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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095304/adaptive-significance-of-critical-weight-for-metamorphosis-in-holometabolous-insects
#1
Ken-Ichi Hironaka, Yoshihiro Morishita
Holometabolous insect larvae become committed to metamorphosis when they reach a critical weight. Although the physiological mechanisms involved in this process have been well-studied, the adaptive significance of the critical weight remains unclear. Here, we developed a life history model for holometabolous insects and evaluated it from the viewpoint of optimal energy allocation. We found that, without a priori assumptions about critical weight, the optimal growth schedule is always biphasic: larval tissues grow predominately until they reach a certain threshold, after which the imaginal tissues begin rapid growth, suggesting that the emergence of a critical weight as a phase-transition point is a natural consequence of optimal growth scheduling...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093422/gps-perceptions-of-workload-in-england-a-qualitative-interview-study
#2
Caroline Hd Croxson, Helen F Ashdown, Fd Richard Hobbs
BACKGROUND: GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. AIM: To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. DESIGN AND SETTING: All GPs working within NHS England were eligible...
January 16, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086876/fulfillment-of-administrative-and-professional-obligations-of-hospitals-and-mission-motivation-of-physicians
#3
Jeroen Trybou, Paul Gemmel, Sebastian Desmidt, Lieven Annemans
BACKGROUND: To be successful, hospitals must increasingly collaborate with their medical staff. One strategic tool that plays an important role is the mission statement of hospitals. The goal of this research was to study the relationship between the fulfillment of administrative and professional obligations of hospitals on physicians' motivation to contribute to the mission of the hospital. Furthermore the mediating role of the physicians' emotional attachment to the hospital and moderation effect of the exchange with the head physicians were considered...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065521/perceived-dual-method-responsibilities-by-relationship-type-among-african-american-male-adolescents
#4
Melissa Gilliam, Elisabeth Woodhams, Heather Sipsma, Brandon Hill
PURPOSE: To describe the extent to which African-American male adolescents perceive responsibility for contraception and condom use and to understand the perceived importance of dual method use for respondents in casual versus committed relationships. METHODS: Data were collected using surveys informed by formative focus group sessions. Participants included African-American male high-school students aged 14-19 years from the Chicago's South Side. Respondents were surveyed regarding contraceptive behavioral intentions and perceived importance of dual method use...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057313/workplace-violence-and-job-outcomes-of-newly-licensed-nurses
#5
Hyoung Eun Chang, Sung-Hyun Cho
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of workplace violence toward newly licensed nurses and the relationship between workplace violence and job outcomes. METHODS: An online survey was conducted of newly licensed registered nurses who had obtained their license in 2012 or 2013 in South Korea and had been working for 5-12 months after first being employed. The sample consisted of 312 nurses working in hospitals or clinics. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II was used to measure violence and nurse job outcomes...
December 2016: Asian Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055064/association-of-drug-and-alcohol-use-with-adolescent-firearm-homicide-at-individual-family-and-neighborhood-levels
#6
Bernadette C Hohl, Shari Wiley, Douglas J Wiebe, Alison J Culyba, Rebecca Drake, Charles C Branas
Importance: Homicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States and the leading cause of death for adolescents who are African American. Large cities have disproportionate homicide rates. Objective: To determine the relationships between exposures to drugs and alcohol at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels and adolescent firearm homicide and to inform new approaches to preventing firearm violence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based case-control study from January 2010 to December 2012 of all 13- to 20-year-olds who were homicide victims in Philadelphia during the study period matched to randomly selected 13- to 20-year-old controls from the general population...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051979/barriers-and-health-beliefs-related-to-weight-management-among-veterans-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#7
Shannon Munro, Emily Dinatale, Sarah Hartley, Monica St Jacques, Kris Ann Oursler
INTRODUCTION: The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049042/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-by-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-impairs-human-b-lymphopoiesis
#8
Jinpeng Li, Ashwini S Phadnis-Moghe, Robert B Crawford, Norbert E Kaminski
The homeostasis of peripheral B cell compartment requires lifelong B lymphopoiesis from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). As a result, the B cell repertoire is susceptible to disruptions of hematopoiesis. Increasing evidence, primarily from rodent models, shows that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates hematopoiesis. To study the effects of persistent AHR activation on human B cell development, a potent AHR agonist and known environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was utilized...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042591/relationship-between-nutritional-support-and-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-west-bengal-india
#9
Blesson Samuel, Tyson Volkmann, Sushma Cornelius, Sugata Mukhopadhay, MejoJose, Kaushik Mitra, Ajay M V Kumar, John E Oeltmann, Sidhajyoti Parija, Aslesh Ottapura Prabhakaran, Patrick K Moonan, Vineet K Chadha
INTRODUCTION: Poverty and poor nutrition are associated with the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Socioeconomic factors may interfere with anti-tuberculosis treatment compliance and its outcome. We examined whether providing nutritional support (monthly supply of rice and lentil beans) to TB patients who live below the poverty line was associated with TB treatment outcome. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients living below the poverty line (income of <$1...
December 2016: Journal of Tuberculosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034348/coding-we-ness-in-couple-s-relationship-stories-a-method-for-assessing-mutuality-in-couple-therapy
#10
Sara Gildersleeve, Jefferson A Singer, Karen Skerrett, Shelter Wein
OBJECTIVE: "We-ness," a couple's mutual investment in their relationship and in each other, has been found to be a potent dimension of couple resilience. This study examined the development of a method to capture We-ness in psychotherapy through the coding of relationship narratives co-constructed by couples ("We-Stories"). It used a coding system to identify the core thematic elements that make up these narratives. METHOD: Couples that self-identified as "happy" (N = 53) generated We-Stories and completed measures of relationship satisfaction and mutuality...
December 30, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029416/how-to-set-challenging-goals-and-conduct-fair-evaluation-in-regional-public-health-systems-insights-from-valencia-and-tuscany-regions
#11
REVIEW
Milena Vainieri, Federico Vola, Gregorio Gomez Soriano, Sabina Nuti
The definition of "the right targets" and the way the evaluation of results is performed affect the willingness to commit to new challenges, which is a factor that influences the relationship between goal setting and performance results. Indeed, some authors claim that the choice of an inappropriate goal-setting procedure is a major cause of failure of management control systems. Goal setting theorists found that assigning a specific and challenging goal leads to higher performance than (a) an easy goal, (b) a general goal or (c) no goal setting...
September 24, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028661/volunteer-work-religious-commitment-and-resting-pulse-rates
#12
Neal Krause, Gail Ironson, Peter C Hill
Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011652/evaluating-a-community-led-project-for-improving-fathers-and-children-s-wellbeing-in-england
#13
Steve Robertson, James Woodall, Heather Henry, Esmée Hanna, Simon Rowlands, John Horrocks, Joan Livesley, Tony Long
Although under-researched and under-theorized compared to other settings, there is potential for the family setting to be harnessed to support the development of healthy children and societies and to reduce health inequalities. Within this setting, the role of fathers as health facilitators has yet to be fully understood and considered within health promotion. This paper draws on a two year evaluation of a community embedded intervention for fathers and children in an area of multiple deprivation in North West England...
December 23, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006744/understanding-influential-factors-on-implementing-green-supply-chain-management-practices-an-interpretive-structural-modelling-analysis
#14
Maher A N Agi, Rohit Nishant
In this study, we establish a set of 19 influential factors on the implementation of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices and analyse the interaction between these factors and their effect on the implementation of GSCM practices using the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) method and the "Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée à un Classement" (MICMAC) analysis on data compiled from interviews with supply chain (SC) executives based in the Gulf countries (Middle East region). The study reveals a strong influence and driving power of the nature of the relationships between SC partners on the implementation of GSCM practices...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002619/social-anhedonia-and-romantic-relationship-processes
#15
Lily Assaad, Edward P Lemay
OBJECTIVE: Social anhedonia is a deficiency in the capacity to experience pleasure from social interactions. This study examined the implications of social anhedonia for romantic relationship functioning, including the association of social anhedonia with sentiments towards romantic partners that are central to relationship functioning (satisfaction, commitment, regard for the partner, and care for the partner's welfare) and analogous perceptions of the partner's sentiments. METHODS: Data were collected from 281 participants who were involved in romantic relationships...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999670/a-qualitative-analysis-of-participants-reflections-on-body-image-during-participation-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy
#16
Maria Fogelkvist, Thomas Parling, Lars Kjellin, Sanna Aila Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Negative body image is a risk factor for development and relapse in eating disorders (ED). Many patients continue to be dissatisfied with their body shape or weight after treatment. This study presents a qualitative analysis of written reflections on body image from patients with an ED and a negative body image before and after an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group treatment at a specialized ED-unit. METHOD: Before and after the treatment participants (n = 47) answered a questionnaire with open ended questions on their thoughts on body image...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993361/care-partner-a-concept-analysis
#17
Paul N Bennett, Wei Wang, Mel Moore, Cate Nagle
BACKGROUND: The use of the term care partner has increased, particularly in the chronic disease literature; however, the concept has not been well defined. PURPOSE: The purpose of this concept analysis was to define and assist nurses to better understand the concept of care partner. METHODS: The method by Walker and Avant was used for this literature-based concept analysis. DISCUSSION: Care partnering includes providing assistance to an individual with a health condition to meet their self-care deficits, the commitment to a care partner relationship, and the recognition that people with self-care deficits are care partners contributing to their own care...
November 23, 2016: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986234/improved-techniques-and-future-advances-in-plastic-surgery-in-global-health
#18
REVIEW
Paul Shay, Peter J Taub, Lester Silver
BACKGROUND: Plastic surgery has a long-standing history of being deeply interconnected with global health. This paper reviews the current state of global health as it relates to plastic surgery and makes forecasts for the future. METHODS: This study reviews the most current literature on global plastic surgery, as well as offers insights based on our 2 senior authors' experiences. For our literature search, the MEDLINE database was queried using relevant keywords through both PubMed and OVID user interfaces...
July 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971235/the-evaluation-of-relationship-between-regular-inspection-and-committing-major-malpractice-in-pakdasht-pharmacies
#19
M Sabbagh-Bani-Azad, B Varastehmoradi, S Nikfar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969086/homicide-and-mental-disorder-in-a-region-with-a-high-homicide-rate
#20
Andrei Golenkov, Matthew Large, Olav Nielssen, Alla Tsymbalova
There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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