot. The results of MTS testing revealed that the absorbance value (OD value) of the cells in the concentration groups of 10 and 100 nmol/L RAL at a wavelength of 490 nm at five, seven, and nine days significantly decreased compared with that in the control group...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959615/developmental-mechanisms-of-aortic-valve-malformation-and-disease
#6
Bingruo Wu, Yidong Wang, Feng Xiao, Jonathan T Butcher, Katherine E Yutzey, Bin Zhou
Normal aortic valves are composed of valve endothelial cells (VECs) and valve interstitial cells (VICs). VICs are the major cell population and have distinct embryonic origins in the endocardium and cardiac neural crest cells. Cell signaling between the VECs and VICs plays critical roles in aortic valve morphogenesis. Disruption of major cell signaling pathways results in aortic valve malformations, including bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV is a common congenital heart valve disease that may lead to calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), but there is currently no effective medical treatment for this beyond surgical replacement...
December 9, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932350/role-of-noncanonical-wnts-signaling-pathway-in-human-aortic-valve-calcification
#7
Isabella Albanese, Bin Yu, Hamood Al-Kindi, Bianca Barratt, Leah Ott, Mohammad Al-Refai, Benoit de Varennes, Dominique Shum-Tim, Marta Cerruti, Ophélie Gourgas, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif, Adel Schwertani
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of aortic valve calcification remain unclear. With accumulating evidence demonstrating that valve calcification recapitulates bone development, the crucial roles of noncanonical Wnt ligands WNT5a, WNT5b, and WNT11 in osteogenesis make them critical targets in the study of aortic valve calcification. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and tissue culture, we examined the tissue distribution of WNT5a, WNT5b, and WNT11 in noncalcified and calcified aortic valves and their effects on human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs)...
December 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928033/mitral-valve-leaflet-remodelling-during-pregnancy-insights-into-cell-mediated-recovery-of-tissue-homeostasis
#8
Bruno V Rego, Sarah M Wells, Chung-Hao Lee, Michael S Sacks
Little is known about how valvular tissues grow and remodel in response to altered loading. In this work, we used the pregnancy state to represent a non-pathological cardiac volume overload that distends the mitral valve (MV), using both extant and new experimental data and a modified form of our MV structural constitutive model. We determined that there was an initial period of permanent set-like deformation where no remodelling occurs, followed by a remodelling phase that resulted in near-complete restoration of homeostatic tissue-level behaviour...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866029/understanding-the-structural-features-of-symptomatic-calcific-aortic-valve-stenosis-a-broad-spectrum-clinico-pathologic-study-in-236-consecutive-surgical-cases
#9
Daniela Galli, Roberta Manuguerra, Rodolfo Monaco, Laura Manotti, Matteo Goldoni, Gabriella Becchi, Cecilia Carubbi, Giulia Vignali, Nicola Cucurachi, Tiziano Gherli, Francesco Nicolini, Roberto Lorusso, Marco Vitale, Domenico Corradi
BACKGROUND: With age, aortic valve cusps undergo varying degrees of sclerosis which, sometimes, can progress to calcific aortic valve stenosis (AVS). To perform a retrospective clinico-pathologic investigation in patients with calcific AVS. METHODS: We characterized and graded the structural remodeling in 236 aortic valves (200 tricuspid and 36 bicuspid) from patients with calcific AVS (148 males; average 72years); possible relationships between general/clinical/echocardiographic characteristics and the histopathologic changes were explored...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856308/dysregulation-of-hyaluronan-homeostasis-during-aortic-valve-disease
#10
Varun K Krishnamurthy, Andrew J Stout, Matthew C Sapp, Brittany Matuska, Mark E Lauer, K Jane Grande-Allen
Aortic valve disease (AVD) is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular mortality. Abnormal expression of hyaluronan (HA) and its synthesizing/degrading enzymes have been observed during latent AVD however, the mechanism of impaired HA homeostasis prior to and after the onset of AVD remains unexplored. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway defects and biomechanical dysfunction are hallmarks of AVD, however their association with altered HA regulation is understudied. Expression of HA homeostatic markers was evaluated in diseased human aortic valves and TGFβ1-cultured porcine aortic valve tissues using histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting...
November 15, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815266/role-for-galectin-3-in-calcific-aortic-valve-stenosis
#11
J Rafael Sádaba, Ernesto Martínez-Martínez, Vanessa Arrieta, Virginia Álvarez, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Jaime Ibarrola, Amaia Melero, Patrick Rossignol, Victoria Cachofeiro, Natalia López-Andrés
BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, and calcification plays an important role in the progression of the disease. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a proinflammatory molecule involved in vascular osteogenesis in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that Gal-3 could mediate valve calcification in AS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood samples and aortic valves (AVs) from 77 patients undergoing AV replacement were analyzed. As controls, noncalcified human AVs were obtained at autopsy (n=11)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789555/altered-dna-methylation-of-long-noncoding-rna-h19-in-calcific-aortic-valve-disease-promotes-mineralization-by-silencing-notch1
#12
Fayez Hadji, Marie-Chloé Boulanger, Simon-Pierre Guay, Nathalie Gaudreault, Soumiya Amellah, Guada Mkannez, Rihab Bouchareb, Joël Tremblay Marchand, Mohamed Jalloul Nsaibia, Sandra Guauque-Olarte, Philippe Pibarot, Luigi Bouchard, Yohan Bossé, Patrick Mathieu
BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic valve disease is characterized by an abnormal mineralization of the aortic valve. Osteogenic activity in the aortic valve is under the control of NOTCH1, which regulates the expression of key pro-osteogenic genes such as RUNX2 and BMP2. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may reprogram cells by altering the gene expression pattern. METHODS: Multidimensional genomic profiling was performed in human aortic valves to document the expression of lncRNAs and the DNA methylation pattern in calcific aortic valve disease...
December 6, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789554/lnc-ing-notch1-to-idiopathic-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#13
EDITORIAL
W David Merryman, Cynthia R Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783858/heart-valve-biomechanics-and-underlying-mechanobiology
#14
Salma Ayoub, Giovanni Ferrari, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Frederick J Schoen, Michael S Sacks
Heart valves control unidirectional blood flow within the heart during the cardiac cycle. They have a remarkable ability to withstand the demanding mechanical environment of the heart, achieving lifetime durability by processes involving the ongoing remodeling of the extracellular matrix. The focus of this review is on heart valve functional physiology, with insights into the link between disease-induced alterations in valve geometry, tissue stress, and the subsequent cell mechanobiological responses and tissue remodeling...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761653/sex-related-differences-in-matrix-remodeling-and-early-osteogenic-markers-in-aortic-valvular-interstitial-cells
#15
Shirin Masjedi, Ying Lei, Jenny Patel, Zannatul Ferdous
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cardiovascular disorder in the developed countries. Male is a known risk factor in this disease; unfortunately, how sex contributes to CAVD is mostly unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from male versus female aortic valves demonstrate difference in osteogenic differentiation and/or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. VICs were isolated from male and female rat or porcine aortic valves and cultured in osteogenic media for 10, 15 and 20 days...
October 19, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750208/cd45-expression-in-mitral-valve-endothelial-cells-after-myocardial-infarction
#16
Joyce Bischoff, Guillem Casanovas, Jill Wylie-Sears, Dae-Hee Kim, Philipp E Bartko, J Luis Guerrero, Jacob P Dal-Bianco, Jonathan Beaudoin, Michael L Garcia, Suzanne M Sullivan, Margo M Seybolt, Brittan A Morris, Joshua Keegan, Whitney S Irvin, Elena Aikawa, Robert A Levine
RATIONALE: Ischemic mitral regurgitation, a complication after myocardial infarction (MI), induces adaptive mitral valve (MV) responses that may be initially beneficial but eventually lead to leaflet fibrosis and MV dysfunction. We sought to examine the MV endothelial response and its potential contribution to ischemic mitral regurgitation. OBJECTIVE: Endothelial, interstitial, and hematopoietic cells in MVs from post-MI sheep were quantified. MV endothelial CD45, found post MI, was analyzed in vitro...
November 11, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713997/valve-interstitial-cell-contractile-strength-and-metabolic-state-are-dependent-on-its-shape
#17
Ngoc Thien Lam, Timothy J Muldoon, Kyle P Quinn, Narasimhan Rajaram, Kartik Balachandran
The role of valvular interstitial cell (VIC) architecture in regulating cardiac valve function and pathology is not well understood. VICs are known to be more elongated in a hypertensive environment compared to those in a normotensive environment. We have previously reported that valve tissues cultured under hypertensive conditions are prone to acute pathological alterations in cell phenotype and contractility. We therefore aimed to rigorously study the relationship between VIC shape, contractile output and other functional indicators of VIC pathology...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641300/performance-of-allogeneic-bioengineered-replacement-pulmonary-valves-in-rapidly-growing-young-lambs
#18
Rachael W Quinn, Arthur A Bert, Gabriel L Converse, Eric E Buse, Stephen L Hilbert, William B Drake, Richard A Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allometric organ growth after pediatric valve replacement can lead to patient-prosthesis size mismatch and valve re-replacement, which could be mitigated with allogeneic decellularized pulmonary valves treated with collagen conditioning solutions to enhance biological and mechanical performance, termed "bioengineered valves." In this study, we evaluated functional, dimensional, and biological responses of these bioengineered valves compared with traditional cryopreserved valves implanted in lambs during rapid somatic growth...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567567/valve-interstitial-cell-shape-modulates-cell-contractility-independent-of-cell-phenotype
#19
Ishita Tandon, Atefeh Razavi, Prashanth Ravishankar, Addison Walker, Nasya M Sturdivant, Ngoc Thien Lam, Jeffrey C Wolchok, Kartik Balachandran
Valve interstitial cells are dispersed throughout the heart valve and play an important role in maintaining its integrity, function, and phenotype. While prior studies have detailed the role of external mechanical and biological factors in the function of the interstitial cell, the role of cell shape in regulating contractile function, in the context of normal and diseased phenotypes, is not well understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to elucidate the link between cell shape, phenotype, and acute functional contractile output...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553639/spatial-expression-of-components-of-a-calcitonin-receptor-like-receptor-crl-signalling-system-crl-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-adrenomedullin-adrenomedullin-2-intermedin-in-mouse-and-human-heart-valves
#20
Uwe Pfeil, Subhashini Bharathala, Ghulam Murtaza, Petra Mermer, Tamara Papadakis, Andreas Boening, Wolfgang Kummer
Heart valves are highly organized structures determining the direction of blood flow through the heart. Smooth muscle cells within the valve are thought to play an active role during the heart cycle, rather than being just passive flaps. The mature heart valve is composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), various differentiations of valvular interstitial cells (VIC), smooth muscle cells and overlying endothelium. VIC are important for maintaining the structural integrity of the valve, thereby affecting valve function and ECM remodelling...
August 23, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
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