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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215009/why-geese-benefit-from-the-transition-from-natural-vegetation-to-agriculture
#1
Anthony D Fox, Kenneth F Abraham
The energy and nutrient content of most agricultural crops are as good as or superior to natural foods for wild geese and they tend to be available in agricultural landscapes in far greater abundance. Artificial grasslands (fertilised native swards and intensively managed reseeds) offer far superior quality forage and higher intake rates than seminatural or natural grasslands. The availability of such abundant artificial food explains the abandonment of traditional habitats for farmland by geese over the last 50-100 years and favours no reduction in current levels of exploitation of agriculture...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214936/an-assessment-of-strontium-sorption-onto-bentonite-buffer-material-in-waste-repository
#2
Pankaj Pathak
In the present study, changes occurring in sorption characteristics of a representative bentonite (WIn-BT) exposed to SrCl2 (0.001-0.1 M) under the pH range of 1-13 were investigated. Such interaction revealed a significant variation in surface charge density and binding energy of ions with respect to bentonite, and alteration in their physicochemical properties viz., specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, thermal and mechanical behaviour were observed. The distribution coefficients (k d) calculated for sorption onto virgin (UCBT) and contaminated bentonite (CBT) indicated a greater influence of mineralogical changes occurred with variance of pH and strontium concentration...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214928/dendritic-cell-rehab-new-strategies-to-unleash-therapeutic-immunity-in-ovarian-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Chang-Suk Chae, Eli Teran-Cabanillas, Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz
Immune-based therapies that induce remarkable and durable responses against melanoma and lung cancer have unfortunately demonstrated limited success in ovarian cancer patients. This is likely due to the exceptional immunoregulatory nature of ovarian tumors, which employ numerous strategies to effectively suppress anti-tumor immunity. Here, we summarize a decade of research indicating that ovarian cancers possess an exquisite capacity to subvert the activity of host dendritic cells (DCs) as a key mechanism to impede the development and maintenance of protective T cell-based immune responses...
February 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214897/mir-125b-regulates-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-targeting-bmpr1b
#4
Huaqing Wang, Zhao Xie, Tianyong Hou, Zhiqiang Li, Ke Huang, Jicheng Gong, Wei Zhou, Kanglai Tang, Jianzhong Xu, Shiwu Dong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) plays a crucial role in bone regeneration and bone reparation. This complex process is regulated precisely and firmly by specific factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that miR-125b regulates osteogenic differentiation, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of this regulation. Furthermore, how miR-125b regulates the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs still needs elucidation. METHODS: In the present study, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were isolated and induced to osteoblasts with miR-125b inhibition or overexpression...
January 31, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214792/suppression-of-tumorigenicity-2-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#5
Omar F AbouEzzeddine, Paul M McKie, Shannon M Dunlay, Susanna R Stevens, G Michael Felker, Barry A Borlaug, Horng H Chen, Russell P Tracy, Eugene Braunwald, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) receptor is a biomarker that is elevated in certain systemic inflammatory diseases. Comorbidity-driven microvascular inflammation is postulated to play a key role in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) pathophysiology, but data on how sST2 relates to clinical characteristics or inflammatory conditions or biomarkers in HFpEF are limited. We sought to determine circulating levels and clinical correlates of sST2 in HFpEF...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214715/metal-bioaccumulation-and-detoxification-processes-in-cephalopods-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Virginie Penicaud, Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe, Paco Bustamante
In recent decades, cephalopods have been shown to have very high capacities to accumulate most trace elements, regardless of whether they are essential (e.g., Cu and Zn) or non-essential (e.g., Ag and Cd). Among the different pathways of exposure to trace elements, the trophic pathway appears to be the major route of assimilation for numerous metals, including Cd, Co, Hg and Zn. Once assimilated, trace elements are distributed in the organism, accumulating in storage organs. The digestive gland is the main organ in which many trace elements accumulate, whichever of the exposure pathway...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214663/the-care-of-and-communication-with-older-people-from-the-perspective-of-student-nurses-a-mixed-method-study
#7
Lena Marmstål Hammar, Inger K Holmström, Karin Skoglund, Martina Summer Meranius, Annelie J Sundler
BACKGROUND: Undergraduate nurse education needs to prepare student nurses to meet the demands and to have the necessary communication skills for caring for an increasing older population. The challenges involve how best to support and empower student nurses to learn the communication skills needed to care for older people. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate student nurses' views on the care of and communication with older people. DESIGN: A descriptive study with a mixed-method approach was conducted...
February 8, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214645/antibiotics-do-not-affect-the-degradation-of-fungicides-and-enhance-the-mineralization-of-chlorpyrifos-in-biomixtures
#8
Humberto Castillo-González, Marta Pérez-Villanueva, Mario Masís-Mora, Víctor Castro-Gutiérrez, Carlos E Rodríguez-Rodríguez
The use of antibiotics in agriculture produces residues in wastewaters. The disposal of such wastewaters in biopurification systems (BPS) employed for the treatment of pesticides could result in the inhibition of the degrading capacity of the biomixtures used in the BPS. We assayed the effect of two commercial formulations of antibiotics used in agriculture, one containing kasugamycin (KSG) and the other oxytetracycline plus gentamicin (OTC+GTM), on the biomixture performance. Doses from 0.1mgkg(-1) to 1000mgkg(-1) of KSG increased the respiration of the biomixture, and low doses enhanced the mineralization rate of the insecticide (14)C-chlorpyrifos...
February 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214630/ph-and-reduction-dual-responsive-dipeptide-cationic-lipids-with-%C3%AE-tocopherol-hydrophobic-tail-for-efficient-gene-delivery
#9
Qiang Liu, Rong-Chuan Su, Wen-Jing Yi, Li-Ting Zheng, Shan-Shan Lu, Zhi-Gang Zhao
A series of tocopherol-based cationic lipid 3a-3f bearing a pH-sensitive imidazole moiety in the dipeptide headgroup and a reduction-responsive disulfide linkage were designed and synthesized. Acid-base titration of these lipids showed good buffering capacities. The liposomes formed from 3 and co-lipid 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) could efficiently bind and condense DNA into nanoparticles. Gel binding and HPLC assays confirmed the encapsulated DNA could release from lipoplexes 3 upon addition of 10 mM glutathione (GSH)...
February 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214622/preferable-uptake-of-phosphate-by-hydrous-zirconium-oxide-nanoparticles-embedded-in-quaternary-ammonium-chinese-reed
#10
Yanan Shang, Xing Xu, Shuto Qi, Yanxia Zhao, Zhongfei Ren, Baoyu Gao
Phosphate capture from aqueous was conducted using hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) embedded in quaternary-ammonium Chinese reed (CR-N(+)-HZO), and the characteristics of adsorbent was determined. HZO was dispersed as nanoparticles or nano-clusters on the external or inside the networking pores of CR-N(+)-HZO. The surface of CR-N(+)-HZO was heterogeneous with multiple adsorption sites, HZO nanocomposite and N(+)(CH2CH3)3Cl(-), which both contributed to the adsorption process. The phosphate uptake by CR-N(+)-HZO was optimal at pH 3...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214603/the-impact-of-reduced-gastric-acid-secretion-on-dissolution-of-salts-of-weak-bases-in-the-fasted-upper-gastrointestinal-lumen-data-in-biorelevant-media-and-in-human-aspirates
#11
Chara Litou, Maria Vertzoni, Wei Xu, Filippos Kesisoglou, Christos Reppas
PURPOSE: To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214600/intestine-oxidative-stress-and-immune-response-to-sulfide-stress-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#12
Yafei Duan, Hongbiao Dong, Yun Wang, Hua Li, Qingsong Liu, Yue Zhang, Jiasong Zhang
The effects of sulfide stress on oxidative stress and immune response in intestine of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated in the present study. Oxidative stress parameters, immune enzymes activity and immune gene mRNA expression level were detected in intestine of L. vannamei after the exposure of 5.0 mg/L sulfide stress 72 h. The duration of sulfide stress influenced the shrimp survival, and the cumulative mortality rate was 30.0% and 33.3% at 48 h and 72 h respectively. HE staining showed that sulfide stress caused the intestine tissue damage symptoms...
February 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214584/removal-of-cd-ii-and-hg-ii-from-effluents-by-ionic-solid-impregnated-chitosan
#13
Anita Shekhawat, Shashikant Kahu, D Saravanan, Ravin Jugade
Ethylhexadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide impregnated chitosan (EHDAIC) was prepared to remove cadmium and mercury from synthetic effluent. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX and TGA-DTA. Adsorption studies were carried out under different conditions of pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of EHDAIC is a function of the solution pH and the optimum pH for these metal ions was found to be 3.0. The equilibrium data has been described using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214583/remediation-of-fluoride-from-drinking-water-using-magnetic-iron-oxide-coated-hydrotalcite-chitosan-composite
#14
Kalimuthu Pandi, Soodamani Periyasamy, Natrayasamy Viswanathan
The present study was performed to examine the probability of magnetic iron oxide fabricated hydrotalcite/chitosan (Fe3O4@HTCS) composite for the removal of excess fluoride content from drinking water. The developed Fe3O4@HTCS composite not only demonstrate the good separation ability but also display an extreme enhanced defluoridation capacity (DC) when compared to other base components and composite. The DCs of Fe3O4@HTCS composite, Fe3O4@HT composite, Fe3O4, HT and CS was found to be 5032, 3041, 1050, 1030 and 52 mgF(-)/kg respectively...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214562/leveraging-health-informatics-to-a-foster-smart-systems-response-to-health-disparities-and-health-equity-challenges
#15
Timothy Jay Carney, Amanda Y Kong
Informaticians are challenged to design health IT solutions for complex problems like health disparities but are only achieving mixed results in demonstrating a direct impact on health outcomes. This presentation of collective intelligence and the corresponding terms of smart health, knowledge ecosystem, enhanced health disparities informatics capacities, knowledge exchange, big-data, and situational awareness are means of demonstrating the complex challenges informatics professional face in trying to model, measure, and manage an intelligence and a smart systems response to health disparities...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214555/identification-of-a-fatty-acid-binding-protein4-ucp2-axis-regulating-microglial-mediated-neuroinflammation
#16
Cayla M Duffy, Hongliang Xu, Joshua P Nixon, David A Bernlohr, Tammy A Butterick
Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to metabolic dysregulation and the onset of obesity. Dietary saturated fats activate microglia via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) mediated pathway to release pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in dysfunction or death of surrounding neurons. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are lipid chaperones regulating metabolic and inflammatory pathways in response to fatty acids. Loss of FABP4 in peripheral macrophages via either molecular or pharmacologic mechanisms results in reduced obesity-induced inflammation via a UCP2-redox based mechanism...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214375/anti-fatigue-effects-of-troxerutin-on-exercise-endurance-capacity-oxidative-stress-and-mmp-9-levels-in-trained-male-rats
#17
Mohammad Zamanian, Mohammad R Hajizadeh, Ali Esmaeili Nadimi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of troxerutin (TRX) on endurance capacity, oxidative stress and MMP-9 levels in trained male rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. The control (Vehicle) and exercise training (5 days/week) with vehicle treatment (Exercise), exercise training with TRX treatment at 75 (Ex-TRX75), 150 (Ex-TRX150), and 300 mg/kg (Ex-TRX300). The treated groups received TRX by gavage every day while the other groups received water for 30 days. On the 30(th) day, rats were sacrificed immediately after exhaustive swimming test, and some biochemical parameters were measured...
February 18, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214171/g-protein-based-elisa-as-a-potency-test-for-rabies-vaccines
#18
Martine Chabaud-Riou, Nadège Moreno, Fabien Guinchard, Marie Claire Nicolai, Elisabeth Niogret-Siohan, Nicolas Sève, Catherine Manin, Françoise Guinet-Morlot, Patrice Riou
The NIH test is currently used to assess the potency of rabies vaccine, a key criterion for vaccine release. This test is based on mice immunization followed by intracerebral viral challenge. As part of global efforts to reduce animal experimentation and in the framework of the development of Sanofi Pasteur next generation, highly-purified vaccine, produced without any material of human or animal origin, we developed an ELISA as an alternative to the NIH test. This ELISA is based on monoclonal antibodies recognizing specifically the native form of the viral G-protein, the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibody response to rabies virus...
February 14, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214133/dynamic-hyperinflation-in-patients-with-asthma-and-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction
#19
Olga Mediano, Raquel Casitas, Carlos Villasante, Elisabet Martínez-Cerón, Raúl Galera, Ester Zamarrón, Francisco García-Río
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the behavior of operative lung volumes during exercise in patients with asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). OBJECTIVES: To compare the presence of dynamic hyperinflation (DH) in patients with mild asthma with and without EIB and in healthy individuals and to relate the changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) with postexercise airflow reduction. METHODS: A total of 122 consecutive stable patients (>12 years of age) with mild asthma and 38 controls were studied...
February 14, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214132/language-evolution-a-changing-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Michael C Corballis
From ancient times, religion and philosophy have regarded language as a faculty bestowed uniquely and suddenly on our own species, primarily as a mode of thought with communication as a byproduct. This view persists among some scientists and linguists and is counter to the theory of evolution, which implies that the evolution of complex structures is incremental. I argue here that language derives from mental processes with gradual evolutionary trajectories, including the generative capacities to travel mentally in time and space and into the minds of others...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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