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Laurent Kamel, Michelle Keller-Pearson, Christophe Roux, Jean-Michel Ané
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the vast majority of land plants, providing mutual nutritional benefits and protecting hosts against biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress was made recently in our understanding of the genomic organization, the obligate requirements, and the sexual nature of these fungi through the release and subsequent mining of genome sequences. Genomic and genetic approaches also improved our understanding of the signal repertoire used by AM fungi and their plant hosts to recognize each other for the initiation and maintenance of this association...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
Petra D Cravens, Rehana Z Hussain, William A Miller-Little, Li-Hong Ben, Benjamin M Segal, Emily Herndon, Olaf Stüve
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are heterodimers that share the p40 subunit, and both cytokines are critical in the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Th1 and Th17 effector cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), an animal model of the human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). However, ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against p40 failed to show efficacy over placebo in a phase II clinical trial in patients with MS...
2016: PloS One
Mohamed Osman, Rajesh Paleti, Sabyasachee Mishra, Mihalis M Golias
Work zones are critical parts of the transportation infrastructure renewal process consisting of rehabilitation of roadways, maintenance, and utility work. Given the specific nature of a work zone (complex arrangements of traffic control devices and signs, narrow lanes, duration) a number of crashes occur with varying severities involving different vehicle sizes. In this paper we attempt to investigate the causal factors contributing to injury severity of large truck crashes in work zones. Considering the discrete nature of injury severity categories, a number of comparable econometric models were developed including multinomial logit (MNL), nested logit (NL), ordered logit (ORL), and generalized ordered logit (GORL) models...
October 22, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Irving E Wang, Thomas R Clandinin
The activity and maintenance of neurons requires substantial metabolic energy, resulting in selective pressure to decrease resource consumption by the nervous system. The wiring economy principle proposes that animals have evolved mechanisms that wire circuits efficiently by minimizing neurite length. Computational modeling of neuronal morphology, microcircuit organization, and neural networks reveals that wiring economy is a significant determinant of nervous system layout. The strategies for reducing wiring costs are shared across phyla and point to the possibility of generalizable rules that specify the development of efficient nervous systems...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Matthew Collin, Venetia Bigley
The maintenance of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) involves manifold pathways of ontogeny and homeostasis that have been the subject of intense study in recent years. The concept of a peripheral mononuclear phagocyte system continually renewed by blood-borne monocytes has been modified to include specialized DC pathways of development that do not involve monocytes, and longevity through self-renewal of tissue macrophages. The study of development remains difficult owing to the plasticity of phenotypes and misconceptions about the fundamental structure of hematopoiesis...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Raphael Kaplan, Daniel Bush, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, Sofie S Meyer, Neil Burgess
Hippocampal-medial prefrontal interactions are thought to play a crucial role in mental simulation. Notably, the frontal midline/medial pFC (mPFC) theta rhythm in humans has been linked to introspective thought and working memory. In parallel, theta rhythms have been proposed to coordinate processing in the medial temporal cortex, retrosplenial cortex (RSc), and parietal cortex during the movement of viewpoint in imagery, extending their association with physical movement in rodent models. Here, we used noninvasive whole-head MEG to investigate theta oscillatory power and phase-locking during the 18-sec postencoding delay period of a spatial working memory task, in which participants imagined previously learned object sequences either on a blank background (object maintenance), from a first-person viewpoint in a scene (static imagery), or moving along a path past the objects (dynamic imagery)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Piotr Polański
AIM: The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Nittaya Srisuk, Jan Cameron, Chantal F Ski, David R Thompson
AIM: To evaluate a heart failure education program developed for patients and carers in Thailand. BACKGROUND: Heart failure is major health problem. This is the first trial of a family-based education program for heart failure patients and carers residing in rural Thailand. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: One hundred patient-carer dyads attending cardiac clinics in southern Thailand from April 2014-March 2015 were randomized to usual care (n=50) or a family-based education program (n=50) comprising face-to-face counselling, a heart failure manual and DVD and telephone support...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Lydia Laninga-Wijnen, Zeena Harakeh, Christian Steglich, Jan K Dijkstra, René Veenstra, Wilma Vollebergh
This study examined whether peer norms for aggression within the classroom impact friendship selection, maintenance, and socialization processes related to aggression across the 1st year of secondary school (N = 1,134 students from 51 classes, Mage  = 12.66). As hypothesized, longitudinal social network analyses indicated that friendship selection and influence processes related to aggression depended on the popularity norm within the classroom (i.e., the class-level association between popularity and aggression) rather than the descriptive norm (aggregated average of aggressive behavior)...
October 25, 2016: Child Development
Andrea Murillo, Nora A Kolter, Anssi Laurila, Germán Orizaola
1.In seasonal environments, modifications in the phenology of life-history events can alter the strength of time-constraints experienced by organisms. Offspring can compensate for a change in timing of hatching by modifying their growth and development trajectories. However, intra- and inter -specific interactions may affect these compensatory responses, in particular if differences in phenology between cohorts lead to significant priority effects (i.e. the competitive advantage that early hatching individuals have over late hatching ones)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Haishan Zhao, Hongtao Tang, Qinghuan Xiao, Miao He, Lin Zhao, Yingzi Fu, Huizhe Wu, Zhaojin Yu, Qian Jiang, Yuanyuan Yan, Feng Jin, Minjie Wei
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been suggested to serve an important role in tumor recurrence and metastasis in breast cancer. The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is essential for the maintenance of breast CSCs. The present study used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of Patched (PTCH) and Gli1, which are the main components of the Hh signaling pathway, as well as the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)44/CD24, which are markers for breast CSCs, in 266 patients with breast cancer. The combined expression of PTCH and Gli1 was significantly associated with larger tumors (>2...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Paulo R D V Godoy, Ana Paula L Montaldi, Elza T Sakamoto-Hojo
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal tumor and novel strategies are required to overcome resistance. Transcription factor 12 (HEB) has been associated with neural and stem cell proliferation, is overexpressed in certain tumor types and is induced in irradiated U87MG cells. The present study aimed to determine whether HEB knockdown, with or without irradiation, may sensitize GBM cells. U87MG GBM and ACBRI‑371 primary human astrocytes were cultured in monolayers or neurospheres. Cell proliferation and death, cell cycle and sub‑G1 detection, and cluster of differentiation (CD) 133 immunofluorescence were analyzed by flow cytometry, whereas HEB protein expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and western blotting...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Wenjie Li, Fei Cao, Juan Li, Zhixin Wang, Yu Ren, Zheyong Liang, Peijun Liu
Simvastatin (SIM), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, has been reported to inhibit the activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV), however, the mechanism underlying its antiviral function remains unknown. Minichromosome maintenance (MCM) 7, a component of the MCM complex, has been reported to act as an important host factor aiding virus genome replication in host cells. The present study demonstrated that downregulation of MCM7 inhibited the expression of proteins transferred by adenoviral vectors...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Brittany A Avin, Christopher B Umbricht, Martha A Zeiger
The catalytic subunit of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), plays an essential role in telomere maintenance to oppose cellular senescence and, is highly regulated in normal and cancerous cells. Regulation of hTERT occurs through multiple avenues, including a unique pattern of CpG promoter methylation and alternative splicing. Promoter methylation affects the binding of transcription factors, resulting in changes in expression of the gene. In addition to expression level changes, changes in promoter binding can affect alternative splicing in a cotranscriptional manner...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Gregory F Guzauskas, Kathleen F Villa, Geertrui F Vanhove, Vicki L Fisher, David L Veenstra
PURPOSE: To estimate the risk-benefit trade-off of a pediatric-inspired regimen versus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) for first-line treatment of adolescents/young adult (AYA; ages 16-39 years) patients with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS: Patient outcomes were simulated using a 6-state Markov model, including complete response (CR), no CR, first relapse, second CR, second relapse, and death...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso, Natália Dias, Joana Senger, Ana Paula Cervi Colling, Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra, Rochele Paz Fonseca
This systematic review aimed to characterize empirical studies on neuropsychological interventions to stimulate executive functions in children with typical development. Searches were conducted according to the PRISMA method. Nineteen (19) studies on the analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs in pre-school and school children were obtained. There was a predominance of studies that used computerized cognitive training, most of them involving the stimulation of working memory. Others used pen and paper forms, or hybrid tasks, and some programs used a school curriculum approach aiming to improve self-regulation...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Massimo Alfano, Manuela Nebuloni, Raffaele Allevi, Pietro Zerbi, Erika Longhi, Roberta Lucianò, Irene Locatelli, Angela Pecoraro, Marco Indrieri, Chantal Speziali, Claudio Doglioni, Paolo Milani, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
In the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering simulating the native microenvironment is of utmost importance. As a major component of the microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to tissue homeostasis, whereas modifications of native features are associated with pathological conditions. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) geometry is an important feature of synthetic scaffolds favoring cell stemness, maintenance and differentiation. We analyzed the 3D structure, geometrical measurements and anisotropy of the ECM isolated from (i) human bladder mucosa (basal lamina and lamina propria) and muscularis propria; and, (ii) bladder carcinoma (BC)...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
M A Zouache, I Eames, C A Klettner, P J Luthert
The development of fluid transport systems was a key event in the evolution of animals and plants. While within vertebrates branched geometries predominate, the choriocapillaris, which is the microvascular bed that is responsible for the maintenance of the outer retina, has evolved a planar topology. Here we examine the flow and mass transfer properties associated with this unusual geometry. We show that as a result of the form of the choriocapillaris, the blood flow is decomposed into a tessellation of functional vascular segments of various shapes delineated by separation surfaces across which there is no flow, and in the vicinity of which the transport of passive substances is diffusion-limited...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stefania Oliva, Manuela Gambella, Milena Gilestro, Vittorio Emanuele Muccio, Francesca Gay, Daniela Drandi, Simone Ferrero, Roberto Passera, Chiara Pautasso, Annalisa Bernardini, Mariella Genuardi, Francesca Patriarca, Elona Saraci, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Norbert Pescosta, Anna Marina Liberati, Tommaso Caravita, Concetta Conticello, Alberto Rocci, Pellegrino Musto, Mario Boccadoro, Antonio Palumbo, Paola Omedè
We analyzed 50 patients who achieved at least a very good partial response in the RV-MM-EMN-441 study. Patients received consolidation with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) or cyclophosphamide-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (CRD), followed by Lenalidomide-based maintenance. We assessed minimal residual disease (MRD) by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MFC) and allelic-specific oligonucleotide real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ASO-RQ-PCR) after consolidation, after 3 and 6 courses of maintenance, and thereafter every 6 months until progression...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
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