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Maleic acid

Udaya C Kalluri, Raja S Payyavula, Jessy L Labbé, Nancy Engle, Garima Bali, Sara S Jawdy, Robert W Sykes, Mark Davis, Arthur Ragauskas, Gerald A Tuskan, Timothy J Tschaplinski
A greater understanding of the genetic regulation of plant cell wall remodeling and the impact of modified cell walls on plant performance is important for the development of sustainable biofuel crops. Here, we studied the impact of down-regulating KORRIGAN-like cell wall biosynthesis genes, belonging to the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene family, on Populus growth, metabolism and the ability to interact with symbiotic microbes. The reductions in cellulose content and lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl unit ratio, and increase in cellulose crystallinity of cell walls of PdKOR RNAi plants corroborated the functional role of PdKOR in cell wall biosynthesis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ryuichi Watanabe, Chika Sugai, Taichi Yamazaki, Ryoji Matsushima, Hajime Uchida, Masahiro Matsumiya, Akiko Takatsu, Toshiyuki Suzuki
ERETIC2 (Electronic Reference To access In vivo Concentrations 2) based on PULCON (Pulse Length-based Concentration determination) methodology is a quantitative NMR (qNMR) using an external standard. The performance of the PULCON method was assessed using maleic acid (MA). Quantification of the diarrhetic shellfish toxin and okadaic acid by PULCON was successfully consistent with that obtained by a conventional internal standard method, demonstrating that the PULCON method is useful for the quantification of invaluable marine toxins without any contaminations by an internal standard...
October 13, 2016: Toxins
Jennifer Gamboa Jackman, Hemraj Juwarker, Luke P Poveromo, Howard Levinson, Kam W Leong, Bruce A Sullenger
Dying cells release nucleic acids (NA) and NA-containing complexes that activate inflammatory pathways of immune cells. Sustained activation of these pathways contributes to chronic inflammation frequently encountered in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study, grafting of cationic polymers onto a nanofibrous mesh enabled local scavenging of negatively charged pro-inflammatory molecules in the extracellular space. Nucleic acid scavenging nanofibers (NASFs) formed from poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) conjugated with 1...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Gavin Hazell, Thomas Arnold, Robert David Barker, Luke Ashley Clifton, Nina-Juliane Steinke, Cecilia Tognoloni, Karen J Edler
Styrene-alt-Maleic Acid lipid particles (SMALPs) are self-assembled discoidal structures composed of a polymer belt and a segment of lipid bilayer, which are capable of encapsulating membrane proteins directly from the cell membrane. Here we present evidence of the exchange of lipids between such "nanodiscs" and lipid monolayers adsorbed at either solid-liquid or air-liquid interfaces. This behavior has important implications for the potential uses of nanodiscs, including the potential to control lipid composition within nanodiscs containing membrane proteins...
October 14, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Weijun Tian, Jing Zhao, Yuhang Zhou, Kaili Qiao, Xin Jin, Qing Liu
Changes in root exudates, including low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids and sugars, in rhizosphere soils during the gel-beads/reeds combination remediation for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) and the degree of the effects on HMW-PAH biodegradation were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the gel-beads/reeds combination remediation notably increased the removal rates of pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (65.0-68.9%, 60.0-68.5% and 85...
October 10, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kerrie A Morrison, Aneel Akram, Ashlyn Mathews, Zoeya A Khan, Jaimin H Patel, Chumin Zhou, David John Hardy, Charles Moore-Kelly, Roshani Patel, Victor Odiba, Tim Knowles, Masood-Ul-Hassan Javed, Nikola P Chmel, Timothy R Dafforn, Alice Jane Rothnie
The use of styrene maleic acid (SMA) co-polymers to extract and purify transmembrane proteins, whilst retaining their native bilayer environment, overcomes many of the disadvantages associated with conventional detergent based procedures. This approach has huge potential for the future of membrane protein structural and functional studies. In this investigation we have systematically tested a range of commercially available SMA polymers, varying in both the ratio of styrene to maleic acid and in total size, for the ability to extract, purify and stabilise transmembrane proteins...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Jaleh Varshosaz, Farshid Hassanzadeh, Hojat Sadeghi Aliabadi, Fatemeh Rabbani Khoraskani, Mina Mirian, Behshid Behdadfar
The novel dual targeted nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared for treatment of breast cancer. Nanoparticles were produced by a layer-by-layer technique and functionalized with a bioconjugate of chitosan-poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid)(PMVMA)-LHRH to target LHRH receptors. The successful production of chitosan-PMVMA copolymer and its conjugation to LHRH was confirmed by FTIR and (1)HNMR spectroscopy. Capillary electrophoresis analysis showed 72.51% LHRH conjugation efficiency...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Elchin Akperov, Oktay Akperov, Elnara Jafarova, Sabahiye Gafarova
The sodium salt of the maleic acid-allylpropionate-styrene terpolymer was used for recovery of copper ions from aqueous solution. Effects of contact time, sorbent weight and initial Cu(2+) ion concentrations on removal efficiency were tested. The maximum experimental sorption capacity of the sorbent for copper ions is 0.71 g g(-1). The sorption isotherm of copper ions onto a prepared polymer sorbent has been studied and the equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption isotherm data showed that copper ions adsorption on the sorbent was better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kailash Attur, Mathew T Joy, Riyas Karim, V J Anil Kumar, C Deepika, Haseena Ahmed
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of different endodontic irrigants in the removal of smear layer through scanning electron microscopic image analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present in vitro study was carried out on 45 single-rooted extracted human mandibular premolar teeth with single canal and complete root formation. Teeth were randomly assigned to three groups with 15 teeth in each group. Group I samples were irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) irrigation, Group II with 7% maleic acid irrigation, and Group III with 2% chlorhexidine irrigation...
August 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Lifeng Liu, Jinghua Sun, Hongzhuan Yin, Jun Fang, Xianyu Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Irina A Smirnova, Dan Sjöstrand, Fei Li, Markus Björck, Jacob Schäfer, Henrik Östbye, Martin Högbom, Christoph von Ballmoos, Gabriel C Lander, Pia Ädelroth, Peter Brzezinski
We used the amphipathic styrene maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer to extract cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO) in its native lipid environment from S. cerevisiae mitochondria. Native nanodiscs containing one CytcO per disc were purified using affinity chromatography. The longest cross-sections of the native nanodiscs were 11nm×14nm. Based on this size we estimated that each CytcO was surrounded by ~100 phospholipids. The native nanodiscs contained the same major phospholipids as those found in the mitochondrial inner membrane...
September 13, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Renata Domingos Alves, Roberto Romero-González, Rosalía López-Ruiz, M L Jiménez-Medina, Antonia Garrido Frenich
An analytical method based on a modified QuPPe (quick polar pesticide) extraction procedure coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was evaluated for the determination of four polar compounds (chlorate, fosetyl-Al, maleic hydrazide, and perchlorate) in nutraceutical products obtained from soy. Experimental conditions including extraction such as solvent, acidification, time, and clean-up sorbents were varied. Acidified acetonitrile (1 % formic acid, v/v) was used as extraction solvent instead of methanol (conventional QuPPe), which provides a doughy mixture which cannot be injected into the LC...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Neha N Parayath, Hayley Nehoff, Samuel E Norton, Andrew J Highton, Sebastien Taurin, Roslyn A Kemp, Khaled Greish
Oral administration of paclitaxel (PTX), a broad spectrum anticancer agent, is challenged by its low uptake due to its poor bioavailability, efflux through P-glycoprotein, and gastrointestinal toxicity. We synthesized PTX nanomicelles using poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA). Oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles doubled the maximum tolerated dose (60 mg/kg vs 30 mg/kg) compared to the commercially available PTX formulation (PTX [Ebewe]). In a murine orthotopic colon cancer model, oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles at doses 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg reduced tumor weight by 54% and 69%, respectively, as compared to the control group, while no significant reduction in tumor weight was observed with 30 mg/kg of PTX (Ebewe)...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Toufik Taalibi Boukerche, Sandra Alves, Pauline Le Faouder, Anna Warnet, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Mohamed Bouchekara, Mohammed Belbachir, Jean-Claude Tabet
Lipidomics calls for information on detected lipids and conjugates whose structural elucidation by mass spectrometry requires to rationalization of their gas phase dissociations toward collision-induced dissociation (CID) processes. This study focused on activated dissociations of two lipoamino acid (LAA) systems composed of N-palmitoyl acyl coupled with aspartic and glutamic acid mono ethyl esters (as LAA(*D) and LAA(*E)). Although in MS/MS, their CID spectra show similar trends, e.g., release of water and ethanol, the [(LAA(*D/*E)+H)-C2H5OH](+) product ions dissociate via distinct pathways in sequential MS(3) experiments...
August 26, 2016: Amino Acids
Huacai Ge, Tingting Hua
Chitosan-poly(maleic acid) nanomaterial (PMACS) with the size of 400-900nm was synthesized by grafting poly(maleic acid) onto chitosan and then crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The synthesis conditions were optimized. The structure and morphology of PMACS were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA. PMACS was used to adsorb some heavy metal ions such as Hg(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), and Zn(II). The results indicated that PMACS had selectivity for Hg(II) sorption. The effects of various variables for sorption of Hg(II) were further explored...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kittisak Jantanasakulwong, Noppol Leksawasdi, Phisit Seesuriyachan, Somchai Wongsuriyasak, Charin Techapun, Toshiaki Ougizawa
Cassava starch was melt-blended with glycerol (70/30wt%/wt%) at 140°C to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS). Chitosan (CTS) was premixed with starch and glycerol, in acidified water (lactic acid 2wt%), at 1, 5 and 10wt%/wt%. TPS/CTS was then melt-blended (160°C) with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-MAH). Phase determination and scanning electron microscopy indicated TPS/PE-MAH/CTS had a co-continuous morphology and CTS-induced phase inversion to give dispersed PE-MAH particles in a TPS matrix. Tensile strength at break and elongation, melt viscosity, fracture toughness and water contact angle of TPS/PE-MAH were improved by CTS incorporation...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiukai Li, Yugen Zhang
The deoxydehydration (DODH) of sugar acids to industrially important carboxylic acids is a very attractive topic. Oxorhenium complexes are the most-often employed DODH catalysts. Because of the acidity of the rhenium catalysts, the DODH products of sugar acids were usually in the form of mixture of free carboxylic acids and esters. Herein, we demonstrate strategies for the selective DODH of sugar acids to free carboxylic acids by tuning the Lewis acidity or the Brønsted acidity of the rhenium-based catalysts...
October 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
Gizem Barisik, Asli Isci, Naciye Kutlu, Simel Bagder Elmaci, Bulent Akay
The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different organic acids (maleic, succinic and oxalic acid) on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields of wheat straw. It was also aimed to optimize the process conditions (temperature, acid concentration and pretreatment time) by using response surface methodology (RSM). In line with this objective, the wheat straw samples were pretreated at three different temperatures (170, 190, 210 ˚C), acid concentrations (1%, 3%, 5%) and pretreatment time (10, 20, 30 min)...
August 25, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Homer C Genuino, Shanmugam Thiyagarajan, Jan C van der Waal, Ed de Jong, Jacco van Haveren, Daan S van Es, Bert M Weckhuysen, Pieter C A Bruijnincx
Bio-based furanics can be aromatized efficiently by sequential Diels-Alder (DA) addition and hydrogenation steps followed by tandem catalytic aromatization. With a combination of zeolite H-Y and Pd/C, the hydrogenated DA adduct of 2-methylfuran and maleic anhydride can thus be aromatized in the liquid phase and, to a certain extent, decarboxylated to give high yields of the aromatic products 3-methylphthalic anhydride and o- and m-toluic acid. Here, it is shown that a variation in the acidity and textural properties of the solid acid as well as bifunctionality offers a handle on selectivity toward aromatic products...
August 25, 2016: ChemSusChem
Sundaresan Rajesh, Michael Overduin, Boyan B Bonev
Membrane proteins are essential for the flow of signals, nutrients and energy between cells and between compartments of the cell. Their mechanisms can only be fully understood once the precise structures, dynamics and interactions involved are defined at atomic resolution. Through advances in solution and solid state NMR spectroscopy, this information is now available, as demonstrated by recent studies of stable peripheral and transmembrane proteins. Here we highlight recent cases of G-protein coupled receptors, outer membrane proteins, such as VDAC, phosphoinositide sensors, such as the FAPP-1 pleckstrin homology domain, and enzymes including the metalloproteinase MMP-12...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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