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Reviews in oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910290/radiation-therapy-staffing-model-2014
#1
Leigh J Smith, Rachel Kearvell, Anthony J Arnold, Kevina Choma, Aniko Cooper, Michael R Young, Donna L Matthews, Bronwyn Hilder, Debbie Howson, Katherine Fox, Katheryn Churcher
INTRODUCTION: In 2001, the Radiation Therapy Advisory Panel (RTAP) of the Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT) (formerly known as Australian Institute of Radiography) published a model for radiation therapist staffing in Australian radiation oncology departments. Between 2012-2013, the model was reviewed to ensure it reflected current radiation therapy practice, technology, and to facilitate forward planning of the radiation therapy workforce. METHOD: Twenty-four sites from all states participated and provided data on megavoltage simulation, planning and treatment delivery...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909918/review-in-vivo-optical-spectral-tissue-sensing-how-to-go-from-research-to-routine-clinical-application
#2
Lisanne L de Boer, Jarich W Spliethoff, Henricus J C M Sterenborg, Theo J M Ruers
Innovations in optical spectroscopy have helped the technology reach a point where performance previously seen only in laboratory settings can be translated and tested in real-world applications. In the field of oncology, spectral tissue sensing (STS) by means of optical spectroscopy is considered to have major potential for improving diagnostics and optimizing treatment outcome. The concept has been investigated for more than two decades and yet spectral tissue sensing is not commonly employed in routine medical practice...
December 2, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909616/is-extended-pelvic-lymph-node-dissection-for-prostate-cancer-the-only-recommended-option-a-systematic-over-view-of-the-literature
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Rees, Nicholas Raison, Mohammed Iqbal Sheikh, Zahra Jaffry, Sanjeev Madaan, Ben Challacombe, Kamran Ahmed, Prokar Dasgupta
OBJECTIVE: Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is performed alongside radical prostatectomy as the most accurate method of staging prostate cancer. Yet the potential therapeutic benefits of lymphadenectomy are yet to be confirmed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A PubMed database search was performed to identify all papers comparing techniques for PLND or none. The primary outcome measure was long term oncological outcomes. Studies looking at men with clinically localized prostate cancer at the time of radical prostatectomy who received no adjuvant treatment were included...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909034/advance-care-planning-in-patients-with-incurable-cancer-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Stephanie Johnson, Josephine Clayton, Phyllis N Butow, William Silvester, Karen Detering, Jane Hall, Belinda E Kiely, Jonathon Cebon, Stephen Clarke, Melanie L Bell, Martin Stockler, Phillip Beale, Martin H N Tattersall
INTRODUCTION: There is limited evidence documenting the effectiveness of Advance Care Planning (ACP) in cancer care. The present randomised trial is designed to evaluate whether the administration of formal ACP improves compliance with patients' end-of-life (EOL) wishes and patient and family satisfaction with care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised control trial in eight oncology centres across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia, is designed to assess the efficacy of a formal ACP intervention for patients with cancer...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908537/the-unusual-association-between-neuroblastoma-and-gaucher-disease-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Annalisa Madeo, Alberto Garaventa, Angela Rita Sementa, Chiara Suffia, Maja Di Rocco
Gaucher disease (GD) patients have an increased risk of cancer, in particular of hematological origin, while the association between GD and Neuroblastoma (NBL) has never been described. Here we report the case of an adolescent diagnosed with NBL, also presenting splenomegaly and persistent thrombocytopenia. The association with GD, suggested by the histological findings on bone marrow biopsy, was confirmed by enzymatic and genetic tests. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms are briefly reviewed. The evidence of this new association supports the necessity of further studies on GD comorbidities and the need of systematic data collection and analysis, potentially through an international registry...
November 23, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908266/is-metformin-a-perfect-drug-updates-in-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics
#6
Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka, Kristiina Maria Huttunen, Łukasz Mateusiak, Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Joanna Sikora
Metformin, a synthetic biguanide, is currently one of the most frequently recommended medications for type 2 diabetes treatment around the world. In this review, we present the latest discoveries in the pharmacokinetics of metformin, especially the role of transporters (e.g. Organic Cation Transporters OCTs, Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion transporters MATE) in oral absorption, distribution, elimination and biochemical effects of metformin in humans. We also review the associations between genetic variations of metformin transporters, their pharmacokinetics and drug efficacy or drug responses...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906859/recent-advances-in-nuclear-medicine-in-endocrine-oncology
#7
Markus Luster, Andreas Pfestroff, Frederik A Verburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review recent advances concerning the role of nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: For I therapy of thyroid cancer a thyrotropin (TSH) more than 30 mU/l has for many years been deemed a condition sine qua non. However, new data show that patients with lower TSH levels at the time of ablation have the same rate of successful ablation as those with TSH more than 30 mU/l.I-124 combined integrated positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography was shown to be highly accurate in predicting findings on posttherapy radioiodine scanning and was shown to have a high prognostic power...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906610/infectious-complications-after-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hyperthermic-intra-peritoneal-chemotherapy
#8
Naciye Cigdem Arslan, Selman Sokmen, Vildan Avkan-Oguz, Funda Obuz, Aras Emre Canda, Cem Terzi, Mehmet Fuzun
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to review the post-operative and infectious complications and determine the risk factors associated with infections in cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between October 2007 and December 2013, patients who underwent CRS and HIPEC with a curative intent were included in the study. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System definitions were used to identify post-operative nosocomial infections...
December 1, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906588/fertility-preservation-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-oncology-patients-the-decision-making-process-of-parents
#9
Nancy Li, Yasmin Jayasinghe, Matthew A Kemertzis, Paddy Moore, Michelle Peate
PURPOSE: Decisions surrounding fertility preservation (FP) in children, adolescents, and adults can be difficult due to the distress of a cancer diagnosis, time constraints for decision-making, and lack of efficacy data. This review examines the decision-making process of oncology patients and their parents (if patients are in the pediatric or adolescent population) to better understand experiences of decisional conflict and regret. METHODS: Two electronic databases, Embase and Pubmed, were searched using the terms (Decision-making OR Conflict (Psychology) OR Decision regret) AND (Freezing OR Oocyte OR Ovarian tissue OR Semen preservation OR Fertility preservation OR Cryopreservation) AND (Neoplasms OR Cancer OR Chemotherapy OR Drug therapy OR Radiotherapy)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906454/immunotherapy-of-head-and-neck-cancer-emerging-clinical-trials-from-a-national-cancer-institute-head-and-neck-cancer-steering-committee-planning-meeting
#10
Julie E Bauman, Ezra Cohen, Robert L Ferris, David J Adelstein, David M Brizel, John A Ridge, Brian O'Sullivan, Barbara A Burtness, Lisa H Butterfield, William E Carson, Mary L Disis, Bernard A Fox, Thomas F Gajewski, Maura L Gillison, James W Hodge, Quynh-Thu Le, David Raben, Scott E Strome, Jean Lynn, Shakun Malik
Recent advances have permitted successful therapeutic targeting of the immune system in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). These new immunotherapeutic targets and agents are being rapidly adopted by the oncologic community and hold considerable promise. The National Cancer Institute sponsored a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to address the issue of how to further investigate the use of immunotherapy in patients with HNSCC. The goals of the meeting were to consider phase 2 or 3 trial designs primarily in 3 different patient populations: those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-initiated oropharyngeal cancers; those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-negative HNSCC; and those with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906086/massive-adrenal-vein-aneurysm-mimicking-an-adrenal-tumor-in-a-patient-with-hemophilia-a-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Richard Sleightholm, Steven Wahlmeier, Jeffrey S Carson, Andjela Drincic, Audrey Lazenby, Jason M Foster
BACKGROUND: Visceral venous aneurysms are exceedingly rare, and until now, there have been no reports of this phenomenon in the adrenal vasculature. This report details the first adrenal venous aneurysm reported in the literature. The aneurysm presented as an 18-cm mass that was initially suspected to be a hematoma or tumor on the basis of the complex medical history of the patient, which included hemophilia A and testicular cancer. After surgical excision, pathologic examination confirmed this mass to be a 15...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905158/metastatic-spinal-cord-compression-from-basal-cell-carcinoma-of-the-skin-treated-with-surgical-decompression-and-vismodegib-case-report-and-review-of-hedgehog-signalling-pathway-inhibition-in-advanced-basal-cell-carcinoma
#12
J McGrane, S Carswell, T Talbot
We report a case of a 66-year-old man with locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) causing spinal cord compression, which was treated with spinal surgery and subsequent vismodegib. The patient presented with a large fungating chest wall lesion and a metastasis in T8 that was causing cord compression. He had neurosurgical decompression of the T8 lesion and fixation of the spine. Punch biopsy from the fungating chest wall lesion showed a BCC with some malignant squamous differentiation (basosquamous)...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905087/robot-assisted-surgery-in-elderly-and-very-elderly-population-our-experience-in-oncologic-and-general-surgery-with-literature-review
#13
Graziano Ceccarelli, Enrico Andolfi, Alessia Biancafarina, Aldo Rocca, Maurizio Amato, Marco Milone, Marta Scricciolo, Barbara Frezza, Egidio Miranda, Marco De Prizio, Andrea Fontani
BACKGROUND: Although there is no agreement on a definition of elderly, commonly an age cutoff of ≥65 or 75 years is used. Nowadays most of malignancies requiring surgical treatment are diagnosed in old population. Comorbidities and frailty represent well-known problems during and after surgery in elderly patients. Minimally invasive surgery offers earlier postoperative mobilization, less blood loss, lower morbidity as well as reduction in hospital stay and as such represents an interesting and validated option for elderly population...
November 30, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905019/multi-disciplinary-concurrent-management-of-recurrent-hepatocellular-therapy-is-superior-to-sequential-therapy
#14
Tyler D Fields, Prejesh Philips, Charles R Scoggins, Cliff Tatum, Lawrence Kelly, Kelly M McMasters, Robert C G Martin
BACKGROUND: Recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after a patient's initial therapy, whether it is transplantation, resection, or ablation, remains a challenging clinical problem. Since recurrence occurs in 70% of all initially treated disease within 5 years, optimal management to treat this recurrence is needed. Currently, a bias exists toward mono-therapy (i.e., ablation alone, hepatic arterial therapy alone, or sorafenib therapy alone) instead of concurrent sequential therapy-as is common in other primary and metastatic disease to the liver...
November 30, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904933/-metastatic-disease-in-long-bones-review-of-surgical-treatment-options
#15
Franz Liska, Philipp Schmitz, Norbert Harrasser, Peter Prodinger, Hans Rechl, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe
Surgery in metastatic bone disease is currently the most frequent type of surgery in orthopedic oncology. Improved survival rates and an increasing incidence of bone metastasis have led to an increase in complications caused by metastatic disease, such as pathological fractures or hardware failure after operative treatment. Although surgery of metastatic lesions remains a palliative therapy concept, because of sufficient therapy for the primary carcinomas, tumor-specific-oriented follow-up protocols and a variation in the prognosis for the individual entities, an individually adapted treatment strategy is necessary...
November 30, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904860/interventional-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Jianwei Zhu, Zhendong Jin
BACKGROUND: Palliative therapy and primarily chemoradiotherapy are the mainstream treatments in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC). Conventional endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided interventional therapy has emerged as an important procedure for PC management. In this review, the progress in conventional endoscopy and EUS for PC management is discussed. SUMMARY: For local palliative therapy against PC, EUS-guided fine needle injection (FNI) could deliver different kinds of agents, such as radioactive seeds and fiducials...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904649/fasciocutaneous-flap-reinforcement-of-ventral-onlay-buccal-mucosa-grafts-enables-neophallus-revision-urethroplasty
#17
Stelios C Wilson, John T Stranix, Kiranpreet Khurana, Shane D Morrison, Jamie P Levine, Lee C Zhao
BACKGROUND: Urethral strictures or fistulas are common complications after phalloplasty. Neourethral defects pose a difficult reconstructive challenge using standard techniques as there is generally insufficient ventral tissue to support a graft urethroplasty. We report our experience with local fasciocutaneous flaps for support of ventrally-placed buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) in phalloplasty. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent phalloplasty and subsequently required revision urethroplasty using BMGs between 2011 and 2015 was completed...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903214/chemotherapy-and-cardiotoxicity-in-hematologic-malignancies-a-review
#18
Antonio Stellitano, Roberta Fedele, Santina Barillà, Antonino Iaria, Carmelo Massimiliano Rao, Massimo Martino
Antineoplastic agents affect the cardiovascular system, and the incidence of cardiotoxicity is continuously growing in patients with hematologic malignancies and treated with antineoplastic therapy. Cardio-oncology is a quite young discipline, designed for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular complications of anticancer agents. Nowadays, with the current treatments and an accurate pharmacological control of comorbidities present at the time of the oncological diagnosis, early clinical events are infrequent, and it seems indeed that cardiotoxicity could emerge as time and years go by, after therapies completion...
November 21, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903114/a-quantitative-analysis-of-craniopharyngioma-cyst-expansion-during-and-after-radiation-therapy-and-surgical-implications
#19
Kelly Lamiman, Kenneth K Wong, Benita Tamrazi, Jason D Nosrati, Arthur Olch, Eric L Chang, Erin N Kiehna
OBJECTIVE When complete resection of craniopharyngioma is not achievable or the sequelae are prohibitive, limited surgery and radiation therapy have demonstrated excellent local disease control while minimizing treatment-related sequelae. When residual tissue exists, there is a propensity for further cyst development and expansion during and after radiation therapy. This can result in obstructive hydrocephalus, visual changes, and/or clinical decline. The authors present a quantitative analysis of cyst expansion during and after radiotherapy and examine how it affected subsequent management...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902902/history-of-the-first-generation-marek-s-disease-vaccines-the-science-and-little-known-facts
#20
Karel A Schat
Shortly after the isolation of Marek's disease (MD) herpesvirus (MDV) in the late 1960s vaccines were developed in England, the United States, and The Netherlands. Biggs and associates at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) in England attenuated HPRS-16, the first cell-culture-isolated MDV strain, by passaging HPRS-16 in chick kidney cells. Although HPRS-16/Att was the first commercially available vaccine, it never became widely used and was soon replaced by the FC126 strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine developed by Witter and associates at the Regional Poultry Research Laboratory (now Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory [ADOL]) in East Lansing, MI...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
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