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INTERSTITIAL cells valve

Shirin Masjedi, Ying Lei, Jenny Patel, Zannatul Ferdous
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cardiovascular disorder in the developed countries. Male is a known risk factor in this disease; unfortunately, how sex contributes to CAVD is mostly unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from male versus female aortic valves demonstrate difference in osteogenic differentiation and/or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. VICs were isolated from male and female rat or porcine aortic valves and cultured in osteogenic media for 10, 15 and 20 days...
October 19, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Joyce Bischoff, Guillem Casanovas, Jill Wylie-Sears, Dae-Hee Kim, Philipp Bartko, J Guerrero, Jacob Dal-Bianco, Jonathan Beaudoin, Michael Garcia, Suzanne Sullivan, Margo Seybolt, Brittan Morris, Joshua Keegan, Whitney Irvin, Elena Aikawa, Robert Levine
RATIONALE: Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR), a complication after myocardial infarction (MI), induces adaptive mitral valve (MV) responses that may be initially beneficial, but eventually lead to leaflet fibrosis and MV dysfunction. We sought to examine the MV endothelial response and its potential contribution to IMR. OBJECTIVE: Endothelial, interstitial and hematopoietic cells in MVs from post-MI sheep were quantified. MV endothelial CD45, found post-MI, was analyzed in vitro...
October 6, 2016: Circulation Research
Ngoc Thien Lam, Timothy J Muldoon, Kyle P Quinn, Narasimhan Rajaram, Kartik Balachandran
The role of valvular interstitial cell (VIC) architecture in regulating cardiac valve function and pathology is not well understood. VICs are known to be more elongated in a hypertensive environment compared to those in a normotensive environment. We have previously reported that valve tissues cultured under hypertensive conditions are prone to acute pathological alterations in cell phenotype and contractility. We therefore aimed to rigorously study the relationship between VIC shape, contractile output and other functional indicators of VIC pathology...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Rachael W Quinn, Arthur A Bert, Gabriel L Converse, Eric E Buse, Stephen L Hilbert, William B Drake, Richard A Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allometric organ growth after pediatric valve replacement can lead to patient-prosthesis size mismatch and valve re-replacement, which could be mitigated with allogeneic decellularized pulmonary valves treated with collagen conditioning solutions to enhance biological and mechanical performance, termed "bioengineered valves." In this study, we evaluated functional, dimensional, and biological responses of these bioengineered valves compared with traditional cryopreserved valves implanted in lambs during rapid somatic growth...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Ishita Tandon, Atefeh Razavi, Prashanth Ravishankar, Addison Walker, Nasya M Sturdivant, Ngoc Thien Lam, Jeffrey C Wolchok, Kartik Balachandran
Valve interstitial cells are dispersed throughout the heart valve and play an important role in maintaining its integrity, function, and phenotype. While prior studies have detailed the role of external mechanical and biological factors in the function of the interstitial cell, the role of cell shape in regulating contractile function, in the context of normal and diseased phenotypes, is not well understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to elucidate the link between cell shape, phenotype, and acute functional contractile output...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Uwe Pfeil, Subhashini Bharathala, Ghulam Murtaza, Petra Mermer, Tamara Papadakis, Andreas Boening, Wolfgang Kummer
Heart valves are highly organized structures determining the direction of blood flow through the heart. Smooth muscle cells within the valve are thought to play an active role during the heart cycle, rather than being just passive flaps. The mature heart valve is composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), various differentiations of valvular interstitial cells (VIC), smooth muscle cells and overlying endothelium. VIC are important for maintaining the structural integrity of the valve, thereby affecting valve function and ECM remodelling...
August 23, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Emily J Farrar, Varsha Pramil, Jennifer M Richards, Christopher Z Mosher, Jonathan T Butcher
AIMS: Valve interstitial cells are active and aggressive players in aortic valve calcification, but their dynamic mediation of mechanically-induced calcific remodeling is not well understood. The goal of this study was to elucidate the feedback loop between valve interstitial cell and calcification mechanics using a novel three-dimensional culture system that allows investigation of the active interplay between cells, disease, and the mechanical valve environment. METHODS & RESULTS: We designed and characterized a novel bioreactor system for quantifying aortic valve interstitial cell contractility in 3-D hydrogels in control and osteogenic conditions over 14 days...
October 2016: Biomaterials
J K Nozynski, D Konecka-Mrowka, M Zakliczynski, E Zembala-Nozynska, D Lange, M Zembala
BACKGROUND: The role of BRCA1 in chronic ischemic episodes seems to be pivotal for adverse remodeling and development of ischemic cardiomyopathy, because of its role in DNA repair and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BRCA-1 in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group (IDCM) comprised myocardial samples from hearts explanted before transplantation owing to IDCM in 10 males (age 44 ± 5.3 years) without clinical symptoms of ischemic heart disease...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Daniel Alejandro Lerman, Sai Prasad, Nasri Alotti
OBJECTIVE: Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody and novel antiresorptive agent that works by binding receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) and inhibiting the signaling cascade that causes osteoclast maturation, activity, and survival. We aimed to elucidate the effect of Denosumab in the process of spontaneous and induced calcification in an in vitro porcine valvular interstitial cells (VICs) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VICs were extracted from fresh porcine hearts by serial collagenase digestion...
January 3, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Research
Maura Brioschi, Roberta Baetta, Stefania Ghilardi, Erica Gianazza, Anna Guarino, Alessandro Parolari, Gianluca Polvani, Elena Tremoli, Cristina Banfi
The mitral valve is a highly complex structure which regulates blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle (LV) avoiding a significant forward gradient during diastole or regurgitation during systole. The integrity of the mitral valve is also essential for the maintenance of normal LV size, geometry, and function. Significant advances in the comprehension of the biological, functional, and mechanical behavior of the mitral valve have recently been made. However, current knowledge of protein components in the normal human mitral valve is still limited and complicated by the low cellularity of this tissue and the presence of high abundant proteins from the extracellular matrix...
October 2016: Electrophoresis
Jingxin Zhou, Jinfu Zhu, Li Jiang, Busheng Zhang, Dan Zhu, Yanhu Wu
BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic valve disease is the main heart valve disease in the elderly. Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) play an important role in the process of valve calcification. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is expressed in stenosis aortic valves and is positively related with the clinical severity of aortic stenosis. However, the role of IL-18 in aortic valve calcification remains unclear. This study examined whether IL-18 promotes myofibroblast and/or osteoblast transdifferention of VICs...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Cécile Oury, Laurence Servais, Nassim Bouznad, Alexandre Hego, Alain Nchimi, Patrizio Lancellotti
miRNAs are a class of over 5000 noncoding RNAs that regulate more than half of the protein-encoding genes by provoking their degradation or preventing their translation. miRNAs are key regulators of complex biological processes underlying several cardiovascular disorders, including left ventricular hypertrophy, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, hypertension and arrhythmias. Moreover, circulating miRNAs herald promise as biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. In this context, this review gives an overview of studies that suggest that miRNAs could also play a role in valvular heart diseases...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bo Wang, Guangxia Wei, Baoqing Liu, Xianming Zhou, Hua Xiao, Nianguo Dong, Fei Li
BACKGROUND: Increased levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) have been reported in patients with calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). However, the role of IL-18 and HMGB1 in the modulation of the valvular interstitial cell (VIC) phenotype remains unclear. We hypothesized that HMGB1 mediates IL-18-induced myofibroblastic transition of VICs. METHODS: The expression of IL-18, HMGB1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in human aortic valves was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting...
July 9, 2016: Cardiology
Jina Lim, Arshia Ehsanipour, Jeffrey J Hsu, Jinxiu Lu, Taylor Pedego, Alexander Wu, Chris M Walthers, Linda L Demer, Stephanie K Seidlits, Yin Tintut
In calcific aortic valve disease, the valve cusps undergo retraction, stiffening, and nodular calcification. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, contributes to valve disease progression; however, the mechanisms of its actions on cusp retraction and stiffening are unclear. We investigated effects of TNF-α on murine aortic valvular interstitial cells (VICs) within three-dimensional, free-floating, compliant, collagen hydrogels, simulating their natural substrate and biomechanics. TNF-α increased retraction (percentage of diameter), stiffness, and formation of macroscopic, nodular structures with calcification in the VIC-laden hydrogels...
September 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Daniel Alejandro Lerman, Sai Prasad, Nasri Alotti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The pathogenesis of calcific aortic valvular disease (CAVD) involves an active inflammatory process of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) characterized by the activation of specific osteogenic signaling pathways and apoptosis. This process can be studied by analyzing certain molecular markers and gene expression pathways of spontaneous calcification. The purpose of our study is to investigate the role of sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) as a calcification promoter, with the aim of improving in vitro animal models for testing potential calcification inhibitors...
January 7, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Research
Boksik Cha, Xin Geng, Md Riaj Mahamud, Jianxin Fu, Anish Mukherjee, Yeunhee Kim, Eek-Hoon Jho, Tae Hoon Kim, Mark L Kahn, Lijun Xia, J Brandon Dixon, Hong Chen, R Sathish Srinivasan
Lymphatic vasculature regulates fluid homeostasis by returning interstitial fluid to blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are the building blocks of the entire lymphatic vasculature. LECs originate as a homogeneous population of cells predominantly from the embryonic veins and undergo stepwise morphogenesis to become the lymphatic capillaries, collecting vessels or valves. The molecular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of the lymphatic vasculature remain to be fully understood. Here we show that canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for lymphatic vascular morphogenesis...
June 15, 2016: Genes & Development
Derek C Sung, Caitlin J Bowen, Kiran A Vaidya, Jingjing Zhou, Nikita Chapurin, Andrew Recknagel, Bin Zhou, Jonathan Chen, Michael Kotlikoff, Jonathan T Butcher
OBJECTIVE: Calcific aortic valve (AoV) disease is a significant clinical problem for which the regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Enhanced cell-cell adhesion is a common mechanism of cellular aggregation, but its role in calcific lesion formation is not known. Cadherin-11 (Cad-11) has been associated with lesion formation in vitro, but its function during adult valve homeostasis and pathogenesis is not known. This study aims to elucidate the specific functions of Cad-11 and its downstream targets, RhoA and Sox9, in extracellular matrix remodeling and AoV calcification...
August 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Shaohua Wu, Bin Duan, Penghong Liu, Caidan Zhang, Xiaohong Qin, Jonathan T Butcher
Nanofibrous scaffolds with defined architectures and anisotropic mechanical properties are attractive for many tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Here, a novel electrospinning system is developed and implemented to fabricate continuous processable uniaxially aligned nanofiber yarns (UANY). UANY were processed into fibrous tissue scaffolds with defined anisotropic material properties using various textile-forming technologies, i.e., braiding, weaving, and knitting techniques. UANY braiding dramatically increased overall stiffness and strength compared to the same number of UANY unbraided...
July 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Panibud Wongprommek, Methee Chayakulkeeree
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Histoplasmosis capsulatum (H. capsulatum), a dimorphic fungus. Histoplasmosis is not endemic to Thailand. Cases of histoplasmosis are sporadic and mostly associated with HIV disease. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of histoplasmosis in Thai patients have not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with histoplasmosis at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand MATERIAL AND METHOD: This retrospective investigation studied adult patients with histoplasmosis who attended Siriraj Hospital for treatment between 2002 and 2012 (11 years)...
March 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Jianglei Chen, Yi Lin, Zhongjie Sun
Fibrotic aortic valve disease (FAVD) is an important cause of aortic stenosis, yet currently there is no effective treatment for FAVD due to its unknown etiology. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether deficiency in the anti-aging Klotho gene (KL) promotes high-fat-diet-induced FAVD and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. Heterozygous Klotho-deficient (KL(+/-) ) mice and WT littermates were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet for 13 weeks, followed by treatment with the AMPKα activator (AICAR) for an additional 2 weeks...
October 2016: Aging Cell
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