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Maleic acid

Jubayer Al Mahmud, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Kamrun Nahar, Anisur Rahman, Md Shahadat Hossain, Masayuki Fujita
Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant that negatively affects plant growth and development. Thus, remediating Cr from soil or increasing plant tolerance against Cr stress is urgent. Organic acids are recognized as agents of phytoremediation and as exogenous protectants, but using maleic acid (MA) to attain these results has not yet been studied. Therefore, our study investigated the effects of MA on Cr uptake and mitigation of Cr toxicity. We treated 8-d-old Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L...
June 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhenzhen Yu, Qifeng Dang, Chengsheng Liu, Dongsu Cha, Haifeng Zhang, Wenjing Zhu, Qianqian Zhang, Bing Fan
A novel adsorbent, composed of poly(maleic acid)-grafted cross-linked chitosan microspheres (PMACCMs), was prepared via cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and modification by grafting maleic acid. FTIR, zeta potential, elemental analysis, (13)C NMR, DTG, laser particle size analysis, SEM, and BET methods were applied to characterize PMACCMs, exhibiting a successful fabrication, good thermostability, and well-defined surface microstructure beneficial to Cd(II) adsorption. The effects of pH, contact time, and initial concentration on Cd(II) adsorption were also investigated, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 39...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Marziyeh Fathi, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Ayuob Aghanejad, Jaleh Barar, Hamid Erfan-Niya, Yadollah Omidi
In the present work, new self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) were engineered using biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer, chitosan (CS). The complexation of CS with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) facilitated the regioselective chemical modification of CS hydroxyl groups with maleic anhydride, and produced polymerizable precursor of CS that was further grafted with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) as temperature-sensitive moiety and oleic acid (OA) as hydrophobic monomer. After removal of SDS complex, the free amino groups were functionalized with folic acid (FA) to form folate-(PNIPAAm-co-OA)-g-CS micellar NPs...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ariel Venezian, Evgenia Dor, Guy Achdari, Dina Plakhine, Evgeny Smirnov, Joseph Hershenhorn
Broomrapes (Phelipanche spp. and Orobanche spp.) are holoparasitic plants that cause tremendous losses of agricultural crops worldwide. Broomrape control is extremely difficult and only amino acid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides present an acceptable control level. It is expected that broomrape resistance to these herbicides is not long in coming. Our objective was to develop a broomrape control system in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on the plant growth regulator maleic hydrazide (MH). Petri-dish and polyethylene-bag system experiments revealed that MH has a slight inhibitory effect on Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination but is a potent inhibitor of the first stages of parasitism, namely attachment and the tubercle stage...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Olivija Plohl, Slavko Kralj, Boris Majaron, Eleonore Fröhlich, Maja Ponikvar-Svet, Darko Makovec, Darja Lisjak
Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) of β-NaYF4, co-doped with Yb(3+) and Tm(3+) and 21-36 nm large, were synthesized using a modified thermal decomposition method. The as-synthesized UCNPs were coated with oleic acid and dispersed in nonpolar media. Their morphology, size and crystal structure were analysed with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UCNPs showed a fluorescence emission spectrum characteristic of Tm(3+). Their dissolution in water (pH ∼ 4-5) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH = 7...
May 30, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Zahed Mohammadi, Hamid Jafarzadeh, Sousan Shalavi, Jun-Ichiro Kinoshita
Microorganisms and their by-products play a critical role in pulp and periradicular pathosis. Therefore, one of the main purposes of root canal treatment is disinfection of the entire system of the canal. This aim may be obtained using mechanical preparation, chemical irrigation, and temporary medication of the canal. For this purpose, various irrigation solutions have been advocated. Common root canal irrigants, such as sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, and a mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent have been extensively reviewed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Vineeth M Vijayan, Sachin J Shenoy, Jayabalalan Muthu
Targeted nanocarriers can significantly increase the efficiency of therapeutic formulations by ensuring the site specific delivery of the cargo. Here in, we report a novel actively targeted fluorescent nanogel, PMB-OctN, based on photoluminescent comacromer [PEG-maleic acid-4 aminobenzoic acid], diethylene glycoldimethacrylate and octreotide. The nanogel has spherical morphology with average particle size around 40nm. The PMB-OctN can load 78% of anticancer drug and release for 5days and beyond in a sustained way...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
I-Chuan Yen, Shih-Yu Lee, Kuen-Tze Lin, Feng-Yi Lai, Mao-Tien Kuo, Wen-Liang Chang
Two new ubiquinones, named antrocinnamone and 4-acetylantrocamol LT3, were isolated along with six known ubiquinones from Antrodia cinnamomea (Polyporaceae) mycelium. The developed HPLC analysis methods successfully identified eight different ubiquinones, two benzenoids, and one maleic acid derivative from A. cinnamomea. The ubiquinones 1-8 exhibited potential and selective cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 0.001 to 35.883 μM. We suggest that the different cytotoxicity levels were related to their chemical structures, especially the 4-hydroxycyclohex-2-enone ring and the presence of a free hydroxyl group in the side chain...
May 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
R Lavanya, T Gomathi, K Vijayalakshmi, M Saranya, P N Sudha, Sukumaran Anil
In the present work, the maleic anhydride and methacrylic acid monomers were grafted one after another onto chitosan by using ceric ammonium nitrate as the initiator. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied by varying the initiator concentration, monomer concentration and reaction temperature. The synthesized grafted samples were subjected to various analytical techniques such as FTIR, XRD, TGA and DSC methods The proof of formation of graft copolymer was ascertained from the results of FTIR analysis and XRD studies...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
S Ausmeel, C Andersen, O J Nielsen, F F Østerstrøm, M S Johnson, E J K Nilsson
Lactones, cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, are interesting biofuel candidates as they can be made from cellulosic biomass and have favorable physical and chemical properties for distribution and use. The reactions of γ-valerolactone (GVL), γ-crotonolactone (2(5H)-F), and α-methyl-γ-crotonolactone (3M-2(5H)-F) with Cl, OD, and O3 were investigated in a static chamber at 700 Torr and 298 ± 2 K. The relative rate method was used to determine kGVL+Cl = (4.56 ± 0.51) × 10(-11), kGVL+OD = (2.94 ± 0...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Yusuf Kemal Demir, Ayşegül Ülkü Metin, Betül Şatıroğlu, Mehmet Ertuğrul Solmaz, Veysel Kayser, Karsten Mäder
Cross-linking of natural and synthetic polymers is widely explored to achieve the desired material properties (mechanical strength, drug loading capacity, swelling and erosion rates). However, the potential of polymers produced by crosslinking poly (methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE/MA) and pectin (PE) in pharmaceutics is mainly unexplored so far. We have investigated the effect of various esterification conditions and pectin content on the physicochemical properties. Materials have been characterized by fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Elisaveta A Kvyatkovskaya, Vladimir P Zaytsev, Fedor I Zubkov, Pavel V Dorovatovskii, Yan V Zubavichus, Victor N Khrustalev
The title mol-ecular salts, C15H20NO(+)·C4H3O4(-), (I), and C9H15INO(+)·C4H3O4(-), (II), have very similar mol-ecular geometries for both cation and anion. The anions of both (I) and (II) are practically planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.062 and 0.072 Å, respectively) and adopt a rare symmetrical geometry with the hy-droxy H atom approximately equidistant from the two O atoms. In their crystals, the cations and anions in both (I) and (II) form tight ionic pairs via strong N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with a roughly perpendicular disposition of the anion to the furan ring of the cation...
April 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
M R Aji Alex, Chetan Nehate, Srivani Veeranarayanan, D Sakthi Kumar, Ritu Kulshreshtha, Veena Koul
Design of safe and efficient vehicles for the combinatorial delivery of drugs and genetic agents is an emerging requisite for achieving enhanced therapeutic effect in cancer. Even though several nanoplatforms have been explored for the co-delivery of drugs and genetic materials the translation of these systems to clinical phase is still a challenge, mainly due to tedious synthesis procedures, lack of serum stability, inefficient scalability etc. Here in, we report development of reduction and pH sensitive polymeric graft of low molecular weight poly (styrene -alt -maleic anhydride) and evaluation of its efficacy in co-delivering drug and siRNA...
July 2017: Biomaterials
Huiyang Bian, Liheng Chen, Hongqi Dai, J Y Zhu
Here we demonstrate di-carboxylic acid hydrolysis for the integrated production of lignin containing cellulose nanocrystals (LCNC) and nanofibrils (LCNF) using two unbleached mixed hardwood chemical pulps of lignin contents of 3.9 and 17.2%. Acid hydrolysis experiments used maleic acid solution of 60wt% concentration at 120°C for 120min under ambient pressure. Yields of LCNC were low of less than 6% under this set of conditions. The higher lignin content sample produced LCNC with greater height (diameter) of 25nm but similar length of approximately 230nm to that from the lower lignin content fibers (height of 20nm)...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hashem Alsaab, Rami M Alzhrani, Prashant Kesharwani, Samaresh Sau, Sai Hs Boddu, Arun K Iyer
The aim of this study was to develop a novel folate receptor-targeted drug delivery system for retinoblastoma cells using a promising anticancer agent, curcumin-difluorinated (CDF), loaded in polymeric micelles. Folic acid was used as a targeting moiety to enhance the targeting and bioavailability of CDF. For this purpose, amphiphilic poly(styrene-co-maleic acid)-conjugated-folic acid (SMA-FA) was synthesized and utilized to improve the aqueous solubility of a highly hydrophobic, but very potent anticancer compound, CDF, and its targeted delivery to folate overexpressing cancers...
April 18, 2017: Pharmaceutics
Donald Waller, David Bolick, Elaine Lissner, Christopher Premanandan, Gary Gamerman
BACKGROUND: Development of a non-hormonal long-acting reversible contraceptive for men could have a significant impact on reducing unintended pregnancies. Vasalgel™ is a high molecular weight polymer consisting of styrene-alt-maleic acid (SMA) dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide being developed as a reversible male contraceptive device. It forms a hydrogel when implanted into the vasa deferentia, which prevents the passage of sperm. Previous studies in the rabbit have proven its efficacy, durability and rapid onset...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
Junseok Lee, Jinhwan Kim, Yeong Mi Lee, Dongsik Park, Sooseok Im, Eun Ho Song, Hansoo Park, Won Jong Kim
Since the discovery that nano-scaled particulates can easily be incorporated into tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, such nanostructures have been exploited as therapeutic small molecule delivery systems. However, the convoluted synthetic process of conventional nanostructures has impeded their feasibility and reproducibility in clinical applications. Herein, we report an easily prepared formulation of self-assembled nanostructures for systemic delivery of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX)...
June 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Wenjie Zhao, Xiuming Jiang, Shujiao Ni, Yun Guo, Lijun He, Guoqiang Xiang, Shusheng Zhang
In this study, a series of stationary phases, comprising silica spheres and polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as the core and surface coating, respectively, were prepared via a layer-by-layer self-assembly approach for use in high-performance liquid chromatography. PEMs coatings were formed by the alternate deposition of positively charged poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and negatively charged poly(ethylene-alt-maleate) anions which were synthesized by esterification between poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) and n-alkyl alcohols (CnH2n+1OH, n=4, 8, 10, 12)...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Elizabeth A Pillar, Marcelo I Guzman
Anthropogenic activities contribute benzene, toluene, and anisole to the environment, which in the atmosphere are converted into the respective phenols, cresols, and methoxyphenols by fast gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). Further processing of the latter species by HO(•) decreases their vapor pressure as a second hydroxyl group is incorporated to accelerate their oxidative aging at interfaces and in aqueous particles. This work shows how catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 3-methoxycatechol (all proxies for oxygenated aromatics derived from benzene, toluene, and anisole) react at the air-water interface with increasing O3(g) during τc ≈ 1 μs contact time and contrasts their potential for electron transfer and in situ production of HO(•) using structure-activity relationships...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Chia-Chi Wang, Yin-Chi Lin, Yin-Hua Cheng, Chun-Wei Tung
BACKGROUND: Maleic acid is a multi-functional chemical widely used in the field of industrial chemistry for producing food additives and food contact materials. As maleic acid may contaminate food by the release from food packages or intentional addition, it raises the concern about the effects of excessive dietary exposure to maleic acid on human health. However, the influence of maleic acid on human health has not been thoroughly studied. In silico toxicogenomics approaches have found the association between maleic acid and nervous system disease in human...
2017: PeerJ
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