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Wee L Yee, Peter S Chapman
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran; Diptera: Tephritidae), occurs in unmanaged cherries (Prunus spp.) across dry climates in Washington State and other regions in western United States and Canada. To help explain the fly's distribution in arid climates, we determined the effects of adding water to bare and grass-covered soils on pupal survival rates and adult emergence patterns of R. indifferens in central Washington. Water was added ('irrigated') or not to bare soil and grass-covered soil in cylinders pressed into the ground...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Camiel Doorenweerd, Luc Leblanc, Allen L Norrbom, Michael San Jose, Daniel Rubinoff
The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux...
2018: ZooKeys
José Arredondo, Lia Ruiz, Pablo Montoya, Francisco Díaz-Fleischer
The production of genetic sexing strains (GSS) of tephritid flies for sterile insect technique (SIT) programs convey the need to determine new conditions for packing and shipment since these flies are more susceptible to stressors than standard bisexual strains. We studied the effect of hypoxia, pupae size, and temperature on the new GSS Tapachula-7 of Anastrepha ludens flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). In one experiment, we tested the interaction size hypoxia using three pupae sizes, 6 (11.6 ± 1.1 mg), 7 (15...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Fan Jiang, Liang Liang, Zhihong Li, Yanxue Yu, Jun Wang, Yuping Wu, Shuifang Zhu
The genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus and Rhagoletis in the family Tephritidae order Diptera are economically important, worldwide distributed and cause damage to a large number of commercially produced fruits and vegetables. China had regulated these five genera as quarantine pests, including the species Carpomya vesuviana. An accurate molecular method not depending on morphology able to detect all the quarantine fruit flies simultaneously is required for quarantine monitoring. This study contributes a comparative analysis of 146 mitochondrial genomes of Diptera species and found variable sites at the mt DNA cox2 gene only conserved in economically important fruit flies species...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shaokun Guo, Zihua Zhao, Lijun Liu, Zhihong Li, Jie Shen
Flight capacity is important for invasive pests during entry, establishment and spreading. Both Bactroceradorsalis Hendel and Bactroceracorrecta Bezzi are invasive fruit flies but their flight capacities differ. Here, a tethered flight mill test demonstrated that B. dorsalis exhibits a greater flight capacity than B. correcta. RNA-Seq was used to determine the transcriptomic differences associated with the flight capacity of two Bactrocera species. Transcriptome data showed that 6392 unigenes were differentially expressed between the two species in the larval stage, whereas in the adult stage, 4104 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in females, and 3445 DEGs were observed in males...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bertanne Visser, Caroline M Williams, Daniel A Hahn, Clancy A Short, Giancarlo López-Martínez
Oxygen is essential for most animals and exposure to a complete lack of oxygen, i.e. anoxia, can result in irreparable damage to cells that can extend up to the organismal level to negatively affect performance. While it is known that brief anoxia exposure may confer cross-tolerance to other stressors, few data exist on the biochemical and organismal consequences of repeated intermittent bouts of anoxia exposure. In nature, the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)(Diptera: Tephritidae) is frequently exposed to heavy tropical rainfall while pupating in the soil, equating to multiple exposures to hypoxia or anoxia during development...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Uriel Gallardo-Ortiz, Diana Pérez-Staples, Pablo Liedo, Jorge Toledo
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used in area-wide pest management programs for establishing low pest prevalence and/or areas free of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The aim of this technique is to induce high levels of sterility in the wild population, for this the released insects must have a high sexual competitiveness and field dispersal. However, radiation decreases these biological attributes that do not allow it to compete successfully with wild insects. In this study the sexual competitiveness, field survival and dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart; Diptera: Tephritidae) irradiated at 0, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy were evaluated in laboratory...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Liliane Nachtigall Martins, Ana Paula de Souza Stori de Lara, Márcio Soares Ferreira, Adrise Medeiros Nunes, Daniel Bernardi, Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite, Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered to be one of the major pest insects in fruit orchards worldwide. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strains are widely used as biological control agents and show high biological activity against different insect species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of different strains of B. thuringiensis against A. fraterculus larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using suspensions of bacterial spores/crystals of B...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Carlos Congrains, Emeline B Campanini, Felipe R Torres, Víctor B Rezende, Aline M Nakamura, Janaína L de Oliveira, André L A Lima, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Iderval S Sobrinho, Reinaldo A de Brito
Several studies have demonstrated that genes differentially expressed between sexes (sex-biased genes) tend to evolve faster than unbiased genes, particularly in males. The reason for this accelerated evolution is not clear, but several explanations have involved adaptive and non-adaptive mechanisms. Furthermore, the differences of sex-biased expression patterns of closely related species are also little explored out of Drosophila. To address the evolutionary processes involved with sex-biased expression in species with incipient differentiation, we analyzed male and female transcriptomes of Anastrepha fraterculus and A...
January 15, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Enrico Bertolini, Christa Kistenpfennig, Pamela Menegazzi, Alexander Keller, Martha Koukidou, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the single most important pest for the majority of olive plantations. Oxitec's self-limiting olive fly technology (OX3097D-Bol) offers an alternative management approach to this insect pest. Because of previously reported asynchrony in the mating time of wild and laboratory strains, we have characterized the olive fly circadian clock applying molecular, evolutionary, anatomical and behavioural approaches. Here we demonstrate that the olive fly clock relies on a Drosophila melanogaster-like organization and that OX3097D-Bol carries a functional clock similar to wild-type strains, confirming its suitability for operational use...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arun Rajamohan, Joseph P Rinehart, Roger A Leopold
In a sampling of untreated embryos of the economically important fruit pest species, Anastrepha ludens, the cumulative hatch percentage in the lab was noted to be ∼85%. Approximately 70% of the larvae had eclosed through the posterior pole of the egg. This process is effected by the act of Pole Reversal (PR) of the fully developed pre-hatch larva from the wider anterior to the narrower posterior pole of the egg. Investigation of the effects of cryopreservation and various pretreatments prior to cryostorage on the PR behavior was prompted by the observation of significantly lower proportion of cryopreserved embryos exhibiting the PR behavior...
December 19, 2017: Cryobiology
Glenn A Bellis, Americo A Brito, Hipolito DE Jesus, Valente Quintao, Joaquim C Sarmento, Apolinario Bere, João Rodrigues, David L Hancock
Opportunistic monitoring using baited fruit fly traps throughout Timor-Leste revealed the presence of 16 species of Bactrocera and one species of Dacus, all of which are previously reported from the region. Sampling of a range of commercial fruit species detected an additional species, B. latifrons, and revealed that nine species are attacking commercial fruits and vegetables. A key for separating these species is provided. New host records were found for B. minuscula, B. floresiae and B. bellisi. Variation in the morphology of B...
December 5, 2017: Zootaxa
Shaokun Guo, Jia He, Zihua Zhao, Lijun Liu, Liyuan Gao, Shuhua Wei, Xiaoyu Guo, Rong Zhang, Zhihong Li
Neoceratitis asiatica (Becker), which especially infests wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.), could cause serious economic losses every year in China, especially to organic wolfberry production. In some important wolfberry plantings, it is difficult and time-consuming to rear the larvae or pupae to adults for morphological identification. Molecular identification based on DNA barcode is a solution to the problem. In this study, 15 samples were collected from Ningxia, China. Among them, five adults were identified according to their morphological characteristics...
December 12, 2017: Zootaxa
Michael San Jose, Camiel Doorenweerd, Luc Leblanc, Norman Barr, Scott Geib, Daniel Rubinoff
Molecular and morphological research often suggest conflicting results. Selective pressure on certain morphologies can confound understanding of evolutionary relationships. Dacini is one of the most diverse tribes of tephritid flies and contains many economically important pest species. Their black and yellow patterned body markings are presumed to act as wasp mimicry, and the characters separating species and groups are limited and in some cases phenotypically plastic. The traditional taxonomy of the tribe is controversial because groupings are based on unique combinations of morphological characters without the use of cladistic methods, though recent phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses have resulted in significant changes to their taxonomy...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Hoi-Sen Yong, Sze-Looi Song, Phaik-Eem Lim, Praphathip Eamsobhana
The tephritid fruit fly Zeugodacus tau (Walker) is a polyphagous fruit pest of economic importance in Asia. Studies based on genetic markers indicate that it forms a species complex. We report here (1) the complete mitogenome of Z. tau from Malaysia and comparison with that of China as well as the mitogenome of other congeners, and (2) the relationship of Z. tau taxa from different geographical regions based on sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The complete mitogenome of Z. tau had a total length of 15631 bp for the Malaysian specimen (ZT3) and 15835 bp for the China specimen (ZT1), with similar gene order comprising 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes-PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and a non-coding A + T-rich control region (D-loop)...
2017: PloS One
Maud Charlery de la Masselière, Benoît Facon, Abir Hafsi, Pierre-François Duyck
In most phytophagous insects, larvae are less mobile than adults and their fitness depends on the plant chosen by their mother. To maximize fitness, adult preference and larval performance should thus be correlated. This correlation is not always apparent and seems to increase with the level of specialisation, i.e. specialists have a stronger preference for high quality host plant species compared to generalists. The aim of this study was to test whether the relationship between female preference and larval performance was stronger for specialists than for generalists within a community of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Norman B Barr, Raul Ruiz-Arce, Roxanne E Farris, Janisete Gomes Silva, Kátia M Lima, Vivian Siqueira Dutra, Beatriz Ronchi-Teles, Peter H Kerr, Allen L Norrbom, Norma Nolazco, Donald B Thomas
Molecular identification of fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha (Diptera; Tephritidae) is important to support plant pest exclusion, suppression, and outbreak eradication. Morphological methods of identification of this economically important genus are often not sufficient to identify species when detected as immature life stages. DNA barcoding a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene has been proposed as a method to identify pests in the genus. The identification process for these fruit flies, however, has not been explained in prior DNA barcode studies...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yun Su, Yue Zhang, Shiqian Feng, Jia He, Zihua Zhao, Zhenzhen Bai, Lijun Liu, Rong Zhang, Zhihong Li
Neoceratitis asiatica (Becker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important fruit pestsof wolfberry which is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. We characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of N. asiatica and described its organization in this study. This mitogenome had a total length of 15,481 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The overall base composition of N. asiatica in descending order was 40...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kevin Malod, C Ruth Archer, John Hunt, Susan W Nicolson, Christopher W Weldon
In insects, lifespan and reproduction are strongly associated with nutrition. The ratio and amount of nutrients individuals consume affect their life expectancy and reproductive investment. The geometric framework (GF) enables us to explore how animals regulate their intake of multiple nutrients simultaneously and determine how these nutrients interact to affect life-history traits of interest. Studies using the GF on host-generalist tephritid flies have highlighted trade-offs between longevity and reproductive effort in females, mediated by the protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio that individuals consume...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Roger I Vargas, Steven K Souder, Pedro Rendon, Bruce Mackey
To assess the potential to suppress Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae), via mass trapping with Trimedlure (TML), we compared fly catch (as catch per trap per time period) provided by either a novel, solid, triple-lure dispenser with TML, methyl eugenol (ME), and raspberry ketone (RK) (TMR) or solid TML plugs, both without insecticides, in addition to Biolure bait stations. Work was done in a coffee plantation that had a dense C. capitata population. Three treatments were compared: 1) TMR or TML (50 traps per ha), 2) Biolure (50 traps per ha), 3) TML (25 per ha) or TMR (25 per ha) + Biolure (25 per ha), and 4) an untreated control...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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