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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319391/keeping-the-magic-alive-social-sharing-of-positive-life-experiences-sustains-happiness
#1
Arpine Hovasapian, Linda J Levine
Social sharing of positive life experiences has been linked to increased intensity of positive emotion. Less is known about the relations among sharing, the perceived response of the listener, and the duration of positive emotion. We hypothesised that sharing an experience would sustain positive emotion when listeners responded in a manner that highlighted the appraised importance and remarkability of the experience, thereby slowing hedonic adaptation. College students who received a desirable exam grade (N = 165) reported their emotional response, appraisals, and sharing on the day they received their grade and again the following evening...
January 10, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298326/understanding-the-experience-and-manifestation-of-depression-in-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-harare-zimbabwe
#2
Nicola Willis, Webster Mavhu, Carol Wogrin, Abigail Mutsinze, Ashraf Kagee
BACKGROUND: Studies have found that adolescents living with HIV are at risk of depression, which in turn affects adherence to medication. This study explored the experience and manifestation of depression in adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe in order to inform intervention development. METHODS: We conducted a body mapping exercise with 21 HIV positive 15-19 years olds who had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Participants created a painted map of their body to assist them in expressing their somatic and emotional experiences in qualitative interviews...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246241/a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-use-and-misuse-of-trypanocides-in-selected-pastoral-and-agropastoral-areas-of-eastern-and-northeastern-tanzania
#3
Anna F Ngumbi, Richard S Silayo
BACKGROUND: Tsetse-borne African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) greatly influences livestock distribution and significantly slows livestock productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. While a number of control methods targeting the vector tsetse are in field application, treatment with the few available trypanocides continues to be the most widely applied control method. Unfortunately, improper and frequent use of these few available drugs, accelerated by poor veterinary service delivery, promotes trypanosome drug resistance, the magnitude of which has not been delineated...
December 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231509/-summary-of-professor-yang-jun-s-experience-for-intractable-facial-paralysis
#4
Tao Wang, Zaiyuan Li, Tingqiu Ge, Man Zhang, Aihong Yuan, Jun Yang
Professor YANG Jun's experience of diagnosis and treatment for intractable facial paralysis is introduced. Professor YANG focuses on the thinking model that combines TCM, western medicine and acupuncture, and adopts the differentiation system that combines disease differentiation, syndrome differentiation and meridian differentiation; he adopts the treatment integrates etiological treatment, overall regulation, symptomatic treatment as well as acupuncture, moxibustion, medication and flash cupping. The acupoints of yangming meridians are mostly selected, and acupoints of governor vessel such as Dazhui (GV 14) and Jinsuo (GV 8) are highly valued...
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231139/catechol-o-methyltransferase-cognition-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Lucija Tudor, Marcela Konjevod, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Nela Pivac
OBJECTIVE: Cognition is a complex trait representing a set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge. Although diverse brain regions are involved, most cognitive processes appear to engage cortical regions. The activity of dopaminergic neurons in prefrontal cortex represents a biological substrate underlying cognitive functions. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent dementia associated with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairment in AD starts slow with discrete deterioration in memory, language, thinking and reasoning, but it progresses into more severe and debilitating cognitive dysfunction...
December 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171023/thinking-fast-and-slow-in-clinical-psychiatry
#6
EDITORIAL
G Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068705/campaign-preparation-for-complex-initiatives-a-person-centered-approach-to-audience-segmentation-of-parents-antibiotic-stewardship
#7
Rachel A Smith, Erina L MacGeorge, Nicole M Hackman, Nkuchia M M'ikanatha
The evolution of antibiotic resistance is outpacing the speed at which new antibiotics will reach the marketplace. To slow the rate of resistance, people need to engage in antibiotic stewardship, which includes acts to prevent the spread of bacteria and judicious use of antibiotics to treat infections. This study identified the patterns and predictors of antibiotic stewardship behaviors of parents (N = 516) related to their children. The latent class analysis revealed three profiles of parental stewardship, labeled Stewards, Requesters, and Non-Stewards...
October 25, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035006/applying-systems-thinking-to-inform-studies-of-wildlife-trade-in-primates
#8
Mary E Blair, Minh D Le, Hoàng M Thạch, Anna Panariello, Ngọc B Vũ, Mark G Birchette, Gautam Sethi, Eleanor J Sterling
Wildlife trade presents a major threat to primate populations, which are in demand from local to international scales for a variety of uses from food and traditional medicine to the exotic pet trade. We argue that an interdisciplinary framework to facilitate integration of socioeconomic, anthropological, and biological data across multiple spatial and temporal scales is essential to guide the study of wildlife trade dynamics and its impacts on primate populations. Here, we present a new way to design research on wildlife trade in primates using a systems thinking framework...
November 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018307/management-of-citrus-canker-in-argentina-a-success-story
#9
REVIEW
B I Canteros, A M Gochez, R C Moschini
Citrus canker is an important bacterial disease of citrus in several regions of the world. Strains of Xanthomonas citri type-A (Xc-A) group are the primary pathogen where citrus canker occurs. After Xc-A entered the Northeast of Argentina in 1974, the disease spread rapidly from 1977 to 1980 and then slowed down and remained moving at slow pace until 1990 when it became endemic. Citrus canker was detected in Northwest Argentina in 2002. This paper presents the main steps in the fight of the disease and the management strategies that have been used to control citrus canker at this time...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992734/book-review-thinking-fast-and-slow-thinking-fast-and-slow-kahneman-daniel-new-york-farrar-strauss-and-giroux-2011-499-pp-isbn-978-0-374-27563-1
#10
Gordon Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969326/thinking-fast-and-slow-highlights-from-the-2016-bja-seminar-on-anaesthetic-neurotoxicity-and-neuroplasticity
#11
S G Soriano, L Vutskits, V Jevtovic-Todorovic, H C Hemmings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944555/biological-hierarchies-and-the-nature-of-extinction
#12
Curtis R Congreve, Amanda R Falk, James C Lamsdell
Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate...
September 24, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927863/fast-and-slow-thinking-in-distressing-delusions-a-review-of-the-literature-and-implications-for-targeted-therapy
#13
Thomas Ward, Philippa A Garety
The recent literature on reasoning biases in psychosis and delusions is reviewed. The state-of-the-art knowledge from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the evidence for jumping to conclusions is briefly summarised, before a fuller discussion of the more recent empirical literature on belief flexibility as applied to delusions. The methodology and evidence in relation to studies of belief flexibility and the Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence (BADE) across the delusional continuum will be critically appraised, and implications drawn for improving cognitive therapy...
September 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918863/more-haste-less-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-thinking-latencies-during-planning-in-people-with-psychosis
#14
REVIEW
Andrew J Watson, Eileen M Joyce, Andrew J B Fugard, Verity C Leeson, Thomas R E Barnes, Vyv Huddy
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis, with slowed processing speed thought to be a prominent impairment in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, findings from the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) planning task suggest changes in processing speed associated with the illness may include faster responses in early stages of planning, though findings are inconsistent. This review uses meta-analytic methods to assess thinking times in psychosis across the available literature. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892141/novel-insights-on-population-and-range-edge-dynamics-using-an-unparalleled-spatiotemporal-record-of-species-invasion
#15
Kristine Grayson, Derek M Johnson
Quantifying the complex spatial dynamics taking place at range edges is critical for understanding future distributions of species, yet very few systems have sufficient data or the spatial resolution to empirically test these dynamics. This paper reviews how data from a large-scale pest management program have provided important contributions to the fields of population dynamics and invasion biology. The invasion of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is well-documented from its introduction near Boston, Massachusetts USA in 1869 to its current extent of over 900,000 km(2) in Eastern North America...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858547/junctional-rhythm-preoperatively-and-during-general-anesthesia-for-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery
#16
Naotaka Kishimoto, Ikue Kinoshita, Yoshihiro Momota
We report a case of junctional rhythm that occurred both preoperatively and later during a portion of general anesthesia. A 19-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy after being diagnosed with a jaw deformity. Preoperative electrocardiography (ECG) revealed a junctional rhythm with a slow heart rate (HR). At 90 minutes after anesthesia induction, local anesthesia with 10 mL of 1% lidocaine and 1:100,000 adrenaline was administered. A junctional rhythm appeared 15 minutes after the local anesthesia...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858480/anodic-cyclization-reactions-and-the-mechanistic-strategies-that-enable-optimization
#17
Ruozhu Feng, Jake A Smith, Kevin D Moeller
Oxidation reactions are powerful tools for synthesis because they allow us to reverse the polarity of electron-rich functional groups, generate highly reactive intermediates, and increase the functionality of molecules. For this reason, oxidation reactions have been and continue to be the subject of intense study. Central to these efforts is the development of mechanism-based strategies that allow us to think about the reactive intermediates that are frequently central to the success of the reactions and the mechanistic pathways that those intermediates trigger...
August 31, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830236/testing-many-treatments-within-a-single-protocol-over-10%C3%A2-years-at-mrc-clinical-trials-unit-at-ucl-multi-arm-multi-stage-platform-umbrella-and-basket-protocols
#18
Mahesh Kb Parmar, Fay H Cafferty, Matthew R Sydes, Babak Choodari-Oskooei, Ruth E Langley, Louise Brown, Patrick Pj Phillips, Melissa R Spears, Sam Rowley, Richard Kaplan, Nicholas D James, Timothy Maughan, Nicholas Paton, Patrick J Royston
BACKGROUND: There is real need to change how we do some of our clinical trials, as currently the testing and development process is too slow, too costly and too failure-prone - often we find that a new treatment is no better than the current standard. PURPOSE AND METHODS: Much of the focus on the development and testing pathway has been in improving the design of phase I and II trials. In this paper we present examples of new methods for improving the design of phase III trials (and the necessary lead up to them) as they are the most time-consuming and expensive part of the pathway...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806137/thinking-more-or-feeling-less-explaining-the-foreign-language-effect-on-moral-judgment
#19
Sayuri Hayakawa, David Tannenbaum, Albert Costa, Joanna D Corey, Boaz Keysar
Would you kill one person to save five? People are more willing to accept such utilitarian action when using a foreign language than when using their native language. In six experiments, we investigated why foreign-language use affects moral choice in this way. On the one hand, the difficulty of using a foreign language might slow people down and increase deliberation, amplifying utilitarian considerations of maximizing welfare. On the other hand, use of a foreign language might stunt emotional processing, attenuating considerations of deontological rules, such as the prohibition against killing...
October 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801467/minors-moral-psychology-and-the-harm-reduction-debate-the-case-of-tobacco-and-nicotine
#20
Lynn T Kozlowski
Harm reduction debates are important in health policy. Although it has been established that morality affects policy, this article proposes that perspectives from moral psychology help to explain the challenges of developing evidence-based policy on prohibition-only versus tobacco/nicotine harm reduction for minors. Protecting youth from tobacco is critical, especially since tobacco/nicotine products are legal for adults, who usually begin using when young. Although cigarettes and other combustibles are the deadliest tobacco products, other products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, though unsafe, are upward of 90 percent less harmful than cigarettes...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
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