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Reviews in oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908524/neoadjuvant-radiotherapy-changing-the-treatment-sequence-to-allow-immediate-free-autologous-breast-reconstruction
#1
Kimberley Hughes, Derek Neoh
BACKGROUND:  Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is traditionally treated with a multimodal approach of chemotherapy, surgery, and postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). The advantages of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) are well described and include improved aesthetic outcomes, fewer surgical procedures, shorter treatment period, and a higher quality of life. However, this sequence makes immediate free autologous reconstruction more challenging as PMRT can have deleterious and unpredictable effects on the flap...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908480/maintenance-treatment-of-recurrent-ovarian-cancer-is-it-ready-for-prime-time
#2
REVIEW
Paul DiSilvestro, Angeles Alvarez Secord
Approximately 1% of women in the United States will be diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) during their lifetime. It is most likely to present at a more advanced stage, requiring aggressive therapeutic measures, and most women will succumb to this illness. Due to advancements in therapy, the oncology community has begun to shift its focus to molecular targeted agents, alternative dosing schedules, and maintenance therapy. Women who achieve a response to initial adjuvant chemotherapy may be candidates for maintenance therapy, with the goal of inducing a lasting remission or prolonging the disease-free interval before recurrence...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907507/nrg-oncology-medical-physicists-manpower-survey-quantifying-support-demands-for-multi-institutional-clinical-trials
#3
James I Monroe, Karan Boparai, Ying Xiao, David Followill, James M Galvin, Eric E Klein, Daniel A Low, Jean M Moran, Haoyu Zhong, Jason W Sohn
PURPOSE: A survey was created by NRG to assess a medical physicists' percent full time equivalent (FTE) contribution to multi-institutional clinical trials. A 2012 American Society for Radiation Oncology report, "Safety Is No Accident," quantified medical physics staffing contributions in FTE factors for clinical departments. No quantification of FTE effort associated with clinical trials was included. METHODS: To address this lack of information, the NRG Medical Physics Subcommittee decided to obtain manpower data from the medical physics community to quantify the amount of time medical physicists spent supporting clinical trials...
February 4, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907475/radiotherapy-for-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-with-paraplegia-a-rare-oncologic-emergency-case-report-in-infancy-and-literature-review
#4
Kentaro Nakashima, Yuhki Koga, Yasunari Sakai, Hidetoshi Takada, Katsumi Harimaya, Saiji Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Yoshinao Oda, Hiroshi Honda, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal disease with focal or disseminated lesions that may compress the surrounding tissues, including the spinal cord. Because few reports have described the spinal symptoms as the first manifestation of pediatric LCH, the long-term neurological outcomes remain unclear. CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW: We report a 21-month-old boy who presented with sudden-onset paraplegia. Imaging analyses revealed that osteolytic lesions and epidural tumors compressing the spinal cord at the T7-9 vertebrae...
June 12, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907222/venous-thrombosis-following-pancreaticoduodenectomy-with-venous-resection
#5
Somala Mohammed, Jose E Mendez-Reyes, Amy McElhany, Daniel Gonzales-Luna, George Van Buren, Daniel S Bland, Nicole Villafane-Ferriol, Jeanne A Pierzynski, Charles A West, Eric J Silberfein, William E Fisher
BACKGROUND: Addition of en bloc segmental venous reconstruction (VR) to pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for venous involvement of pancreatic tumors increases the complexity of the operation and may increase complications. The long-term mesenteric venous patency rate and oncologic outcome has not been well defined. METHODS: Our prospective database was reviewed to assess 90-day postoperative outcomes for patients who underwent PD or PD + VR (September 2004-June 2016)...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905933/the-classification-of-pediatric-and-young-adult-renal-cell-carcinomas-registered-on-the-children-s-oncology-group-cog-protocol-aren03b2-after-focused-genetic-testing
#6
Mariana M Cajaiba, Lisa M Dyer, James I Geller, Lawrence J Jennings, David George, Dawn Kirschmann, Stephen M Rohan, Nicholas G Cost, Geetika Khanna, Elizabeth A Mullen, Jeffrey S Dome, Conrad V Fernandez, Elizabeth J Perlman
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are rare in young patients. Knowledge of their pathologic and molecular spectrum remains limited, and no prospective studies have been performed to date in this population. This study analyzes patients diagnosed with RCC who were prospectively enrolled in the AREN03B2 Children's Oncology Group (COG). The objective was to classify these tumors with the aid of focused genetic testing and to characterize their features. METHODS: All tumors registered as RCC by central review were retrospectively re-reviewed and underwent additional ancillary studies...
June 15, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905891/positive-nipple-margin-after-nipple-sparing-mastectomy-an-alternative-and-oncologically-safe-approach-to-preserving-the-nipple-areolar-complex
#7
Michelle L Haslinger, Michael Sosin, Alex J Bartholomew, Andrew Crocker, Aiste Gulla, Shawna C Willey, Troy A Pittman, Eleni A Tousimis
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe a less aggressive approach to management of positive nipple margin following nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), allowing for preservation of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). STUDY DESIGN: A single-institution retrospective chart review was performed for patients undergoing NSM from 1989 to 2017. Positive nipple margin was defined as any residual invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the additional nipple margin...
June 15, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905551/-modern-aspects-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-heart-failure-as-a-manifestation-of-anthracycline-cardiotoxicity-review
#8
Kh Saganelidze, N Kavtaradze
This review is devoted to the urgent problem of cardiology and oncology - the cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy drugs - anthracyclines, which are considered to be one of the most cardiotoxic and cause a variety of cardiotoxic effects. The review also examines the diagnosis, treatment or preventive treatment of this pathology. The urgency of the problem is associated with the possibility of early or late manifestations of cardiotoxicity, manifestations of cardiotoxicity against the background of cross treatment, manifestations of cardiotoxicity against the background of various concomitant diseases...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905398/comparison-of-fixed-versus-traditional-weight-based-dosing-of-rasburicase-in-a-pediatric-population
#9
Dimitrios A Savva, Nicole Herrera, Radha Rohatgi
BACKGROUND: The American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines recommend rasburicase for the treatment of pediatric patients with hyperuricemia at risk of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) using a weight-based dose of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg once daily for 1-7 days. However, there has been a trend in practice due to recent data showing benefit using a fixed-dose approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety between fixed and weight-based dosing of rasburicase in a pediatric population...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904815/pathological-complete-response-of-locally-advanced-colon-cancer-after-preoperative-radiotherapy-a-case-report-and-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#10
Sho Sekiya, Kiyotaka Imamura, Shintaro Takeuchi, Koichi Teramura, Yusuke Watanabe, Eiji Tamoto, Minoru Takada, Yoshihiro Kinoshita, Yoshiyasu Anbo, Fumitaka Nakamura, Nobuichi Kashimura, Hiroko Noguchi, Katsutoshi Miura, Satoshi Hirano
BACKGROUND: The oncological effectiveness of preoperative radiotherapy for locally advanced colon cancer is unclear. We report a case of pathological complete response in a patient with locally advanced ascending colon cancer after preoperative radiotherapy following failure of chemotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old Japanese woman presented with malaise and hematochezia. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a tumor in the ascending colon which seemed to infiltrate the adjacent structures...
June 15, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904616/artificial-intelligence-in-medicine-and-radiation-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Vincent Weidlich, Georg A Weidlich
Artifical Intelligence (AI) was reviewed with a focus on its potential applicability to radiation oncology. The improvement of process efficiencies and the prevention of errors were found to be the most significant contributions of AI to radiation oncology. It was found that the prevention of errors is most effective when data transfer processes were automated and operational decisions were based on logical or learned evaluations by the system. It was concluded that AI could greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of radiation oncology operations...
April 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903549/clinical-outcomes-of-pediatric-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-rhabdomyosarcoma-treated-by-two-consecutive-protocols-a-single-institution-report-in-taiwan
#12
Shu-Wei Chou, Hsiu-Hao Chang, Meng-Yao Lu, Yung-Li Yang, Dong-Tsamn Lin, Kai-Hsin Lin, Shiann-Tarng Jou
BACKGROUND: Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG) initiated two consecutive protocols for treating pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma since 1995. However, the results have not been analyzed and reported yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the treatment results of these two protocols in our hospital and to assess whether the results are comparable to other large-scaled studies. METHODS: Treatment of pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma according to TPOG protocols at National Taiwan University Hospital began in 1995...
June 11, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903496/a-systematic-map-of-medical-data-preprocessing-in-knowledge-discovery
#13
REVIEW
A Idri, H Benhar, J L Fernández-Alemán, I Kadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Datamining (DM) has, over the last decade, received increased attention in the medical domain and has been widely used to analyze medical datasets in order to extract useful knowledge and previously unknown patterns. However, historical medical data can often comprise inconsistent, noisy, imbalanced, missing and high dimensional data. These challenges lead to a serious bias in predictive modeling and reduce the performance of DM techniques. Data preprocessing is, therefore, an essential step in knowledge discovery as regards improving the quality of data and making it appropriate and suitable for DM techniques...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902950/the-future-of-rectal-cancer-surgery-a-narrative-review-of-an-international-symposium
#14
F Borja de Lacy, Sami A Chadi, Mariana Berho, Richard J Heald, Jim Khan, Brendan Moran, Yves Panis, Rodrigo Perez, Paris Tekkis, Neil J Mortensen, Antonio M Lacy, Steven D Wexner, Manish Chand
Surgery remains the mainstay of curative treatment for primary rectal cancer. For mid and low rectal tumors, optimal oncologic surgery requires total mesorectal excision (TME) to ensure the tumor and locoregional lymph nodes are removed. Adequacy of surgery is directly linked to survival outcomes and, in particular, local recurrence. From a technical perspective, the more distal the tumor, the more challenging the surgery and consequently, the risk for oncologically incomplete surgery is higher. TME can be performed by an open, laparoscopic, robotic or transanal approach...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902779/a-clinicopathologic-review-and-obstetric-outcome-of-uterine-smooth-muscle-tumor-of-uncertain-malignant-potential-stump-in-a-single-institution
#15
Hyeong In Ha, Min Chul Choi, Jin Hyung Heo, Kyoung Ah Kim, Sang Geun Jung, Hyun Park, Won Duk Joo, Seung Hun Song, Tae Hoen Kim, Chan Lee
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to analyze the clinicopathologic features and treatment of uSTUMP in a single institution. In addition, we described the obstetric outcomes after uterine-preserving surgery for uSTUMP. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with uSTUMP between January 2000 and February 2018 at the Comprehensive Gynecologic Cancer Center, CHA Bundang Medical Center. We obtained data on the patients' demographics, treatment, therapeutic results, time to recurrence, disease-free and overall survival, and subsequent obstetric outcomes...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900681/envisioning-the-future-of-polymer-therapeutics-for-brain-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Fernanda Rodriguez-Otormin, Aroa Duro-Castano, Inmaculada Conejos-Sánchez, María J Vicent
The growing incidence of brain-related pathologies and the problems that undermine the development of efficient and effective treatments have prompted both researchers and the pharmaceutical industry to search for novel therapeutic alternatives. Polymer therapeutics (PT) display properties well suited to the treatment of neuro-related disorders, which help to overcome the many hidden obstacles on the journey to the central nervous system (CNS). The inherent features of PT, derived from drug(s) conjugation, in parallel with the progress in synthesis and analytical methods, the increasing knowledge in molecular basis of diseases, and collected clinical data through the last four decades, have driven the translation from "bench to bedside" for various biomedical applications...
June 14, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900665/end-of-life-care-of-oncology-inpatients-are-we-getting-it-right
#17
Monique Batten, Bella Nguyen, Brandon Burke, Hilman Harryanto, Imogen Mitchell, Alison Davis
AIM: To examine the current patterns of end-of-life care of medical oncology patients dying in an Australian tertiary acute hospital setting in order to determine potential areas for improvement. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was undertaken of 295 consecutive adult medical oncology inpatients dying between 2010 and 2015. Charts were reviewed for evidence of (1) resuscitation plans, (2) acute interventions in the 48-h period prior to death, (3) palliative care involvement and (4) recognition of the dying patient and comfort care plans...
June 13, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900662/hand-foot-skin-reaction-predicts-treatment-outcome-of-pazopanib-in-patients-with-metastatic-soft-tissue-sarcoma-a-multicenter-study-in-the-asian-population
#18
Pei-Wei Huang, Wen-Chi Chou, Wen-Chi Shen, Chia-Yen Hung, Kuan-Gen Huang, Yu-Li Su, Chang-Hsien Lu, Chien-Ting Liu, Yueh-Shih Chang, Chi-Ting Liau
AIM: Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor used as a standard treatment for chemotherapy-refractory recurrent or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pazopanib for treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma in the Asian population. METHODS: Fifty patients with chemotherapy-refractory recurrent or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma, who had received pazopanib treatment between 2015 and 2016 were enrolled...
June 13, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900651/surgery-in-ovarian-cancer-brazilian-society-of-surgical-oncology-consensus
#19
REVIEW
Audrey Tieko Tsunoda, Reitan Ribeiro, Rosilene Jara Reis, Carlos Eduardo Mattos da Cunha Andrade, Renato Moretti Marques, Glauco Baiocchi, Fabio Fin, Paulo Henrique Zanvettor, Deraldo Falcao, Thales Paulo Batista, Bruno Roberto Braga Azevedo, Gustavo Guitmann, Suzana Arenhart Pessini, João Soares Nunes, Leonardo Martins Campbell, José Clemente Linhares, Felipe José Fernandez Coimbra
Surgical management in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a significant impact in overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Brazilian Society of Surgical Oncology (BSSO) supported a taskforce with experts for consensus: experienced and specialized trained surgeons, in cancer centers, provide the best EOC surgery. Laparoscopic and/or radiological staging prognosticate the possibility of complete cytoreduction (CC0) and help to reduce unnecessary laparotomies. Surgical techniques were reviewed...
June 14, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899760/appraisal-of-the-role-of-radical-prostatectomy-for-rhabdomyosarcoma-in-children-oncological-and-urological-outcome
#20
Lorenzo Angelini, Gianni Bisogno, Ciro Esposito, Marco Castagnetti
The latest multimodal protocols for treatment of bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have shifted the goal of treatment from patient survival to bladder preservation. Consistently, partial resections, such as radical prostatectomy (RP), are favoured when surgery is deemed necessary. We sought to determine the oncological risks - that is, failure to achieve disease control - and the possible benefits in terms of urinary continence associated with RP in RMS patients based on a review of our experience and the data reported in the literature...
June 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
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