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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793164/childhood-socioeconomic-status-and-longitudinal-patterns-of-alcohol-problems-variation-across-etiological-pathways-in-genetic-risk
#1
Peter B Barr, Judy Silberg, Danielle M Dick, Hermine H Maes
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is an important aspect of early life environment associated with later life health/health behaviors, including alcohol misuse. However, alcohol misuse is modestly heritable and involves differing etiological pathways. Externalizing disorders show significant genetic overlap with substance use, suggesting an impulsivity pathway to alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse also overlaps with internalizing disorders, suggesting alcohol is used to cope. These differing pathways could lead to different patterns over time and/or differential susceptibility to environmental conditions, such as childhood SES...
May 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793149/educational-and-emotional-health-outcomes-in-adolescence-following-maltreatment-in-early-childhood-a-population-based-study-of-protective-factors
#2
Nisreen Khambati, Liam Mahedy, Jon Heron, Alan Emond
Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793048/dna-methylation-differences-at-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-in-depression-are-related-to-functional-alterations-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-and-to-early-life-emotional-abuse
#3
Chloё Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Niamh O' Leary, Chaitra Jairaj, Darren Roddy, Leonardo Tozzi, Derek Morris, Andrew Harkin, Thomas Frodl, Zsófia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf, Linda Booij, Veronica O'Keane
Depression is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. A proposed mechanism to explain these alterations are changes in DNA methylation levels, secondary to early life adversity (ELA), at stress-related genes. Two gene regions that have been implicated in the literature, the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) exon 1F and the FKBP5 gene intron 7 were examined in 67 individuals (33 depressed patients and 34 controls). We investigated whether cortisol concentrations, evaluated in 25 depressed patients and 20 controls, and measures of ELA were associated with the degree of methylation at these candidate gene regions...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791872/gene-expression-in-cord-blood-links-genetic-risk-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-maternal-psychological-distress-and-adverse-childhood-outcomes
#4
Michael S Breen, Aliza P Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dan J Stein
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=20), depression (n=31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n=13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n=23) and healthy mothers (n=62)...
May 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791743/a-network-for-early-childhood-development
#5
Shekufeh Zonji
Political action and investment are critical to meet the development needs of vulnerable young children today. Early childhood development (ECD) has become a global priority: an ECD target and other ECD-related targets are included in the sustainable development goals, over 75 countries have officially adopted multisectoral ECD policy instruments, and ECD is a programmatic focus in major global institutions (including UNICEF, UNESCO, the WHO, and the World Bank). However, lack of clear and strong ownership of and champions for ECD, operational and communication siloes of constituent sectors that constitute ECD, political pressures for investment in other arenas, and low international investment in ECD inhibit making a compelling and cohesive investment case for ECD...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791742/what-policymakers-need-from-implementation-evaluations-of-early-childhood-development-programs
#6
Joan Lombardi
As early childhood interventions move from small- to large-scale programs, the partnerships among researchers, policymakers, communication experts, practitioners, and local communities become increasingly critical for successful implementation. The results from evaluations of programs need to guide policymakers so that they can make informed administrative and fiscal decisions. This commentary makes five recommendations for researchers to consider when designing early childhood programs for scale.
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791739/what-implementation-evidence-matters-scaling-up-nurturing-interventions-that-promote-early-childhood-development
#7
Pia R Britto, Manpreet Singh, Tarun Dua, Raghbir Kaur, Aisha K Yousafzai
Research in early childhood development (ECD) has established the need for scaling-up multisectoral interventions for nurturing care to promote ECD, for improved socioeconomic outcomes for sustainable societies. However, key elements and processes for implementation and scale-up of such interventions are not well understood. This special series on implementation research and practice for ECD brings together evidence to inform effectiveness, quality, and scale in nurturing care programs; identifies knowledge gaps; and proposes further directions for research and practice...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791737/reporting-guidelines-for-implementation-research-on-nurturing-care-interventions-designed-to-promote-early-childhood-development
#8
Aisha K Yousafzai, Frances E Aboud, Milagros Nores, Raghbir Kaur
Meta-analyses of interventions such as parenting, stimulation, and early childhood education have reported consistent medium-to-high effect sizes on early childhood development (ECD) and early learning outcomes. However, few effective interventions promoting ECD have achieved scale. In order to increase the access to effective or high-quality services, greater focus on implementation research of interventions promoting ECD is necessary. In this paper, we describe the development of reporting guidelines for implementation research of nurturing care interventions designed to promote ECD following an expert consensus-building process...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791735/practical-considerations-for-transitioning-early-childhood-interventions-to-scale-lessons-from-the-saving-brains-portfolio
#9
James M Radner, Marvin J S Ferrer, Dominique McMahon, Anuraj H Shankar, Karlee L Silver
Small pilot studies of young children have frequently shown promise, but very few have been successfully scaled to the regional or national levels. How can we ensure that these promising approaches move from a suite of pilots to full-scale implementation that can deliver sustainable impact for hundreds of millions of children? To elucidate concrete lessons learned and suggestions on accelerating the transition to impact at scale, we reviewed the Saving Brains portfolio to better understand three points: (1) the extent to which useful signals of impact could be extracted from data at the seed phase, (2) the ways in which innovators (project leaders) were approaching human resource challenges critical for scaling, and (3) the multisector diversity of the portfolio and the way innovators entered partnerships...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791733/implementation-research-for-early-childhood-development-programming-in-humanitarian-contexts
#10
Katie Maeve Murphy, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Alice J Wuermli
Young children living in conditions of war, disaster, and displacement are at high risk for developmental difficulties that can follow them throughout their lives. While there is robust evidence supporting the need for early childhood development (ECD) in humanitarian settings, implementation of ECD programming remains sparse, largely due to the lack of evidence of how and why these programs can improve outcomes in humanitarian settings. In order to build the evidence base for ECD in humanitarian settings, we review the current state of implementation research for ECD programming (targeting children 0-8) in humanitarian settings, through a literature review and a series of key informant interviews...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791731/translation-of-evidence-to-practice-to-promote-early-childhood-development-programs
#11
Pablo Stansbery
The 2018 special issue of Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences on implementation research and practice for early childhood development brings together emerging evidence on implementing effective nurturing care programs, addressing issues of quality and scale. Translating evidence to practice requires addressing the barriers perceived by policy makers, which have been highlighted in the published literature. Here, I describe how UNICEF and other global partners are addressing these barriers.
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791730/integration-of-parenting-and-nutrition-interventions-in-a-community-health-program-in-pakistan-an-implementation-evaluation
#12
Aisha K Yousafzai, Muneera A Rasheed, Saima Siyal
Policy and program implementers require evidence on whether integrated psychosocial stimulation and nutrition interventions can be effectively delivered at-scale, how, and at what cost? To address some of these issues, a comprehensive evaluation of implementation was designed for a trial in Pakistan that integrated psychosocial stimulation and nutrition interventions in a community health service. The first objective was to describe, analyze, and assess the quality and accuracy of the implementation of the interventions...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791729/implementation-of-reach-up-early-childhood-parenting-program-acceptability-appropriateness-and-feasibility-in-brazil-and-zimbabwe
#13
Joanne A Smith, Helen Baker-Henningham, Alexandra Brentani, Rose Mugweni, Susan P Walker
Young children need nurturing care, which includes responsive caregiver-child interactions and opportunities to learn. However, there are few extant large-scale programs that build parents' abilities to provide this. We have developed an early childhood parenting training package, called Reach Up, with the aim of providing an evidence-based, adaptable program that is feasible for low-resource settings. Implementation of Reach Up was evaluated in Brazil and Zimbabwe to inform modifications needed and identify challenges that implementers and delivery agents encountered...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791728/state-of-the-science-on-implementation-research-in-early-child-development-and-future-directions
#14
Frances E Aboud, Aisha K Yousafzai, Milagros Nores
We summarize the state of the field of implementation research and practice for early child development and propose recommendations. First, conclusions are drawn regarding what is generally known about the implementation of early childhood development programs, based on papers and discussions leading to a published series on the topic. Second, recommendations for short-term activities emphasize the use of newly published guidelines for reporting data collection methods and results for implementation processes; knowledge of the guidelines and a menu of measures allows for planning ahead...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791727/measuring-the-cost-of-investing-in-early-childhood-interventions-and-applications-of-a-standardized-costing-tool
#15
Emily Gustafsson-Wright, Izzy Boggild-Jones
In this paper we analyze the need for consistent and accurate cost data on early childhood development (ECD) interventions as a basis for increasing and improving the effectiveness of current spending on ECD. We establish the key components necessary in a costing model and present a new standardized costing tool intended for use across a broad range of stakeholders and contexts. Learnings from piloting the tool in Bangladesh, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, and Mozambique are shared. Providing a standardized methodology for costing ECD is an important contribution to the field and has the potential to improve both the volume and effectiveness of ECD financing...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791726/building-capacity-in-health-and-education-systems-to-deliver-interventions-that-strengthen-early-child-development
#16
Milagros Nores, Camila Fernandez
Building capacity within health and education systems of low- and middle-income countries in order to deliver high-quality early childhood services requires coordinated efforts across sectors, effective governance, sufficient funding, an adequate workforce, reliable data systems, and continuous monitoring, evaluation, and improvement cycles; it also requires partnerships with the private sector, communities, and parents. In addition, building capacity requires leadership, innovation of strategies to fit into existing structures, evidence-based intervention models, and effective partnerships that help make interventions more culturally relevant, help finance them, and help create institutional long-term support and sustainability for them...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791725/measuring-the-implementation-of-early-childhood-development-programs
#17
REVIEW
Frances E Aboud, Elizabeth L Prado
In this paper we describe ways to measure variables of interest when evaluating the implementation of a program to improve early childhood development (ECD). The variables apply to programs delivered to parents in group sessions and home or clinic visits, as well as in early group care for children. Measurements for four categories of variables are included: training and assessment of delivery agents and supervisors; program features such as quality of delivery, reach, and dosage; recipients' acceptance and enactment; and stakeholders' engagement...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791184/expert-exchange-workgroup-on-children-aged-5-and-younger-with-severe-obesity-a-narrative-review-of-medical-and-genetic-risk-factors
#18
Nazrat Mirza, Thao-Ly Phan, June Tester, Angela Fals, Cristina Fernandez, George Datto, Elizabeth Estrada, Ihuoma Eneli
Severe obesity defined as an age- and gender-specific body mass index ≥120% of the 95th percentile in children younger than 5 years is well recognized as a significant challenge for prevention and treatment. This article provides an overview of the prevalence, classification of obesity severity, patterns of weight gain trajectory, medical and genetic risk factors, and comorbid disorders among young children with an emphasis on severe obesity. Studies suggest rapid weight gain trajectory in infancy, maternal smoking, maternal gestational diabetes, and genetic conditions are associated with an increased risk for severe obesity in early childhood...
May 23, 2018: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790870/genetic-disorders-and-mortality-in-infancy-and-early-childhood-delayed-diagnoses-and-missed-opportunities
#19
Monica H Wojcik, Talia S Schwartz, Inbar Yamin, Heather L Edward, Casie A Genetti, Meghan C Towne, Pankaj B Agrawal
PurposeInfants admitted to a level IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) who do not survive early childhood are a population that is probably enriched for rare genetic disease; we therefore characterized their genetic diagnostic evaluation.MethodsThis is a retrospective analysis of infants admitted to our NICU between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2015 who were deceased at the time of records review, with age at death less than 5 years.ResultsA total of 2,670 infants were admitted; 170 later died. One hundred six of 170 (62%) had an evaluation for a genetic or metabolic disorder...
April 12, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790782/prevalence-and-progression-of-early-childhood-caries-in-nis-serbia
#20
M Igic, R Obradovic, G Filipovic
AIM: Early childhood caries (ECC) entails the presence of one or more decayed, missing, or filled teeth in children aged up to 71 months. Our aim is to present the prevalence and progression of ECC in Nis, Serbia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed at the Clinic of Dentistry in Nis;, involving 250 children aged 3 to 6 years. The prevalence of caries was presented using the dmf index. Depending on the progression, tooth decay was reported as dI (superficial decay), dII (deep decay), dp (pulpitis), dg (dental gangrene), and dx (chronic apical periodontitis)...
June 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
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