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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351329/radiocarbon-dating-uncertainty-and-the-reliability-of-the-pewma-method-of-time-series-analysis-for-research-on-long-term-human-environment-interaction
#1
W Christopher Carleton, David Campbell, Mark Collard
Statistical time-series analysis has the potential to improve our understanding of human-environment interaction in deep time. However, radiocarbon dating-the most common chronometric technique in archaeological and palaeoenvironmental research-creates challenges for established statistical methods. The methods assume that observations in a time-series are precisely dated, but this assumption is often violated when calibrated radiocarbon dates are used because they usually have highly irregular uncertainties...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350832/the-developmental-trinity-of-mind-cognizance-executive-control-and-reasoning
#2
REVIEW
Andreas Demetriou, Nikolaos Makris, Smaragda Kazi, George Spanoudis, Michael Shayer
This paper summarizes research on how cognizance, that is, awareness of mental processes, interacts with executive control and reasoning from childhood to adolescence. Central positions are that (a) cognizance changes extensively with age; (b) it contributes to the formation of executive control, and (c) mediates between executive control and reasoning. Cognizance recycles with changes in executive and inferential possibilities in four developmental cycles: it registers their present state, yielding insight into their operation, allowing their better management; this catalyzes their transformation into the next level...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350580/development-and-evaluation-of-a-yoga-intervention-program-for-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Catherine Justice, Corjena Cheung, Amy Samson-Burke
Preliminary research indicates that yoga could be a valuable tool for people suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little has been published about the process by which the yoga interventions were designed and evaluated. This study elaborates on the process of developing and testing a bi-weekly, 12-week yoga program to determine its safety and feasibility for people with PD. The lead yoga teacher used input from a focused literature review to design an initial draft of the intervention program. This draft was reviewed by a group of yoga experts ( n = 6) to develop the final intervention program...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350323/william-e-vidaver-1921-2017-an-innovator-enthusiastic-scientist-inspiring-teacher-and-a-wonderful-friend
#4
A H Jay Burr, Aaron Vidaver, Ulrich Schreiber, Doug Bruce, Danielle J Donnelly
William (Bill) E. Vidaver (February 2, 1921-August 31, 2017), who did his Ph.D. with Laurence (Larry) R. Blinks at Stanford (1964) and a postdoc with C. Stacy French (1965), taught and did research at Simon Fraser University (SFU) for almost 30 years. Here he published over 80 papers in photosynthesis-related areas co-authored by his graduate students, postdocs, visiting professors and SFU colleagues. He developed a unique high-pressure cuvette for the study of oxygen exchange and studied high-pressure effects in photosynthesis...
January 19, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349293/experimenter-gender-and-replicability-in-science
#5
REVIEW
Colin D Chapman, Christian Benedict, Helgi B Schiöth
There is a replication crisis spreading through the annals of scientific inquiry. Although some work has been carried out to uncover the roots of this issue, much remains unanswered. With this in mind, this paper investigates how the gender of the experimenter may affect experimental findings. Clinical trials are regularly carried out without any report of the experimenter's gender and with dubious knowledge of its influence. Consequently, significant biases caused by the experimenter's gender may lead researchers to conclude that therapeutics or other interventions are either overtreating or undertreating a variety of conditions...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344724/when-the-rhythm-disappears-and-the-mind-keeps-dancing-sustained-effects-of-attentional-entrainment
#6
Sabrina Trapp, Ondrej Havlicek, Annett Schirmer, Peter E Keller
Research has demonstrated that the human cognitive system allocates attention most efficiently to a stimulus that occurs in synchrony with an established rhythmic background. However, our environment is dynamic and constantly changing. What happens when rhythms to which our cognitive system adapted disappear? We addressed this question using a visual categorization task comprising emotional and neutral faces. The task was split into three blocks of which the first and the last were completed in silence. The second block was accompanied by an acoustic background rhythm that, for one group of participants, was synchronous with face presentations, and for another group was asynchronous...
January 17, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343933/effects-of-maharishi-yoga-asanas-on-mood-states-happiness-and-experiences-during-meditation
#7
Sonja Gobec, Frederick Travis
Context/Background: Many studies showed positive effects of Yoga Asanas. There is no study on Maharishi Yoga Asanas yet. This research replicated and expanded observed improvements on the profile of mood states (POMS) as a result of 2-week Maharishi Yoga Asanas course. Thirteen college students taking part in a 4-week course on Maharishi Yoga Asanas were matched with 13 students taking other courses at the university. Aims and Objective: The main objective of the study was to assess the effects of Maharishi Yoga Asanas on mood states, degree of happiness, and experiences in Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice...
January 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342910/academic-stress-and-self-regulation-among-university-students-in-malaysia-mediator-role-of-mindfulness
#8
Nur Hamizah Hj Ramli, Masoumeh Alavi, Seyed Abolghasem Mehrinezhad, Atefeh Ahmadi
Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as substance abuse. The present study aims to investigate the influence of academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness among undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and to identify mindfulness as the mediator between academic stress and self-regulation...
January 15, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#9
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339799/complementary-therapies-for-fatigue-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-an-integrative-review
#10
Mohamad Baydoun, Debra L Barton
Fatigue after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a persistent problem that limits activities and causes distress. Complementary therapies have shown promising results in improving fatigue in several patient populations. However, it is unknown whether they have the same effect on fatigue in the HSCT population. This integrative review aimed to explore the literature that evaluated complementary therapies for fatigue among HSCT patients. Only eight studies were considered eligible for inclusion in this review...
January 16, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339565/a-home-visiting-parenting-program-and-child-obesity-a-randomized-trial
#11
Monica Roosa Ordway, Lois S Sadler, Margaret L Holland, Arietta Slade, Nancy Close, Linda C Mayes
BACKGROUND: Young children living in historically marginalized families are at risk for becoming adolescents with obesity and subsequently adults with increased obesity-related morbidities. These risks are particularly acute for Hispanic children. We hypothesized that the prevention-focused, socioecological approach of the "Minding the Baby" (MTB) home visiting program might decrease the rate of childhood overweight and obesity early in life. METHODS: This study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study in which we include data collected during 2 phases of the MTB randomized controlled trial...
January 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339286/chitosan-an-undisputed-bio-fabrication-material-for-tissue-engineering-and-bio-sensing-applications
#12
REVIEW
Anupriya Baranwal, Ashutosh Kumar, A Priyadharshini, Gopi Suresh Oggu, Ira Bhatnagar, Ananya Srivastava, Pranjal Chandra
Biopolymers have been serving the mankind in various ways since long. Over the last few years, these polymers have found great demand in various domains which includes biomedicine, tissue engineering, biosensor fabrications etc. because of their excellent biocompatibility. In this context, chitosan has found global attention due to its environmentally benign nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of availability. In last one decade or so, extensive research in active biomaterials, like chitosan has led to the development of novel delivery systems for drugs, genes, and biomolecules; and regenerative medicine...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337280/behavioral-interventions-for-reducing-head-motion-during-mri-scans-in-children
#13
Deanna J Greene, Jonathan M Koller, Jacqueline M Hampton, Victoria Wesevich, Andrew N Van, Annie L Nguyen, Catherine R Hoyt, Lindsey McIntyre, Eric A Earl, Rachel L Klein, Joshua S Shimony, Steven E Petersen, Bradley L Schlaggar, Damien A Fair, Nico U F Dosenbach
A major limitation to structural and functional MRI (fMRI) scans is their susceptibility to head motion artifacts. Even submillimeter movements can systematically distort functional connectivity, morphometric, and diffusion imaging results. In patient care, sedation is often used to minimize head motion, but it incurs increased costs and risks. In research settings, sedation is typically not an ethical option. Therefore, safe methods that reduce head motion are critical for improving MRI quality, especially in high movement individuals such as children and neuropsychiatric patients...
January 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336812/enhancing-surgical-performance-by-adopting-expert-musicians-practice-and-performance-strategies
#14
Mei Rui, Jeffrey E Lee, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Claudius Conrad
BACKGROUND: Surgery is a performing art-each surgical procedure is a live performance that has immediate and irreversible consequences for both the performer and the audience. Surgeons operate with surgical instruments, whereas musicians perform with musical instruments. Both perform in high-stress, high-risk work environments, where small errors in motor performance or judgment can have immediate negative consequences. While there is abundant literature on musical performance and their impact on outcome, little similar research has been published in the field of surgery...
January 11, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336032/my-mind-your-mind-and-god-s-mind-how-children-and-adults-conceive-of-different-agents-moral-beliefs
#15
Larisa Heiphetz, Jonathan D Lane, Adam Waytz, Liane L Young
Extending prior research on belief attributions, we investigated the extent to which 5- to 8-year-olds and adults distinguish their beliefs and other humans' beliefs from God's beliefs. In Study 1, children reported that all agents held the same beliefs, whereas adults drew greater distinctions among agents. For example, adults reported that God was less likely than humans to view behaviors as morally acceptable. Study 2 additionally investigated attributions of beliefs about controversial behaviours (e.g., telling prosocial lies) and belief stability...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335671/feasibility-acceptability-and-preliminary-effectiveness-of-a-4-week-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-protocol-for-hospital-employees
#16
Christina M Luberto, Rachel S Wasson, Kristen M Kraemer, Richard W Sears, Carly Hueber, Sian Cotton
Hospital employees may experience occupational stress and burnout, which negatively impact quality of life and job performance. Evidence-based interventions implemented within the hospital setting are needed to promote employees' well-being. We offered a 4-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy group program for hospital employees, and used a mixed-methods practice-based research approach to explore feasibility, acceptability, and effects on stress and burnout. Participants were 65 hospital employees (Mage = 44...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333201/dispositional-mindfulness-shame-and-compulsive-sexual-behaviors-among-men-in-residential-treatment-for-substance-use-disorders
#17
Meagan J Brem, Ryan C Shorey, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
Approximately 31% of men in treatment for a substance use disorders (SUD) engage in compulsive sexual behavior (CSB). Shame, a well-documented consequence of CSB, increases the likelihood of relapse following treatment for SUDs. Despite the risk of relapse, prior research has not investigated factors that may attenuate the relation between CSB and shame. Dispositional mindfulness is one such factor known to mitigate shame. However, researchers have yet to examine dispositional mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between CSB and shame among a sample of men in treatment for SUDs...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333200/perceptions-of-mindfulness-in-a-low-income-primarily-african-american-treatment-seeking-sample
#18
Claire Adams Spears, Sean C Houchins, Wendy P Bamatter, Sandra Barrueco, Diana Stewart Hoover, Rokas Perskaudas
Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332020/predictors-of-improvements-in-mental-health-from-mindfulness-meditation-in-stressed-older-adults
#19
Barry S Oken, Elena Goodrich, Daniel Klee, Tabatha Memmott, Jeffrey Proulx
Context • The benefits of a mindfulness meditation (MM) intervention are most often evidenced by improvements in self-rated stress and mental health. Given the physiological complexity of the psychological stress system, it is likely that some people benefit significantly, whereas others do not. Clinicians and researchers could benefit from further exploration to determine which baseline factors can predict clinically significant improvements from MM. Objectives • The study intended to determine (1) whether the baseline measures for participants who significantly benefitted from MM training were different from the baseline measures of participants who did not, and (2) whether a classification analysis using a decision-tree, machine-learning approach could be useful in predicting which individuals would be most likely to improve...
January 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330125/the-hitchhiker-s-guide-to-the-chemical-biological-galaxy
#20
REVIEW
Giulia Opassi, Alessandro Gesù, Alberto Massarotti
We are used to considering chemical and biological spaces as two different entities; although they represent a more-interconnected world, in fact they represent a Yin-Yang concept in drug discovery. Chemical-biological space is as vast as the universe and, as Douglas Adams famously said, 'Space is big. You just won't believe how vastly, hugely, mind-bogglingly big it is'. However, many researchers are convinced that it is not so infinite, and are designing computational and experimental tools to help identify and explore all possible chemical-biological space...
January 9, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
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