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John R Best, Janice J Eng, Jennifer C Davis, Robin Hsiung, Peter A Hall, Laura E Middleton, Peter Graf, Charles H Goldsmith, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular disease-such as stroke-is the second most common cause of dementia (ie, vascular dementia). Specifically, a stroke increases one's risk for dementia by a factor of two. Thus, stroke survivors represent a target population in need of intervention strategies to promote cognitive function and prevent dementia. The current standard of care in stroke rehabilitation does not adequately address the significant cognitive consequences of stroke, especially for those who are in the chronic phase (ie, >12 months since an index stroke)...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, David Della-Morte, Ivan Augimeri, Marco Alessandrini
OBJECTIVE: Considering the altered multisensory signal compensation during senescence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the integration rearrangements in unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) during age-related cognitive decline. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Longitudinal cohort study unit and of University tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Older UVH individuals ≥ 55 years with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer Disease (AD) and matched UVH control group with age-appropriate cognitive function...
March 15, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Tao Wei, Kejun Deng, Hongbin Wang, Lipeng Zhang, Chunguo Wang, Wenqin Song, Yong Zhang, Chengbin Chen
In our previous study, drought-resistant transgenic plants of Salvia miltiorrhiza were produced via overexpression of the transcription factor AtDREB1A. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underpinning elevated drought tolerance in transgenic plants, in the present study we compared the global transcriptional profiles of wild-type (WT) and AtDREB1A -expressing transgenic plants using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Using cluster analysis, we identified 3904 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Compared with WT plants, 423 unigenes were up-regulated in pRD29A::AtDREB1A-31 before drought treatment, while 936 were down-regulated and 1580 and 1313 unigenes were up- and down-regulated after six days of drought...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Gomes Fernandes, Monika Bialecka, Daniela C F Salvatori, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
STUDY QUESTION: Which set of antibodies can be used to identify migratory and early post-migratory human primordial germ cells (hPGCs)? STUDY FINDING: We validated the specificity of 33 antibodies for 31 markers, including POU5F1, NANOG, PRDM1 and TFAP2C as specific markers of hPGCs at 4.5 weeks of development of Carnegie stage (CS12-13), whereas KIT and SOX17 also marked the intra-aortic hematopoietic stem cell cluster in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The dynamics of gene expression during germ cell development in mice is well characterized and this knowledge has proved crucial to allow the development of protocols for the in-vitro derivation of functional gametes...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Ryosuke Ota, Ryoko Yamada, Takahiro Moriya, Tomoyuki Hasegawa
PURPOSE: Cherenkov radiation has recently received attention due to its prompt emission phenomenon, which has the potential to improve the timing performance of radiation detectors dedicated to positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, a Cherenkov based three-dimensional (3D) position sensitive radiation detector was proposed, which is composed of a monolithic lead fluoride (PbF2 ) crystal and a photodetector array of which the signals can be readout independently. METHODS: Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the performance of the proposed detector...
March 6, 2018: Medical Physics
E Volz-Sidiropoulou, T Rings, A Wagg, N Leistner, S Gauggel, R Kirschner-Hermanns
OBJECTIVES: To develop a new assessment tool to measure disease-related impact of incontinence and care effort in cognitively impaired adults (ICIQ-Cog). The current paper presents the initial psychometric properties of ICIQ-Cog and outlines some possible clinical implications. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The ICIQ-Cog consists of 2 scales: a 12-item scale measuring disease-specific bother (ICIQ-Cog-P) and a 4-item scale assessing care efforts (ICIQ-Cog-C). The data for 60 residents of nursing homes suffering from incontinence and cognitive impairments were obtained in a test-retest research design...
March 6, 2018: BJU International
E Ferrari, G Cooper, N D Reeves, E F Hodson-Tole
Intrinsic foot muscles (IFM) are a crucial component within the human foot. Investigating their functioning can help understand healthy and pathological behaviour of foot and ankle, fundamental for everyday activities. Recording muscle activation from IFM has been attempted with invasive techniques, mainly investigating single muscles. Here we present a novel methodology, to investigate the feasibility of recording physiological surface EMG (sEMG) non-invasively and quantify patterns of activation across the whole plantar region of the foot...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Briony K Varda, Patricia Cho, Andrew A Wagner, Richard S Lee
BACKGROUND: In adult urologic oncology the use of robotics has become commonplace; in pediatric urology it is rare. Herein, we describe a collaboration between an adult and a pediatric urologist performing robotic surgery for children and young adults with suspicious or cancerous genitourinary (GU) lesions. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical and oncologic outcomes in children and young adults undergoing robotic surgery for suspicious or cancerous lesions of the GU tract; to describe our collaborative model between an adult and pediatric surgeon at a free-standing children's hospital...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Long Sun, Ya-Nan Zhang, Jia-Li Qian, Ke Kang, Xiao-Qing Zhang, Jun-Dan Deng, Yan-Ping Tang, Cheng Chen, Laura Hansen, Tian Xu, Qing-He Zhang, Long-Wa Zhang
The citrus long-horned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) is a destructive native pest in China. Chemosensory receptors including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. In the current study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. chinensis by next-generation sequencing. We assembled 44,938 unigenes from 64,787,784 clean reads and annotated their putative gene functions based on gene ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
James Whang
High vowel devoicing in Japanese, where /i, u/ in a C1 VC2 sequence devoice when both C1 and C2 are voiceless, has been studied extensively, but factors that contribute to the devoiced vowels' likelihood of complete deletion is still debated. This study examines the effects of phonotactic predictability on the deletion of devoiced vowels. Native Tokyo Japanese speakers (N = 22) were recorded in a sound-attenuated booth reading sentences containing lexical stimuli. C1 of the stimuli were /k, ʃ/, after which either high vowel can occur, and /ʧ, ϕ, s, ç/, after which only one of the two occurs...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jeri Hahn-Markowitz, Itai Berger, Iris Manor, Adina Maeir
AIM: The family context of children with ADHD plays a role in intervention outcomes, especially when parents are involved in treatment. Parental participation in evidence-based treatment for ADHD may play a role in improving their own parenting self-efficacy (PSE) as well as child outcomes. This study examined the impact of Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) intervention in occupational therapy (OT) for school-aged children with ADHD, on PSE. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial with crossover design, 107 children were allocated to intervention and waitlist control groups...
March 1, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Charles S Mayo, Jean M Moran, Walter Bosch, Ying Xiao, Todd McNutt, Richard Popple, Jeff Michalski, Mary Feng, Lawrence B Marks, Clifton D Fuller, Ellen Yorke, Jatinder Palta, Peter E Gabriel, Andrea Molineu, Martha M Matuszak, Elizabeth Covington, Kathryn Masi, Susan L Richardson, Timothy Ritter, Tomasz Morgas, Stella Flampouri, Lakshmi Santanam, Joseph A Moore, Thomas G Purdie, Robert C Miller, Coen Hurkmans, Judy Adams, Qing-Rong Jackie Wu, Colleen J Fox, Ramon Alfredo Siochi, Norman L Brown, Wilko Verbakel, Yves Archambault, Steven J Chmura, Andre L Dekker, Don G Eagle, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Theodore Hong, Rishabh Kapoor, Beth Lansing, Shruti Jolly, Mary E Napolitano, James Percy, Mark S Rose, Salim Siddiqui, Christof Schadt, William E Simon, William L Straube, Sara T St James, Kenneth Ulin, Sue S Yom, Torunn I Yock
A substantial barrier to the single- and multi-institutional aggregation of data to supporting clinical trials, practice quality improvement efforts, and development of big data analytics resource systems is the lack of standardized nomenclatures for expressing dosimetric data. To address this issue, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 263 was charged with providing nomenclature guidelines and values in radiation oncology for use in clinical trials, data-pooling initiatives, population-based studies, and routine clinical care by standardizing: (1) structure names across image processing and treatment planning system platforms; (2) nomenclature for dosimetric data (eg, dose-volume histogram [DVH]-based metrics); (3) templates for clinical trial groups and users of an initial subset of software platforms to facilitate adoption of the standards; (4) formalism for nomenclature schema, which can accommodate the addition of other structures defined in the future...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Shireen Marzouk, Gary Naglie, George Tomlinson, Sarah Duff Canning, Henriette Breunis, Narhari Timilshina, Shabbir M H Alibhai
BACKGROUND: Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used to treat prostate cancer (PC), its effects on cognitive function are unclear, and no prior report has examined the impact of ADT on self-reported cognitive function. PATIENTS & METHODS: Three groups of men age 50 or older and matched on age and education were enrolled: PC patients starting continuous ADT (n=81), PC patients not receiving ADT (PC controls, n=84), and healthy controls (n=85)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Urology
Ruiqi Yang, Guangxiu Liu, Tuo Chen, Shiweng Li, Lizhe An, Gaosen Zhang, Guoli Li, Sijing Chang, Wei Zhang, Ximing Chen, Xiukun Wu, Binlin Zhang
A strain of Nocardia isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degrades nearly all components of crude oil. This strain was identified as Nocardia soli Y48, and its growth conditions were determined. Complete genome sequencing showed that N. soli Y48 has a 7.3 Mb genome and many genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, emulsification and other hydrocarbon degradation-related metabolisms. Analysis of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) and genomic islands (GIs) revealed that Y48 has undergone significant gene transfer events to adapt to changing environmental conditions (crude oil contamination)...
February 20, 2018: Genomics
Edlira Tam, Benjamin T Gandesbery, Laura Young, Soo Borson, Eiran Z Gorodeski
OBJECTIVES: To develop a novel set of graphical Mini-Cog instructions designed to aid clinicians previously untrained on the Mini-Cog in accurate administration and scoring and to determine whether use of these graphical instructions improved the speed and accuracy of deployment of this tool. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Testing was conducted in a simulated environment with a mock patient. PARTICIPANTS: Registered nurses working in inpatient or outpatient settings at a large academic medical center who had no prior exposure to or training with the Mini-Cog (N=92)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Sumit Gupta, Meenakshi Devidas, Mignon L Loh, Elizabeth A Raetz, Si Chen, Cindy Wang, Patrick Brown, Andrew J Carroll, Nyla A Heerema, Julie M Gastier-Foster, Kimberly P Dunsmore, Eric C Larsen, Kelly W Maloney, Leonard A Mattano, Stuart S Winter, Naomi J Winick, William L Carroll, Stephen P Hunger, Michael J Borowitz, Brent L Wood
Minimal residual disease (MRD) after initial therapy is integral to risk stratification in B-precursor and T-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, T-ALL). Although MRD determines depth of remission, remission remains defined by morphology. We determined the outcomes of children with discordant assessments of remission by morphology vs. flow cytometry using patients age 1-30.99 years enrolled on Children's Oncology Group ALL trials who underwent bone marrow assessment at the end of induction (N = 9350)...
February 23, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Zheng Wang, Chenguang Zhao, Yiheng Wang, Zheng Sun, Nan Wang
We developed PANDA (Propagation of Affinity and Domain Architecture) to predict protein functions in the format of Gene Ontology (GO) terms. PANDA at first executes profile-profile alignment algorithm to search against PfamA, KOG, COG, and SwissProt databases, and then launches PSI-BLAST against UniProt for homologue search. PANDA integrates a domain architecture inference algorithm based on the Bayesian statistics that calculates the probability of having a GO term. All the candidate GO terms are pooled and filtered based on Z-score...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonathan Gaucher, Emilie Montellier, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
The cell cycle and the circadian clock operate as biological oscillators whose timed functions are tightly regulated. Accumulating evidence illustrates the presence of molecular links between these two oscillators. This mutual interplay utilizes various coupling mechanisms, such as the use of common regulators. The connection between these two cyclic systems has unique interest in the context of aberrant cell proliferation since both of these oscillators are frequently misregulated in cancer cells. Further studies will provide deeper understanding of the detailed molecular connections between the cell cycle and the circadian clock and may also serve as a basis for the design of innovative therapeutic strategies...
February 19, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Dallas P Seitz, Calvin Ch Chan, Hailey T Newton, Sudeep S Gill, Nathan Herrmann, Nadja Smailagic, Vasilis Nikolaou, Bruce A Fage
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are becoming increasingly common with the aging of most populations. The majority of individuals with dementia will first present for care and assessment in primary care settings. There is a need for brief dementia screening instruments that can accurately diagnose dementia in primary care settings. The Mini-Cog is a brief, cognitive screening test that is frequently used to evaluate cognition in older adults in various settings...
February 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Brent M Peterson, Cynthia Johnson, Kaylene R Case, Daniel Y K Shackelford, Jessica M Brown, Trent L Lalonde, Reid Hayward
Background: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) may negatively affect upwards of 75% of cancer patients. Exercise and cognitive training, independently, may increase functional capacity and aspects of cognitive function. Yet, combined training protocols have not been evaluated in cancer survivor populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a quasi-randomized, controlled, exploratory, repeated-measures aerobic and cognitive training intervention on cognitive function in participants undergoing treatment for cancer ( N  = 28)...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
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