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Maitê M Russo, Thiago Lemos, Luís A Imbiriba, Nathalia L Ribeiro, Claudia D Vargas
Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Katherine Amy Lin, Colin Rundel, P Murali Doraiswamy
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have noted gender differences in cognition, imaging, and pathological markers in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), a major controlling factor in the proportion of bioavailable versus bound testosterone and estrogen, has been proposed to contribute to links between hormones and dementia, but has not yet been investigated fully in a prospective biomarker trial. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether, among subjects with MCI, SHBG levels predict future rate of cognitive decline...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Shelby Calkins, M B Couger, Colin Jackson, Jordan Zandler, Garett C Hudgins, Radwa A Hanafy, Connie Budd, Donald P French, Wouter D Hoff, Noha Youssef
Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Teresa Liu-Ambrose, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Philip E Lee, Claudia Jacova, Lara A Boyd, Penelope M Brasher, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a progressive aerobic exercise training program on cognitive and everyday function among adults with mild subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI). METHODS: This was a proof-of-concept single-blind randomized controlled trial comparing a 6-month, thrice-weekly, progressive aerobic exercise training program (AT) with usual care plus education on cognitive and everyday function with a follow-up assessment 6 months after the formal cessation of aerobic exercise training...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Liangyan Gui, Xiaoying Tang, José M F Moura
We propose a geodesic distance on a Grassmannian manifold that can be used to quantify the shape progression patterns of the bilateral hippocampi, amygdalas, and lateral ventricles in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 754 subjects (3092 scans in total) were used in this study. Longitudinally, the geodesic distance was found to be proportional to the elapsed time separating the two scans in question. Cross-sectionally, utilizing a linear mixed-effects statistical model, we found that each structure's annualized rate of change in the geodesic distance followed the order of AD > MCI > HC, with statistical significance being reached in every case...
October 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Laura M Gault, Robert A Lenz, Craig W Ritchie, Andreas Meier, Ahmed A Othman, Qi Tang, Scott Berry, Yili Pritchett, Weining Z Robieson
BACKGROUND: Results from a phase 2a study indicated that treatment with the novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ABT-126 25 mg once daily (QD) was associated with a trend for improvement in cognition in subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's dementia (AD). A phase 2b program was designed to evaluate a broader dose range of ABT-126 as monotherapy in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. The program consisted of a double-blind, placebo and active controlled study of ABT-126 (dose range 25-75 mg) and an open-label extension study (75 mg)...
October 18, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Anne-Marie A Wills, Jordan J Elm, Rong Ye, Kelvin L Chou, Sotirios A Parashos, Robert A Hauser, Ivan Bodis-Wollner, Vanessa K Hinson, Chadwick W Christine, Jay S Schneider
INTRODUCTION: Clinical cohort studies suggest that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is common in early Parkinson's disease (PD). The objectives of this paper were to describe cognitive function in a large clinical trial of early treated PD patients at baseline and over time using two brief cognitive screening tests. METHODS: In total 1741 participants were enrolled in the NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's disease (NET-PD) Long-term Study-1 (LS-1). The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) was collected annually...
October 8, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Aimée C Smith, Jonathan R Roberts, Pui Wah Kong, Stephanie E Forrester
Analysing the centre of pressure (COP) and centre of gravity (COG) could reveal stabilising strategies used by golfers throughout the golf swing. This study identified and compared golfers' COP and COG patterns throughout the golf swing in medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions using principal component analysis (PCA) and examined their relationship to clubhead velocity. Three-dimensional marker trajectories were collected using Vicon motion analysis and force plate data from two Kistler force plates for 22 low-handicap golfers during drives...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Xinhe Huang, Yuxing Li, Jingmei Pan, Ming Li, Yongqin Lai, Jie Gao, Xueru Li
The nonessential metal cadmium can cause cell toxicity and is associated with a range of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. In this study, cadmium-induced global gene expression profile of yeast was obtained using RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) and further analyzed by means of informatics and experiments. A total of 912 Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) (FDR of q<0.01), including 415 Cd-inducible and 497 Cd-repressed genes were identified. Based on the DEGs, 25 cadmium responsive Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) and three types of cadmium-induced Gene Ontology (GO) including cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes were analyzed in details...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Saro H Armenian, Melissa M Hudson, Ming Hui Chen, Steven D Colan, Lanie Lindenfeld, George Mills, Aida Siyahian, Sarah Gelehrter, Ha Dang, Wendy Hein, Daniel M Green, Leslie L Robison, F Lennie Wong, Pamela S Douglas, Smita Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines are widely used in the treatment of childhood cancer. One of the well-recognized side-effects of anthracycline therapy is dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that may progress to heart failure (HF) years after completion of cancer-directed therapy. This study will evaluate the efficacy of low-dose beta-blocker (carvedilol) for HF risk reduction in childhood cancer survivors at highest risk for HF. The proposed intervention has the potential to significantly reduce chronic cardiac injury via interruption of neurohormonal systems responsible for left ventricular (LV) remodeling, resulting in improved cardiac function and decreased risk of HF...
October 4, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Chunsha Zhang, Hongwei Zhang, Zongxiang Zhan, Bingjiang Liu, Zhentai Chen, Yi Liang
Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rucha Harishbhai Mehta, Manivel Ponnuchamy, Jitendra Kumar, Nagaraja Reddy Rama Reddy
De novo assembly of reads produced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offers a rapid approach to obtain expressed gene sequences for non-model organisms. Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a drought-tolerant annual undershrub of Caesalpiniaceae, a subfamily of Fabaceae. There are insufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in public databases for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the drought tolerance of senna. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to know the transcriptome profile of senna, with special reference to drought stress...
October 5, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Avril Mansfield, Anthony Aqui, Julia E Fraser, Roshanth Rajachandrakumar, Bimal Lakhani, Kara K Patterson
While concurrent augmented visual feedback of the center of pressure (COP) or center of gravity (COG) can improve quiet standing balance control, it is not known whether such feedback improves reactive balance control. Additionally, it is not known whether feedback of the COP or COG is superior. This study aimed to determine whether (1) concurrent augmented feedback can improve reactive balance control, and (2) feedback of the COP or COG is more effective. Forty-eight healthy older adults (60-75 years old) were randomly allocated to one of three groups: feedback of the COP, feedback of the COG, or no feedback...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
L Q Li, J Li, Y Chen, Y F Lu, L M Lu
Tobacco is an economically important crop, and its potassium content can greatly affect the quality of tobacco leaves. However, the molecular mechanism involved in potassium starvation in tobacco has not been elucidated to date. In this study, Illumina (Solexa) sequencing technology was used to analyze the transcriptome of tobacco seedlings under low-potassium stress for 6, 12, and 24 h. After analysis, 107,824 assembled unigenes were categorized into 57 GO functional groups, and 31,379 unigenes (29.08%) were clustered into 25 COG categories...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Jung-Woo Chae, Terence Ng, Hui Ling Yeo, Maung Shwe, Yan Xiang Gan, Han Kiat Ho, Alexandre Chan
OBJECTIVE: Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines is influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, and cytokines are associated with the occurrence of post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between two common pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms namely, IL6-174 (rs1800795 G>C) and TNF-308 (rs1800629 G>A), and chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairment (CACI) among Asian early-stage breast cancer patients...
2016: PloS One
Shubo Jin, Dajiang Sun, Qingkai Xi, Xiaoli Dong, Dan Song, Hongtuo Fu, Ying Zhang
Kisspeptin plays an important role in the reproduction and onset of puberty in vertebrates through stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). However, the mechanisms whereby kisspeptin-related genes regulate sexual differentiation in teleosts are poorly understood. We aimed to study the relationship between the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and sexual differentiation in relation to kisspeptin in the sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii. We performed comparative transcriptomic analysis of the brains of sturgeons treated with KISS1-10 during the gonadal sex-differentiation-sensitive period (170-210days post-hatching (dph)) using an Illumina sequencing platform...
September 26, 2016: Gene
Chen Chen, Jike Lu, Limin Hao, Zhiqiang Zheng, Naixun Zhang, Zhenyu Wang
To investigate the potential regulatory roles of microRNA (miRNA) in mouse response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced thymus injury, miRNA expression profiles of mouse thymus with or without IR were analyzed using deep sequencing technology. Potential target candidates of the identified miRNA were predicted using RNAhybrid and miRanda. Differently expressed miRNA targets functional annotation and pathways were noted using Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and non-redundant (NR) databases...
August 11, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Bo Long, Junwei Lucas Bao, Donald G Truhlar
Criegee intermediates are produced in the ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the troposphere, and understanding their fate is a prerequisite to modeling climate-controlling atmospheric aerosol formation. Although some experimental and theoretical rate data are available, they are incomplete and partially inconsistent, and they do not cover the tropospheric temperature range. Here we report quantum chemical rate constants for the reactions of formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) and acetaldehyde oxide (syn-CH3CHOO and anti-CH3CHOO) with H2O and for their unimolecular reactions...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sachin Ashruba Gharat, Shaifaly Parmar, Subodh Tambat, Madavan Vasudevan, Birendra Prasad Shaw
Although salt tolerance is a feature representative of halophytes, most studies on this topic in plants have been conducted on glycophytes. Transcriptome profiles are also available for only a limited number of halophytes. Hence, the present study was conducted to understand the molecular basis of salt tolerance through the transcriptome profiling of the halophyte Suaeda maritima, which is an emerging plant model for research on salt tolerance. Illumina sequencing revealed 72,588 clustered transcripts, including 27,434 that were annotated using BLASTX...
2016: PloS One
Lisa Oberding, Lisa M Gieg
Hydrocarbon compounds can be biodegraded by anaerobic microorganisms to form methane through an energetically interdependent metabolic process known as syntrophy. The microorganisms that perform this process as well as the energy transfer mechanisms involved are difficult to study and thus are still poorly understood, especially on an environmental scale. Here, metagenomic data was analyzed for specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to key energy transfer genes thus far identified in syntrophic bacteria, and principal component analysis was used in order to determine whether potentially syntrophic environments could be distinguished using these syntroph related COGs as opposed to universally present COGs...
January 5, 2016: Microorganisms
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