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brain rewire

Ping Wang, Dejian Zhao, Shira Rockowitz, Deyou Zheng
Neural and brain development in human and other mammalian species are largely similar, but distinct features exist at the levels of macrostructure and underlying genetic control. Comparative studies of epigenetic regulation and transcription factor (TF) binding in humans, chimpanzees, rodents, and other species have found large differences in gene regulatory networks. A recent analysis of the cistromes of REST/NRSF, a critical transcriptional regulator for the nervous system, demonstrated that REST binding to syntenic genomic regions (i...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
M Vouri, D R Croucher, S P Kennedy, Q An, G J Pilkington, S Hafizi
Acquired resistance to conventional and targeted therapies is becoming a major hindrance in cancer management. It is increasingly clear that cancer cells are able to evolve and rewire canonical signalling pathways to their advantage, thus evading cell death and promoting cell invasion. The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) has been shown to modulate acquired resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies in both breast and lung cancers. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative and invasive form of brain tumour with little response to therapy...
October 24, 2016: Oncogenesis
Min-Hee Lee, Youngjin Lee, Yoon Ho Hwang, Areum Min, Bong Soo Han, Dong Youn Kim
Sleep restriction (SR) is defined as the condition of not having enough sleep, and it can cause brain injury. In this study, we examined the impact of SR on the structural brain network. We obtained diffusion MRI (dMRI) data for the SR group of fourteen participants who got less than or equal to 5.5 h of sleep for the last 1 month and normal group of the same number of participants who got 7 h of sleep. We constructed the structural brain networks from the dMRI data and analyzed them using graph theoretical approaches...
September 30, 2016: Neuroreport
Marco Bacigaluppi, Gianluca Luigi Russo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Silvia Rossi, Stefano Sandrone, Erica Butti, Roberta De Ceglia, Andrea Bergamaschi, Caterina Motta, Mattia Gallizioli, Valeria Studer, Emanuela Colombo, Cinthia Farina, Giancarlo Comi, Letterio Salvatore Politi, Luca Muzio, Claudia Villani, Roberto William Invernizzi, Dirk Matthias Hermann, Diego Centonze, Gianvito Martino
: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, but effective therapies are currently widely lacking. Recovery from stroke is very much dependent on the possibility to develop treatments able to both halt the neurodegenerative process as well as to foster adaptive tissue plasticity. Here we show that ischemic mice treated with neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation had on neurophysiological analysis, early after treatment, reduced presynaptic release of glutamate within the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST), and an enhanced NMDA-mediated excitatory transmission in the contralesional CST...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kimberlei A Richardson, Allison K Hester, Gabrielle L McLemore
As more states and countries legalize medical and/or adult recreational marijuana use, the incidences of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure (PCE) will likely increase. While young people increasingly view marijuana as innocuous, marijuana preparations have been growing in potency in recent years, potentially creating global clinical, public health, and workforce concerns. Unlike fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, there is no phenotypic syndrome associated with PCE. There is also no preponderance of evidence that PCE causes lifelong cognitive, behavioral, or functional abnormalities, and/or susceptibility to subsequent addiction...
August 24, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Archana Venkataraman, Daniel Y-J Yang, Nicha Dvornek, Lawrence H Staib, James S Duncan, Kevin A Pelphrey, Pamela Ventola
Behavioral interventions for autism have gained prominence in recent years; however, the neural-systems-level targets of these interventions remain poorly understood. We use a novel Bayesian framework to extract network-based differences before and after a 16-week pivotal response treatment (PRT) regimen. Our results suggest that the functional changes induced by PRT localize to the posterior cingulate and are marked by a shift in connectivity from the orbitofrontal cortex to the occipital-temporal cortex. Our results illuminate a potential PRT-induced learning mechanism, whereby the neural circuits involved during social perception shift from sensory and attentional systems to higher-level object and face processing areas...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
Sadaf Usmani, Emily Rose Aurand, Manuela Medelin, Alessandra Fabbro, Denis Scaini, Jummi Laishram, Federica B Rosselli, Alessio Ansuini, Davide Zoccolan, Manuela Scarselli, Maurizio De Crescenzi, Susanna Bosi, Maurizio Prato, Laura Ballerini
In modern neuroscience, significant progress in developing structural scaffolds integrated with the brain is provided by the increasing use of nanomaterials. We show that a multiwalled carbon nanotube self-standing framework, consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) mesh of interconnected, conductive, pure carbon nanotubes, can guide the formation of neural webs in vitro where the spontaneous regrowth of neurite bundles is molded into a dense random net. This morphology of the fiber regrowth shaped by the 3D structure supports the successful reconnection of segregated spinal cord segments...
July 2016: Science Advances
Geoff Appelboom, Alexandre Detappe, Melissa LoPresti, Sijumon Kunjachan, Stefan Mitrasinovic, Serge Goldman, Steve D Chang, Olivier Tillement
Drug delivery in the CNS is limited by endothelial tight junctions forming the impermeable blood-brain barrier. The development of new treatment paradigms has previously been hampered by the restrictiveness of the blood-brain barrier to systemically administered therapeutics. With recent advances in stereotactic localization and noninvasive imaging, we have honed the ability to modulate, ablate, and rewire millimetric brain structures to precisely permeate the impregnable barrier. The wide range of focused radiations offers endless possibilities to disrupt endothelial permeability with different patterns and intensity following 3-dimensional coordinates offering a new world of possibilities to access the CNS, as well as to target therapies...
December 2016: Neuro-oncology
Louise Adermark, Julia Morud, Amir Lotfi, Klara Danielsson, Lisa Ulenius, Bo Söderpalm, Mia Ericson
Drug addiction has been conceptualized as maladaptive recruitment of integrative circuits coursing through the striatum, facilitating drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. The aim of this study was to define temporal neuroadaptations in striatal subregions initiated by 3 weeks of intermittent nicotine exposure followed by protracted abstinence. Enhanced rearing activity was assessed in motor activity boxes as a measurement of behavioral change induced by nicotine (0.36 mg/kg), whereas electrophysiological field potential recordings were performed to evaluate treatment effects on neuronal activity...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dechao Tian, Quanquan Gu, Jian Ma
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are highly dynamic among different tissue types. Identifying tissue-specific gene regulation is critically important to understand gene function in a particular cellular context. Graphical models have been used to estimate GRN from gene expression data to distinguish direct interactions from indirect associations. However, most existing methods estimate GRN for a specific cell/tissue type or in a tissue-naive way, or do not specifically focus on network rewiring between different tissues...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Patrick Reeson, Andrew Jeffery, Craig E Brown
Type 1 diabetes is known to cause circulatory problems in the eyes, heart, and limbs, and the brain is no exception. Because of the insidious effects of diabetes on brain circulation, patients with diabetes are two to four times more likely to have an ischemic stroke and are less likely to regain functions that are lost. To provide a more mechanistic understanding of this clinically significant problem, imaging studies have focused on how stroke affects neural and vascular networks in experimental models of type 1 diabetes...
July 2016: Diabetes
Soo Young Kim, Brenda E Porter, Alon Friedman, Daniela Kaufer
Head trauma and vascular injuries are known risk factors for acquired epilepsy. The sequence of events that lead from the initial injury to the development of epilepsy involves complex plastic changes and circuit rewiring. In-depth, comprehensive understanding of the epileptogenic process is critical for the identification of disease-modifying targets. Here we review the complex interactions of cellular and extracellular components that may promote epileptogenesis, with an emphasis on the role of astrocytes...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
C Ron Yu, Yunming Wu
The olfactory sensory neurons are the only neurons in the mammalian nervous system that not only regenerate naturally and in response to injury, but also project to specific targets in the brain. The stem cells in the olfactory epithelium commit to both neuronal and non-neuronal lineages depending on the environmental conditions. They provide a continuous supply of new neurons. A newly generated neuron must express a specific odorant receptor gene and project to a central target consist of axons expressing the same receptor type...
January 2017: Experimental Neurology
Heather C Brenhouse, Jaclyn M Schwarz
The brain is increasingly appreciated to be a constantly rewired organ that yields age-specific behaviors and responses to the environment. Adolescence in particular is a unique period characterized by continued brain maturation, superimposed with transient needs of the organism to traverse a leap from parental dependence to independence. Here we describe how these needs require immune maturation, as well as brain maturation. Our immune system, which protects us from pathogens and regulates inflammation, is in constant communication with our nervous system...
November 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Τao Zhu, Chen Liang, Dongdong Li, Miaomiao Tian, Sanxiong Liu, Guanjun Gao, Ji-Song Guan
Activity-dependent transcription is critical for the regulation of long-term synaptic plasticity and plastic rewiring in the brain. Here, we report that the transcription of neurexin1α (nrxn1α), a presynaptic adhesion molecule for synaptic formation, is regulated by transient neuronal activation. We showed that 10 minutes of firing at 50 Hz in neurons repressed the expression of nrxn1α for 24 hours in a primary cortical neuron culture through a transcriptional repression mechanism. By performing a screening assay using a synthetic zinc finger protein (ZFP) to pull down the proteins enriched near the nrxn1α promoter region in vivo, we identified that Ash1L, a histone methyltransferase, is enriched in the nrxn1α promoter...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jan R Detrez, Peter Verstraelen, Titia Gebuis, Marlies Verschuuren, Jacobine Kuijlaars, Xavier Langlois, Rony Nuydens, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Winnok H De Vos
Brain function relies on an intricate network of highly dynamic neuronal connections that rewires dramatically under the impulse of various external cues and pathological conditions. Amongst the neuronal structures that show morphological plasticity are neurites, synapses, dendritic spines and even nuclei. This structural remodelling is directly connected with functional changes such as intercellular communication and the associated calcium bursting behaviour. In vitro cultured neuronal networks are valuable models for studying these morpho-functional changes...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Jing Liu, Liping Pan, Xuanhong Cheng, Yevgeny Berdichevsky
Living slices of brain tissue are widely used to model brain processes in vitro. In addition to basic neurophysiology studies, brain slices are also extensively used for pharmacology, toxicology, and drug discovery research. In these experiments, high parallelism and throughput are critical. Capability to conduct long-term electrical recording experiments may also be necessary to address disease processes that require protein synthesis and neural circuit rewiring. We developed a novel perfused drop microfluidic device for use with long term cultures of brain slices (organotypic cultures)...
June 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
David Verbich, Denise Becker, Andreas Vlachos, Peter Mundel, Thomas Deller, R Anne McKinney
Neurological diseases associated with neuronal death are also accompanied by axonal denervation of connected brain regions. In these areas, denervation leads to a decrease in afferent drive, which may in turn trigger active central nervous system (CNS) circuitry rearrangement. This rewiring process is important therapeutically, since it can partially recover functions and can be further enhanced using modern rehabilitation strategies. Nevertheless, the cellular mechanisms of brain rewiring are not fully understood...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
João V Sá, Susanne Kleiderman, Catarina Brito, Ursula Sonnewald, Marcel Leist, Ana P Teixeira, Paula M Alves
Proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) have a crucial role to ensure neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the mammalian brain throughout life. As there is growing evidence for the significance of metabolism in regulating cell fate, knowledge on the metabolic programs in NSCs and how they evolve during differentiation into somatic cells may provide novel therapeutic approaches to address brain diseases. In this work, we applied a quantitative analysis to assess how the central carbon metabolism evolves upon differentiation of NSCs into astrocytes...
April 12, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Budhachandra S Khundrakpam, John D Lewis, Lu Zhao, François Chouinard-Decorte, Alan C Evans
The developing human brain undergoes an astonishing sequence of events that continuously shape the structural and functional brain connectivity. Distinct regional variations in the timelines of maturational events (synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning) occurring at the synaptic level are reflected in brain measures at macroscopic resolution (cortical thickness and gray matter density). Interestingly, the observed brain changes coincide with cognitive milestones suggesting that the changing scaffold of brain circuits may subserve cognitive development...
July 1, 2016: NeuroImage
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