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Eva Jover, Ana Silvente, Francisco Marín, José Martínez-González, Mar Orriols, Carlos M Martinez, Carmen María Puche, Mariano Valdés, Cristina Rodriguez, Diana Hernández-Romero
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) transdifferentiate into osteoblast-like cells during vascular calcification, inducing active remodeling and calcification of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Intracellular and extracellular enzymes, such as lysyl hydroxylase 1 (PLOD1) and lysyl oxidase (LOX), contribute to ECM maturation and stabilization. We assessed the contribution of these enzymes to hyperphosphatemia (HPM)-induced calcification. Human and murine VSMCs were differentiated into functional osteoblast-like cells by HPM conditioning...
March 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sa Cai, Daisy K Y Shum, Ying-Shing Chan
Here we describe the in vitro derivation of sensory neurons for use in effecting fate commitment of Schwann cell-like cells derived from human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). We adopt a novel combination of small molecules in an 8-day program that induces the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into sensory neurons. In co-cultures, the derived sensory neurons present contact-dependent cues to direct hBMSC-derived Schwann cell-like cells toward the Schwann cell fate. These derived human Schwann cells survive passaging and cryopreservation, retain marker expression despite withdrawal of glia-inducing medium and neuronal cues, demonstrate capacity for myelination, and therefore promise application in autologous transplantation and re-myelination therapy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Y P Tsui, Graham K Shea, Y S Chan, Daisy K Y Shum
Our goal is to derive phenotypically stable Schwann cells from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for use in transplantation studies of central/peripheral nerve injuries. With the adult rat as model, here we describe steps that foster (1) expansion of the BMSC subpopulation of neural progenitors as neurosphere cells, (2) differentiation of the progenitors into Schwann cell-like cells in adherent culture supplemented with soluble factors, and (3) cell-intrinsic switch of Schwann cell-like cells to the Schwann cell fate following co-culture with sensory neurons purified from dorsal root ganglia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yuen Mi Cheon, Sara Douglass Bayless, Yijie Wang, Tiffany Yip
Ethnic/racial self-labeling represents one's knowledge of and preference for ethnic/racial group membership, which is related to, but distinguishable from, ethnic/racial identity. This study examined the development of ethnic/racial self-labeling over time by including the concept of elaboration among a diverse sample of 297 adolescents (Time 1 mean age 14.75, 67% female, 37.4% Asian or Asian American, 10.4% Black, African American, or West Indian, 23.2% Hispanic or Latinx, 24.2% White, 4.4% other). Growth mixture modeling revealed two distinct patterns-low and high self-labeling elaboration from freshman to sophomore year of high school...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Kenneth Fung, Johanna Lake, Lee Steel, Kelly Bryce, Yona Lunsky
Few studies have examined interventions or therapeutic processes that may help parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) manage their stress. This study examines the impact of a brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) group intervention, led by parents, among a cohort of 33 mothers of children with ASD. Changes in ACT process measures (psychological flexibility, cognitive fusion, values) were evaluated at pre, post, and 3 months following the intervention. Mothers reported significant improvement post-intervention in psychological flexibility, cognitive fusion, and value-consistent activities in multiple life domains, including parenting, relationships, and self-care...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Antonia Misch, Harriet Over, Malinda Carpenter
When a group engages in immoral behavior, group members face the whistleblower's dilemma: the conflict between remaining loyal to the group and standing up for other moral concerns. This study examines the developmental origins of this dilemma by investigating 5-year-olds' whistleblowing on their in- vs. outgroup members' moral transgression. Children ( n = 96) watched puppets representing their ingroup vs. outgroup members commit either a mild or a severe transgression. After the mild transgression, children tattled on both groups equally often...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Shiwei Zheng, Efthymia Papalexi, Andrew Butler, William Stephenson, Rahul Satija
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to diverse cell types in the blood system, yet our molecular understanding of the early trajectories that generate this enormous diversity in humans remains incomplete. Here, we leverage Drop-seq, a massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) approach, to individually profile 20,000 progenitor cells from human cord blood, without prior enrichment or depletion for individual lineages based on surface markers. Our data reveal a transcriptional compendium of progenitor states in human cord blood, representing four committed lineages downstream from HSC, alongside the transcriptional dynamics underlying fate commitment...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Emily P Dawson, Denise G Lanza, Nicholas J Webster, Susan M Benton, Isao Suetake, Jason D Heaney
Testicular teratomas result from anomalies in embryonic germ cell development. In 129 inbred mice, teratoma initiation coincides with germ cell sex-specific differentiation and the mitotic-meiotic switch: XX and XY germ cells repress pluripotency, XX germ cells initiate meiosis, and XY germ cells activate male-specific differentiation and mitotic arrest. Here, we report that expression of Nanos2 , a gene that is crucial to male sex specification, is delayed in teratoma-susceptible germ cells. Decreased expression of Nanos2 was found to be due, in part, to the Nanos2 allele present in 129 mice...
March 15, 2018: Development
Jeff Wong, Leo d'Espaux, Ishaan Dev, Cas van der Horst, Jay Keasling
Valeriana officinalis (Valerian) root extracts have been used by European and Asian cultures for millennia for their anxiolytic and sedative properties. However, the efficacy of these extracts suffers from variable yields and composition, making these extracts a prime candidate for microbial production. Recently, valerenic acid, a C15 sesquiterpenoid, was identified as the active compound that modulates the GABAA channel. Although the first committed step, valerena-4,7(11)-diene synthase, has been identified and described, the complete valerenic acid biosynthetic pathway remains to be elucidated...
March 12, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Cristian Koepfli, Guiyun Yan
The proportion of Plasmodium spp. infections carrying gametocytes, and gametocyte densities, are often reported as surrogate markers for transmission potential. It remains unclear whether parasites under natural conditions adjust commitment to transmission depending on external factors. Population-based surveys comprising mostly asymptomatic low-density infections are always impacted by the sensitivity of the assays used to diagnose infections and detect gametocytes. Asexual parasite density is an important predictor for the probability of detecting gametocytes, and in many cases it can explain patterns in gametocyte carriage without the need for an adjustment of the gametocyte conversion rate...
March 12, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Claire de Brie, Emmanuelle Piet, Patrick Chariot
BACKGROUND: Violence for educational purpose refers to a modality of education that includes threats, verbal abuse, physical abuse and humiliations. Twenty European countries, not including France, have abolished corporal punishment through explicit laws and regulations. The position of general practitioners in the screening and care of violence for educational purpose in France is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the representations of this form of violence among general practitioners...
March 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Thais Assis-Ribas, Maria Fernanda Forni, Sheila Maria Brochado Winnischofer, Mari Cleide Sogayar, Marina Trombetta-Lima
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that display self-renewal and multipotent differentiation capacity. The repertoire of mature cells generated ranges but is not restricted to: fat, bone and cartilage. Their potential importance for both cell therapy and maintenance of in vivo homeostasis is indisputable. Nonetheless, both their in vivo identity and use in cell therapy remain elusive. A drawback generated by this fact is that little is known about the MSC niche and how it impacts differentiation and homeostasis maintenance...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
Stephen Noblett, Jane Beenstock, James Noblett, Joanne Ireland, Sarah Ormiston
Aims and method The increased rates of smoking in people with mental illness is well documented, and establishing smoke-free mental health environments has been emphasised over recent years. This article examines the financial costs of implementing smoke free guidance and assesses the cost associated with patients who were prescribed clozapine and who committed to stopping smoking cigarettes for the duration of the study period. RESULTS: Patients (38) who were prescribed clozapine were included in the study...
April 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
Meixiang Zhang, Justine Ngo, Filomena Pirozzi, Ying-Pu Sun, Anthony Wynshaw-Boris
BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been widely used to generate cellular models harboring specific disease-related genotypes. Of particular importance are ESC and iPSC applications capable of producing dorsal telencephalic neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that are representative of the cerebral cortex and overcome the challenges of maintaining a homogeneous population of cortical progenitors over several passages in vitro. While previous studies were able to derive NPCs from pluripotent cell types, the fraction of dorsal NPCs in this population is small and decreases over several passages...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Felix Miedaner, Ludwig Kuntz, Christian Enke, Bernhard Roth, Anika Nitzsche
BACKGROUND: Physician and nursing shortages in acute and critical care settings require research on factors which might drive their commitment, an important predictor of absenteeism and turnover. However, the degree to which the commitment of a physician or a nurse is driven by individual or organizational characteristics in hospitals remains unclear. In addition, there is a need for a greater understanding of how antecedent-commitment relationships differ between both occupational groups...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Bernardo Costa-Pinel, Santiago Mestre-Miravet, Francisco Barrio-Torrell, Joan-Josep Cabré-Vila, Xavier Cos-Claramunt, Sofía Aguilar-Sanz, Claustre Solé-Brichs, Conxa Castell-Abat, Victoria Arija-Val, Jaana Lindström
BACKGROUND: The DE-PLAN-CAT project (Diabetes in Europe-Prevention using lifestyle, physical activity and nutritional intervention-Catalonia) has shown that an intensive lifestyle intervention is feasible in the primary care setting and substantially reduces the incidence of diabetes among high-risk Mediterranean participants. The DP-TRANSFERS project (Diabetes Prevention-Transferring findings from European research to society) is a large-scale national programme aimed at implementing this intervention in primary care centres whenever feasible...
2018: PloS One
Begoña Errasti-Ibarrondo, José Antonio Jordán-Sierra, Mercedes P Díez-Del-Corral, María Arantzamendi
AIMS: To offer a complete outlook in a readable easy way of van Manen's hermeneutic-phenomenological method to nurses interested in undertaking phenomenological research. BACKGROUND: Phenomenology, as research methodology, involves a certain degree of complexity. It is difficult to identify a single article or author which sets out the didactic guidelines that specifically guide research of this kind. In this context, the theoretical-practical view of Max van Manen's Phenomenology of Practice may be seen as a rigorous guide and directive on which researchers may find support to undertake phenomenological research...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza, Michael Kellmann
Monitoring of recovery in the context of athletic performance has gained significant importance during recent years. As a systematic process of data collection and evaluation, the monitoring of recovery can be implemented for various purposes. It may aid to prevent negative outcomes of training or competition, such as underrecovery, overtraining, or injuries. Further, it aims at establishing routines and strategies necessary to guarantee athletes' readiness for performance by restoring their depleted resources...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Henning Hachtel, Cieran Harries, Stefan Luebbers, James Rp Ogloff
OBJECTIVE: People affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorders are at a higher risk of offending violently. This study aims to investigate risk factors in relation to the peri-diagnostic period and possible predictors of post-diagnostic violence of people diagnosed for the first time in the public mental health system. METHODS: The study compared various risk factors for post-diagnostic violence in patients ( n = 1453) diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
March 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
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