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Reviews in oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230650/acr-appropriateness-criteria%C3%A2-resectable-pancreatic-cancer
#1
William E Jones, W Waren Suh, May Abdel-Wahab, Ross A Abrams, Nilofer Azad, Prajnan Das, Jadranka Dragovic, Karyn A Goodman, Salma K Jabbour, Andre A Konski, Albert C Koong, Rachit Kumar, Percy Lee, Timothy M Pawlik, William Small, Joseph M Herman
Management of resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma continues to present a challenge due to a paucity of high-quality randomized studies. Administration of adjuvant chemotherapy is widely accepted due to the high risk of systemic spread associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but the role of radiation therapy is less clear. This paper reviews literature associated with resectable pancreatic cancer to include prognostic factors to aid in the selection of patients appropriate for adjuvant therapies. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229838/-treatment-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-with-177lu-dota-tate-experience-of-the-portuguese-institute-of-oncology-in-porto
#2
Inês Lucena Sampaio, Henrique Vara Luiz, Liliana Sobral Violante, Ana Paula Santos, Luís Antunes, Isabel Torres, Cristina Sanches, Isabel Azevedo, Hugo Duarte
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this article is to report the experience of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology - Porto in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, regarding the safety and efficacy of this treatment modality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical reports of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors undergoing treatment with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE between April 2011 and November 2013 was performed...
November 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229076/locoregional-therapies-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#3
REVIEW
Christof M Sommer, Hans U Kauczor, Philippe L Pereira
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is the second most primary liver malignancy with increasing incidence in Western countries. Currently, surgical R0 resection is regarded as the only potentially curative treatment. The results of systemic chemotherapy and best supportive care (BSC) in patients with metastatic disease are often disappointing in regard to toxicity, oncologic efficacy, and overall survival. In current practice, the use of different locoregional therapies is increasingly more accepted...
December 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228841/an-update-on-the-management-of-breast-cancer-in-africa
#4
REVIEW
V Vanderpuye, S Grover, N Hammad, PoojaPrabhakar, H Simonds, F Olopade, D C Stefan
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the challenges of cancer management and attempts at improving outcomes in Africa. Even though South and North Africa are better resourceds to tackle the burden of breast cancer, similar poor prognostic factors are common to all countries. The five-year overall Survival rate for breast cancer patients does not exceed 60% for any low and middle-income country (LMIC) in Africa. In spite of the gains achieved over the past decade, certain characteristics remain the same such as limited availability of breast conservation therapies, inadequate access to drugs, few oncology specialists and adherence to harmful socio-cultural practices...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228726/current-diagnosis-and-management-of-immune-related-adverse-events-iraes-induced-by-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Vivek Kumar, Neha Chaudhary, Mohit Garg, Charalampos S Floudas, Parita Soni, Abhinav B Chandra
The indications of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are set to rise further with the approval of newer agents like tremelimumab and atezolimumab for use in patients with advanced stage mesothelioma and urothelial carcinoma respectively. More frequent use of ICIs has improved our understanding of their unique side effects, which are known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The spectrum of irAEs has expanded beyond more common manifestations such as dermatological, gastrointestinal and endocrine effects to rarer presentations involving nervous, hematopoietic and urinary systems...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228199/the-efficacy-of-dextran-40-as-a-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-strategy-in-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy
#6
Jason M Foster, Richard Sleightholm, Duncan Watley, Steven Wahlmeier, Asish Patel
The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in peritoneal malignancies can approach 30 to 50 per cent without prophylaxis. Prophylaxis in cytoreductive surgeries (CRS) presents a challenge to preoperative heparin-based therapy because of an increased risk of coagulopathy and potential for bleeding. Herein, we report the large series of CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy receiving dextran-40 prophylaxis. Retrospective chart review of peritoneal malignancies patients undergoing CRS at University of Nebraska Medical Center identified 69 individuals who received dextran-40 between 2010 and 2013...
February 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224365/timing-of-surgical-resection-for-curative-colorectal-cancer-with-liver-metastasis
#7
Shahzad M Ali, Timothy M Pawlik, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, John R T Monson, George J Chang, David W Larson
PURPOSE AND DESIGN: Optimal surgical strategy for resectable synchronous colorectal cancer with liver metastasis (SCRLM) remains a therapeutic dilemma. Multiple retrospective studies including several meta-analyses have been published since 2001 to help facilitate the decision making process and identify the optimal surgical approach. Controversy limits the generalization of available data to draw conclusions. A review of available literature on appropriate surgical timing may alleviate confusion among physicians and promote a more evidence based approach...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223720/is-endoscopic-ultrasound-examination-necessary-in-the-management-of-esophageal-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Tomas DaVee, Jaffer A Ajani, Jeffrey H Lee
Despite substantial efforts at early diagnosis, accurate staging and advanced treatments, esophageal cancer (EC) continues to be an ominous disease worldwide. Risk factors for esophageal carcinomas include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hard-alcohol use and tobacco smoking. Five-year survival rates have improved from 5% to 20% since the 1970s, the result of advances in diagnostic staging and treatment. As the most sensitive test for locoregional staging of EC, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) influences the development of an optimal oncologic treatment plan for a significant minority of patients with early cancers, which appropriately balances the risks and benefits of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223233/unravelling-the-pharmacologic-opportunities-and-future-directions-for-targeted-therapies-in-gastro-intestinal-cancers-part-1-gi-carcinomas
#9
REVIEW
Cindy Neuzillet, Benoît Rousseau, Hemant Kocher, Philippe Bourget, Christophe Tournigand
Until the 1990s, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of medical therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Better understanding of the molecular biology of cancer cell has led to the therapeutic revolution of targeted therapies, i.e. monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors directed against proteins that are specifically overexpressed or mutated in cancer cells. These agents being more specific to cancer cells were expected to be less toxic than cytotoxic agents. Targeted agents have provided clinical benefit in many GI cancer types...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222076/systematic-review-of-hospital-readmissions-among-patients-with-cancer-in-the-united-states
#10
Janice F Bell, Robin L Whitney, Sarah C Reed, Hermine Poghosyan, Rebecca S Lash, Katherine K Kim, Andra Davis, Richard J Bold, Jill G Joseph
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To review the existing literature on readmission rates, predictors, and reasons for readmission among adults with cancer.
. DATA SOURCES: U.S.-based empirical studies reporting readmission rates from January 2005 to December 2015 were identified using four online library databases-PubMed, CINAHL®, EconLit, and the online bibliography of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program. Some articles were identified by the authors outside the database and bibliography searches...
March 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220805/meta-analysis-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
M Gacci, G I Russo, C De Nunzio, A Sebastianelli, M Salvi, L Vignozzi, A Tubaro, G Morgia, S Serni
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer (PCa) are highly prevalent conditions worldwide. Current evidence suggests the emerging hypothesis that MetS could play a role in the development and progression of several neoplasms. The aims of this study are to evaluate the impact of MetS and MetS factors on PCa incidence, on the risk of high-grade PCa and to analyze the role of MetS and single MetS components on the development of aggressive PCa features. METHODS: A systematic literature search and analysis on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane and Academic One File databases until September 2015 was performed by 2 independent reviewers to evaluate the associations between MetS and PCa incidence, and between MetS and high-grade PCa incidence (bioptical Gleason Score⩾8, Prognostic Group 4-5 according to the novel prostate cancer grading system)...
February 21, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220653/systematic-review-of-the-oncological-and-functional-outcomes-of-pelvic-organ-preserving-cystectomy-compared-with-standard-radical-cystectomy-in-women-who-undergo-curative-surgery-and-orthotopic-neobladder-substitution-for-bladder-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Erik Veskimäe, Yann Neuzillet, Mathieu Rouanne, Steven MacLennan, Thomas B L Lam, Yuhong Yuan, Eva Compérat, Nigel C Cowan, Georgios Gakis, Antoine G van der Heijden, Maria J Ribal, J Alfred Witjes, Thierry Lebrét
CONTEXT: Pelvic-organ preserving radical cystectomy (POPRC) for female patients may improve postoperative sexual and urinary functions without compromising the oncological outcome compared with standard radical cystectomy (RC). OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of POPRC on sexual, oncological and urinary outcomes compared with RC in women who undergo standard curative surgery and orthotopic neobladder substitution for bladder cancer (BCa). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled trials databases and clinicaltrial...
February 20, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220470/liver-resection-for-her2-enriched-breast-cancer-metastasis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Mai Temukai, Hajime Hikino, Yoshinari Makino, Yoko Murata
Liver metastasis from breast cancer usually results in the development of systemic metastasis. We report a breast cancer patient with an early isolated liver recurrence who survived more than 7 years with no recurrence. She was treated with aggressive HER2-directed chemotherapy and hepatic metastasectomy. Local hepatectomy with effective medical oncological therapy with curative intent is worth trying in patients with breast cancer liver metastasis.
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220450/the-potential-role-of-symptom-questionnaires-in-palliative-and-supportive-cancer-care-delivery
#14
REVIEW
Angela M Stover, Ethan M Basch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) palliative care recommendations have been updated into a full guideline. Symptom questionnaires-completed and reviewed with patients during care delivery-are poised to play a large role in this guideline because they provide a more comprehensive understanding of symptoms. This article provides an overview of the guideline and describes how symptom questionnaires can be used to satisfy the guideline. RECENT FINDINGS: Standardized symptom questionnaires can be used for three purposes in care delivery: symptom management, referral to specialty palliative and supportive care, and to assess high-quality care...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220395/single-cell-sequencing-a-distinct-new-field
#15
REVIEW
Jian Wang, Yuanlin Song
Single cell sequencing (SCS) has become a new approach to study biological heterogeneity. The advancement in technologies for single cell isolation, amplification of genome/transcriptome and next-generation sequencing enables SCS to reveal the inherent properties of a single cell from the large scale of the genome, transcriptome or epigenome at high resolution. Recently, SCS has been widely applied in various clinical and research fields, such as cancer biology and oncology, immunology, microbiology, neurobiology and prenatal diagnosis...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219023/phase-ii-trials-in-osteosarcoma-recurrences-a-systematic-review-of-past-experience
#16
REVIEW
Natacha Omer, Marie-Cécile Le Deley, Sophie Piperno-Neumann, Perrine Marec-Berard, Antoine Italiano, Nadège Corradini, Carine Bellera, Laurence Brugières, Nathalie Gaspar
BACKGROUND: The most appropriate design of Phase-II trials evaluating new therapies in osteosarcoma remains poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: To study consistency in phase-II clinical trials evaluating new therapies for osteosarcoma recurrences with respect to eligibility criteria, response assessment, end-points, statistical design and reported results. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov, clinicaltrialsregister...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218733/integrating-pharmacoproteomics-into-early-phase-clinical-development-state-of-the-art-challenges-and-recommendations
#17
REVIEW
Savita Nandal, Tal Burt
Pharmacoproteomics is the study of disease-modifying and toxicity parameters associated with therapeutic drug administration, using analysis of quantitative and temporal changes to specific, predetermined, and select proteins, or to the proteome as a whole. Pharmacoproteomics is a rapidly evolving field, with progress in analytic technologies enabling processing of complex interactions of large number of unique proteins and effective use in clinical trials. Nevertheless, our analysis of clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed shows that the application of proteomics in early-phase clinical development is minimal and limited to few therapeutic areas, with oncology predominating...
February 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218708/oncologic-photodynamic-therapy-basic-principles-current-clinical-status-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Demian van Straten, Vida Mashayekhi, Henriette S de Bruijn, Sabrina Oliveira, Dominic J Robinson
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved cancer therapy, based on a photochemical reaction between a light activatable molecule or photosensitizer, light, and molecular oxygen. When these three harmless components are present together, reactive oxygen species are formed. These can directly damage cells and/or vasculature, and induce inflammatory and immune responses. PDT is a two-stage procedure, which starts with photosensitizer administration followed by a locally directed light exposure, with the aim of confined tumor destruction...
February 18, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218377/current-orthopaedic-management-of-bony-metastases-in-the-proximal-third-of-the-femur
#19
Sam C Jonas, Sanchit M Mehendale, Simon M Bick, Richard P Baker
Patients presenting with skeletal metastatic lesions requiring surgery are increasing, this is due to an ageing population and improved oncological survival following advances in medical management. Furthermore, patients are living longer with skeletal metastatic disease. The majority of bone metastases occur in the proximal femur. Robust diagnosis (Biopsy) and treatment is required to ensure that patients can mobilise fully weight bearing immediately post-surgery and that the construct should outlive the patients expected survival...
February 8, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217170/neuroblastoma-presenting-as-opsoclonus-myoclonus-a-series-of-six-cases-and-review-of-literature
#20
Jagdish P Meena, Rachna Seth, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Sheffali Gulati, Sandeep Agrawala, Priyanka Naranje
The opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia syndrome (OMAS) also called "Kinsbourne syndrome" or "dancing eye syndrome" is a rare but serious disorder characterized by opsoclonus, myoclonus, and ataxia, along with extreme irritability and behavioural changes. Data on its epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome are limited worldwide. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome of children with OMAS. A retrospective data of all children presented to Pediatric oncology clinic with a diagnosis of opsoclonus-myoclonus from 2013 to 2016 were collected...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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