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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244962/expression-of-the-frizzled-receptors-and-their-co-receptors-in-calcified-human-aortic-valves
#1
Ateeque Siddique, Bin Yu, Kashif Khan, Ryan Buyting, Hamood Al-Kindi, Hossny Alaws, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif, Renzo Cecere, Adel Schwertani
The cellular mechanisms that induce calcific aortic stenosis are yet to be unravelled. Wnt signaling is increasingly being considered as a major player in the disease process. However, the presence of Wnt Frizzled receptors (Fzd) and co-receptors LRP5 and 6 in normal and diseased human aortic valves remains to be elucidated. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were used to determine Fzd receptor expression in normal and calcified human aortic valve tissue, as well as human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs) isolated from calcified and normal human aortic valves...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227539/mir-29b-promotes-human-aortic-valve-interstitial-cell-calcification-via-inhibiting-tgf-%C3%AE-3-through-activation-of-wnt3-%C3%AE-catenin-smad3-signaling
#2
Ming Fang, Cheng-Guang Wang, Changzhu Zheng, Jun Luo, Shiqiang Hou, Kangyong Liu, Xinming Li
Herein, we hypothesized that pro-osteogenic MicroRNAs (miRs) could play functional roles in the calcification of the aortic valve and aimed to explore the functional role of miR-29b in the osteoblastic differentiation of human aortic valve interstitial cells (hAVICs) and the underlying molecular mechanism. Osteoblastic differentiation of hAVICs isolated from human calcific aortic valve leaflets obtained intraoperatively was induced with an osteogenic medium. Alizarin red S staining was used to evaluate calcium deposition...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207136/exploiting-novel-valve-interstitial-cell-lines-to-study-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#3
Hiu-Gwen Tsang, Lin Cui, Colin Farquharson, Brendan M Corcoran, Kim M Summers, Vicky E Macrae
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) involves progressive valve leaflet thickening and severe calcification, impairing leaflet motion. The in vitro calcification of primary rat, human, porcine and bovine aortic valve interstitial cells (VICs) is commonly employed to investigate CAVD mechanisms. However, to date, no published studies have utilised cell lines to investigate this process. The present study has therefore generated and evaluated the calcification potential of immortalized cell lines derived from sheep and rat VICs...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191508/in-vivo-performance-of-freeze-dried-decellularized-pulmonary-heart-valve-allo-and-xenografts-orthotopically-implanted-into-juvenile-sheep
#4
Tobias Goecke, Karolina Theodoridis, Igor Tudorache, Anatol Ciubotaru, Serghei Cebotari, Robert Ramm, Klaus Höffler, Samir Sarikouch, Andrés Vásquez-Rivera, Axel Haverich, Willem F Wolkers, Andres Hilfiker
The decellularization of biological tissues decreases immunogenicity, allows repopulation with cells, and may lead to improved long-term performance after implantation. Freeze drying these tissues would ensure off-the-shelf availability, save storage costs, and facilitates easy transport. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of freeze-dried decellularized heart valves in juvenile sheep. TritonX-100 and sodium dodecylsulfate decellularized ovine and porcine pulmonary valves (PV) were freeze-dried in a lyoprotectant sucrose solution...
November 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176317/downregulated-microrna-195-in-the-bicuspid-aortic-valve-promotes-calcification-of-valve-interstitial-cells-via-targeting-smad7
#5
Junjie Du, Rui Zheng, Feng Xiao, Shuai Zhang, Keshuai He, Junjie Zhang, Yongfeng Shao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aortic stenosis caused by leaflet calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is more accelerative than that in the tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). MicroRNA-195 (miR-195) is downregulated more in stenotic than in insufficient BAVs, but its expression in BAVs compared with TAVs is unclear. We aimed to investigate the roles of miR-195 and its calcification-related target SMAD7 in stenotic BAVs compared with those in TAVs. METHODS: Twenty-one stenotic BAV and 29 TAV samples were collected from surgical patients and examined for the expression of miR-195 and SMAD7 by RT-PCR...
November 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158034/different-notch-signaling-in-cells-from-calcified-bicuspid-and-tricuspid-aortic-valves
#6
A Kostina, A Shishkova, E Ignatieva, O Irtyuga, M Bogdanova, K Levchuk, A Golovkin, E Zhiduleva, V Uspenskiy, O Moiseeva, G Faggian, J Vaage, A Kostareva, A Rutkovskiy, A Malashicheva
AIMS: Calcific aortic valve disease is the most common heart valve disease in the Western world. Bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve calcifications are traditionally considered together although the dynamics of the disease progression is different between the two groups of patients. Notch signaling is critical for bicuspid valve development and NOTCH1 mutations are associated with bicuspid valve and calcification. We hypothesized that Notch-dependent mechanisms of valve mineralization might be different in the two groups...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148548/acrylate-based-materials-for-heart-valve-scaffold-engineering
#7
Rosaria Santoro, Seshasailam Venkateswaran, Francesco Amadeo, Rong Zhang, Maura Brioschi, Anthony Callanan, Marco Agrifoglio, Cristina Banfi, Mark Bradley, Maurizio Pesce
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most frequent cardiac valve pathology. Its standard treatment consists of surgical replacement either with mechanical (metal made) or biological (animal tissue made) valve prostheses, both of which have glaring deficiencies. In the search for novel materials to manufacture artificial valve tissue, we have conducted a high-throughput screening with subsequent up-scaling to identify non-degradable polymer substrates that promote valve interstitial cells (VICs) adherence/growth and, at the same time, prevent their evolution toward a pro-calcific phenotype...
November 17, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131080/complete-static-repopulation-of-decellularized-porcine-tissues-for-heart-valve-engineering-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Annelies Roosens, Mahtab Asadian, Nathalie De Geyter, Pamela Somers, Ria Cornelissen
To date, a completely in vitro repopulated tissue-engineered heart valve has not been developed. This study focused on sequentially seeding 2 cell populations onto porcine decellularized heart valve leaflets (HVL) and pericardia (PER) to obtain fully repopulated tissues. For repopulation of the interstitium, porcine valvular interstitial cells (VIC) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) or adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) were used. In parallel, the culture medium was supplemented with ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA) and its effect on recolonization was investigated...
November 8, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054843/contribution-of-extra-cardiac-cells-in-murine-heart-valves-is-age-dependent
#9
Lindsey J Anstine, Tori E Horne, Edwin M Horwitz, Joy Lincoln
BACKGROUND: Heart valves are dynamic structures that open and close over 100 000 times a day to maintain unidirectional blood flow during the cardiac cycle. Function is largely achieved by highly organized layers of extracellular matrix that provide the necessary biomechanical properties. Homeostasis of valve extracellular matrix is mediated by valve endothelial and interstitial cell populations, and although the embryonic origins of these cells are known, it is not clear how they are maintained after birth...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046338/regulation-of-valve-interstitial-cell-homeostasis-by-mechanical-deformation-implications-for-heart-valve-disease-and-surgical-repair
#10
Salma Ayoub, Chung-Hao Lee, Kathryn H Driesbaugh, Wanda Anselmo, Connor T Hughes, Giovanni Ferrari, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Michael S Sacks
Mechanical stress is one of the major aetiological factors underlying soft-tissue remodelling, especially for the mitral valve (MV). It has been hypothesized that altered MV tissue stress states lead to deviations from cellular homeostasis, resulting in subsequent cellular activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. However, a quantitative link between alterations in the organ-level in vivo state and in vitro-based mechanobiology studies has yet to be made. We thus developed an integrated experimental-computational approach to elucidate MV tissue and interstitial cell responses to varying tissue strain levels...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026447/epigenome-alterations-in-aortic-valve-stenosis-and-its-related-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#11
REVIEW
Igor Gošev, Martina Zeljko, Željko Đurić, Ivana Nikolić, Milorad Gošev, Sanja Ivčević, Dino Bešić, Zoran Legčević, Frane Paić
Aortic valve stenosis is the most common cardiac valve disease, and with current trends in the population demographics, its prevalence is likely to rise, thus posing a major health and economic burden facing the worldwide societies. Over the past decade, it has become more than clear that our traditional genetic views do not sufficiently explain the well-known link between AS, proatherogenic risk factors, flow-induced mechanical forces, and disease-prone environmental influences. Recent breakthroughs in the field of epigenetics offer us a new perspective on gene regulation, which has broadened our perspective on etiology of aortic stenosis and other aortic valve diseases...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016735/lncrna-tug1-sponges-mir-204-5p-to-promote-osteoblast-differentiation-through-upregulating-runx2-in-aortic-valve-calcification
#12
Cong Yu, Lifu Li, Fei Xie, Shichao Guo, Fayuan Liu, Nianguo Dong, Yongjun Wang
Aims: Emerging evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. Although the lncRNA TUG1 is implicated in atherosclerosis, its function in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) remains unknown. Methods and Results: In this study, we found that TUG1 was highly expressed in human aortic valves and primary valve interstitial cells (VICs). Moreover, TUG1 knockdown induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in CAVD both in vitro and in vivo ...
September 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985862/autophagy-negatively-regulates-pro-osteogenic-activity-in-human-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells
#13
Xin-Sheng Deng, Xianzhong Meng, Neil Venardos, Rui Song, Katsuhiro Yamanaka, David Fullerton, James Jaggers
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a physiological process that plays an important role in maintaining cellular functions. When aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) are stimulated with inflammatory or mechanical stress, one response is elevated pro-osteogenic activity. We hypothesized that autophagy is important in the prevention or regulation of this pro-osteogenic activity in AVICs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AVICs were isolated. Autophagy activity was examined and its role in AVIC's pro-osteogenic activity was determined using chemical inhibitors and genetic techniques...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922978/six-year-old-sheep-as-a-clinically-relevant-large-animal-model-for-aortic-valve-replacement-using-tissue-engineered-grafts-based-on-decellularized-allogenic-matrix
#14
Karolina Theodoridis, Igor Tudorache, Serghei Cebotari, Alexandru Calistru, Tanja Meyer, Samir Sarikouch, Christoph Bara, Axel Haverich, Andres Hilfiker
Tissue-engineered (TE) grafts based on decellularized grafts have shown very promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. However, in animal models valves have either been tested in juvenile models or in the clinically less relevant pulmonary valve position. In this study, we tested the grafts in the aortic valve (AV) position of 6-year-old sheep, as geriatric patients in need of an AV substitute due to calcification are the largest patient group benefiting from TE grafts. Decellularized AV (DAV; n = 4) and DAV additionally re-endothelialized with autologous cells (n = 3) were implanted in the AV position of 6-year-old female sheep...
November 3, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912209/valve-interstitial-cells-the-key-to-understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-heart-valve-calcification
#15
Arkady Rutkovskiy, Anna Malashicheva, Gareth Sullivan, Maria Bogdanova, Anna Kostareva, Kåre-Olav Stensløkken, Arnt Fiane, Jarle Vaage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891115/deficiency-of-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-homologous-protein-chop-prevents-diet-induced-aortic-valve-calcification-in%C3%A2-vivo
#16
Zhejun Cai, Baoqing Liu, Jia Wei, Zurong Fu, Yidong Wang, Yaping Wang, Jian Shen, Liangliang Jia, Shengan Su, Xiaoya Wang, Xiaoping Lin, Han Chen, Fei Li, Jian'an Wang, Meixiang Xiang
Aortic valve (AoV) calcification is common in aged populations. Its subsequent aortic stenosis has been linked with increased morbidity, but still has no effective pharmacological intervention. Our previous data show endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in AoV calcification. Here, we investigated whether deficiency of ER stress downstream effector CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homology protein (CHOP) may prevent development of AoV calcification. AoV calcification was evaluated in Apoe(-/-) mice (n = 10) or in mice with dual deficiencies of ApoE and CHOP (Apoe(-/-) CHOP(-/-) , n = 10) fed with Western diet for 24 weeks...
December 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890780/recellularization-of-decellularized-heart-valves-progress-toward-the-tissue-engineered-heart-valve
#17
REVIEW
Mitchell C VeDepo, Michael S Detamore, Richard A Hopkins, Gabriel L Converse
The tissue-engineered heart valve portends a new era in the field of valve replacement. Decellularized heart valves are of great interest as a scaffold for the tissue-engineered heart valve due to their naturally bioactive composition, clinical relevance as a stand-alone implant, and partial recellularization in vivo. However, a significant challenge remains in realizing the tissue-engineered heart valve: assuring consistent recellularization of the entire valve leaflets by phenotypically appropriate cells...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863437/serotonin-and-catecholamines-in-the-development-and-progression-of-heart-valve-diseases
#18
Elliott Goldberg, Juan B Grau, Jacqueline H Fortier, Elisa Salvati, Robert J Levy, Giovanni Ferrari
Heart valve diseases (HVDs) arise from a number of different processes that affect both the structure and function of the valve apparatus. Despite diverse aetiologies, treatments for HVDs are limited to percutaneous or surgical interventions. The search for medical therapies to prevent or slow the progression of HVDs has been hampered by our poor understanding of the progression from subclinical to symptomatic phases, and our limited knowledge of the molecular signals that control the susceptibility of valve interstitial cells to pathological remodeling...
July 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842437/hypoxia-promotes-primitive-glycosaminoglycan-rich-extracellular-matrix-composition-in-developing-heart-valves
#19
Dorothy Amofa, Alexia Hulin, Yuji Nakada, Hesham A Sadek, Katherine E Yutzey
During postnatal heart valve development, glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-rich valve primordia transform into stratified valve leaflets composed of GAGs, fibrillar collagen, and elastin layers accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, as well as thinning and elongation. The neonatal period is characterized by the transition from a uterine environment to atmospheric oxygen, but the role of changing O2 levels in valve extracellular matrix (ECM) composition or morphogenesis are not well-characterized. Here, we show that tissue hypoxia decreases in mouse aortic valves in the days after birth, concomitant with ECM remodeling and cell cycle arrest of valve interstitial cells (VICs)...
August 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821833/microrna-449c-5p-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-vics-through-smad4-mediated-pathway
#20
Rongjian Xu, Min Zhao, Yun Yang, Zhuo Huang, Chunying Shi, Xianglin Hou, Yannan Zhao, Bing Chen, Zhifeng Xiao, Jianzhou Liu, Qi Miao, Jianwu Dai
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder, yet its mechanism remains poorly understood. Valve interstitial cells (VICs) are the prevalent cells in aortic valve and their osteogenic differentiation may be responsible for calcific nodule formation in CAVD pathogenesis. Emerging evidence shows microRNA (miRNA, or miR) can function as important regulators of many pathological processes, including osteogenic differentiation. Here, we aimed to explore the function of miR-449c-5p in CAVD pathogenesis...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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