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slow thinking

Marco Barilari, Adélaïde de Heering, Virginie Crollen, Olivier Collignon, Roberto Bottini
Across cultures and languages, people find similarities between the products of different senses in mysterious ways. By studying what is called cross-modal correspondences, cognitive psychologists discovered that lemons are fast rather than slow, boulders are sour, and red is heavier than yellow. Are these cross-modal correspondences established via sensory perception or can they be learned merely through language? We contribute to this debate by demonstrating that early blind people who lack the perceptual experience of color also think that red is heavier than yellow but to a lesser extent than sighted do...
January 2018: I-Perception
Gregory E Kaebnick, Michael K Gusmano
In the technology assessment literature, the leading alternative to CBA-like methods is usually held to be precaution, which is understood in various ways but is always about making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Under such conditions, proponents of precaution commonly hold, a straightforward tallying of potential outcomes does not seem possible. Since CBA aims to tally up outcomes to determine which outcome would produce the greatest public benefit, precaution begins to look like, not just an alternative to CBA, but an incompatible alternative...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Oluwaseun Egunsola, Imti Choonara, Helen M Sammons, William P Whitehouse
PURPOSE: This study aims to describe the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and compare ADRs to the individual drugs when given as monotherapy. METHOD: Paediatric patients (≤18 years old) were enrolled for this prospective observational study over a 6-month period, between September 2015 and March 2016. Adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were elicited at the time of enrolment and after 3 months using the Paediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire...
February 2, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Ryan C Kennedy, Meir Marmor, Ralph Marcucio, C Anthony Hunt
A significant portion of bone fractures fail to heal properly, increasing healthcare costs. Advances in fracture management have slowed because translation barriers have limited generation of mechanism-based explanations for the healing process. When uncertainties are numerous, analogical modeling can be an effective strategy for developing plausible explanations of complex phenomena. We demonstrate the feasibility of engineering analogical models in software to facilitate discovery of biomimetic explanations for how fracture healing may progress...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Sophie von Stumm
Within-person changes in mood, which are triggered by situational cues, for example someone's location or company, are thought to affect contemporaneous cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, data were collected over 6 months with the smartphone application (app) moo-Q that prompted users at random times to rate their mood and complete 3 short cognitive tests. Out of 24,313 people across 154 countries, who downloaded the app, 770 participants submitted 10 or more valid moo-Q responses (mean = 23; SD = 18; range 10-207)...
February 1, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Arpine Hovasapian, Linda J Levine
Social sharing of positive life experiences has been linked to increased intensity of positive emotion. Less is known about the relations among sharing, the perceived response of the listener, and the duration of positive emotion. We hypothesised that sharing an experience would sustain positive emotion when listeners responded in a manner that highlighted the appraised importance and remarkability of the experience, thereby slowing hedonic adaptation. College students who received a desirable exam grade (N = 165) reported their emotional response, appraisals, and sharing on the day they received their grade and again the following evening...
January 10, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Nicola Willis, Webster Mavhu, Carol Wogrin, Abigail Mutsinze, Ashraf Kagee
BACKGROUND: Studies have found that adolescents living with HIV are at risk of depression, which in turn affects adherence to medication. This study explored the experience and manifestation of depression in adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe in order to inform intervention development. METHODS: We conducted a body mapping exercise with 21 HIV positive 15-19 years olds who had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Participants created a painted map of their body to assist them in expressing their somatic and emotional experiences in qualitative interviews...
2018: PloS One
Anna F Ngumbi, Richard S Silayo
BACKGROUND: Tsetse-borne African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) greatly influences livestock distribution and significantly slows livestock productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. While a number of control methods targeting the vector tsetse are in field application, treatment with the few available trypanocides continues to be the most widely applied control method. Unfortunately, improper and frequent use of these few available drugs, accelerated by poor veterinary service delivery, promotes trypanosome drug resistance, the magnitude of which has not been delineated...
December 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Tao Wang, Zaiyuan Li, Tingqiu Ge, Man Zhang, Aihong Yuan, Jun Yang
Professor YANG Jun 's experience of diagnosis and treatment for intractable facial paralysis is introduced. Professor YANG focuses on the thinking model that combines TCM, western medicine and acupuncture, and adopts the differentiation system that combines disease differentiation, syndrome differentiation and meridian differentiation; he adopts the treatment integrates etiological treatment, overall regulation, symptomatic treatment as well as acupuncture, moxibustion, medication and flash cupping. The acupoints of yangming meridians are mostly selected, and acupoints of governor vessel such as Dazhui (GV 14) and Jinsuo (GV 8) are highly valued...
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Lucija Tudor, Marcela Konjevod, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Nela Pivac
OBJECTIVE: Cognition is a complex trait representing a set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge. Although diverse brain regions are involved, most cognitive processes appear to engage cortical regions. The activity of dopaminergic neurons in prefrontal cortex represents a biological substrate underlying cognitive functions. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent dementia associated with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairment in AD starts slow with discrete deterioration in memory, language, thinking and reasoning, but it progresses into more severe and debilitating cognitive dysfunction...
December 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
G Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Rachel A Smith, Erina L MacGeorge, Nicole M Hackman, Nkuchia M M'ikanatha
The evolution of antibiotic resistance is outpacing the speed at which new antibiotics will reach the marketplace. To slow the rate of resistance, people need to engage in antibiotic stewardship, which includes acts to prevent the spread of bacteria and judicious use of antibiotics to treat infections. This study identified the patterns and predictors of antibiotic stewardship behaviors of parents (N = 516) related to their children. The latent class analysis revealed three profiles of parental stewardship, labeled Stewards, Requesters, and Non-Stewards...
October 25, 2017: Health Communication
Mary E Blair, Minh D Le, Hoàng M Thạch, Anna Panariello, Ngọc B Vũ, Mark G Birchette, Gautam Sethi, Eleanor J Sterling
Wildlife trade presents a major threat to primate populations, which are in demand from local to international scales for a variety of uses from food and traditional medicine to the exotic pet trade. We argue that an interdisciplinary framework to facilitate integration of socioeconomic, anthropological, and biological data across multiple spatial and temporal scales is essential to guide the study of wildlife trade dynamics and its impacts on primate populations. Here, we present a new way to design research on wildlife trade in primates using a systems thinking framework...
November 2017: American Journal of Primatology
B I Canteros, A M Gochez, R C Moschini
Citrus canker is an important bacterial disease of citrus in several regions of the world. Strains of Xanthomonas citri type-A (Xc-A) group are the primary pathogen where citrus canker occurs. After Xc-A entered the Northeast of Argentina in 1974, the disease spread rapidly from 1977 to 1980 and then slowed down and remained moving at slow pace until 1990 when it became endemic. Citrus canker was detected in Northwest Argentina in 2002. This paper presents the main steps in the fight of the disease and the management strategies that have been used to control citrus canker at this time...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Gordon Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
S G Soriano, L Vutskits, V Jevtovic-Todorovic, H C Hemmings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Curtis R Congreve, Amanda R Falk, James C Lamsdell
Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate...
September 24, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Thomas Ward, Philippa A Garety
The recent literature on reasoning biases in psychosis and delusions is reviewed. The state-of-the-art knowledge from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the evidence for jumping to conclusions is briefly summarised, before a fuller discussion of the more recent empirical literature on belief flexibility as applied to delusions. The methodology and evidence in relation to studies of belief flexibility and the Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence (BADE) across the delusional continuum will be critically appraised, and implications drawn for improving cognitive therapy...
September 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Andrew J Watson, Eileen M Joyce, Andrew J B Fugard, Verity C Leeson, Thomas R E Barnes, Vyv Huddy
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis, with slowed processing speed thought to be a prominent impairment in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, findings from the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) planning task suggest changes in processing speed associated with the illness may include faster responses in early stages of planning, though findings are inconsistent. This review uses meta-analytic methods to assess thinking times in psychosis across the available literature. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
Kristine Grayson, Derek M Johnson
Quantifying the complex spatial dynamics taking place at range edges is critical for understanding future distributions of species, yet very few systems have sufficient data or the spatial resolution to empirically test these dynamics. This paper reviews how data from a large-scale pest management program have provided important contributions to the fields of population dynamics and invasion biology. The invasion of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is well-documented from its introduction near Boston, Massachusetts USA in 1869 to its current extent of over 900,000 km(2) in Eastern North America...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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