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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696150/a-dynamic-connectome-supports-the-emergence-of-stable-computational-function-of-neural-circuits-through-reward-based-learning
#1
David Kappel, Robert Legenstein, Stefan Habenschuss, Michael Hsieh, Wolfgang Maass
Synaptic connections between neurons in the brain are dynamic because of continuously ongoing spine dynamics, axonal sprouting, and other processes. In fact, it was recently shown that the spontaneous synapse-autonomous component of spine dynamics is at least as large as the component that depends on the history of pre- and postsynaptic neural activity. These data are inconsistent with common models for network plasticity and raise the following questions: how can neural circuits maintain a stable computational function in spite of these continuously ongoing processes, and what could be functional uses of these ongoing processes? Here, we present a rigorous theoretical framework for these seemingly stochastic spine dynamics and rewiring processes in the context of reward-based learning tasks...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694921/socio-sexual-processing-in-cortical-circuits
#2
REVIEW
Michael Brecht, Constanze Lenschow, Rajnish P Rao
How does social and sexual information processing map onto cortical circuits? Addressing this question has been difficult, because of a lack of circuit-oriented social neuroscience and an absence of measurements from interacting brains. Recent work showed social information is already differentially processed in the primary sensory cortices. Converging evidence suggests that prefrontal areas contribute to social interaction processing and determining social hierarchies. In social interactions, we identify gender in split seconds, but after centuries of anatomy we are still unable to distinguish male and female cortices...
April 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676536/core-networks-and-their-reconfiguration-patterns-across-cognitive-loads
#3
Nianming Zuo, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Jin Li, Tianzi Jiang
Different cognitively demanding tasks recruit globally distributed but functionally specific networks. However, the configuration of core networks and their reconfiguration patterns across cognitive loads remain unclear, as does whether these patterns are indicators for the performance of cognitive tasks. In this study, we analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data of a large cohort of 448 subjects, acquired with the brain at resting state and executing N-back working memory (WM) tasks. We discriminated core networks by functional interaction strength and connection flexibility...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540321/rewiring-the-connectome-evidence-and-effects
#4
REVIEW
Sophie H Bennett, Alastair J Kirby, Gerald T Finnerty
Neuronal connections form the physical basis for communication in the brain. Recently, there has been much interest in mapping the "connectome" to understand how brain structure gives rise to brain function, and ultimately, to behaviour. These attempts to map the connectome have largely assumed that connections are stable once formed. Recent studies, however, indicate that connections in mammalian brains may undergo rewiring during learning and experience-dependent plasticity. This suggests that the connectome is more dynamic than previously thought...
May 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498293/functional-connectivity-changes-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-resting-state-study
#5
Jessika Nystedt, Peter Mannfolk, Andreas Jönsen, Anders Bengtsson, Petra Nilsson, Pia C Sundgren, Tor O Strandberg
To investigate resting-state functional connectivity of lupus patients and associated subgroups according to the ACR NPSLE case definitions (ACR ad hoc). In addition, we investigated whether or not the observed alterations correlated with disease duration, the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2k), and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinical/ACR organ damage index (SDI)-scores. Anatomical 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI were performed in 61 female lupus patients (mean age = 37...
April 5, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420933/precisely-timed-nicotinic-activation-drives-sst-inhibition-in-neocortical-circuits
#6
Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Jean-Sebastien Jouhanneau, Stephanie E Myal, James F A Poulet, Alison L Barth
Sleep, waking, locomotion, and attention are associated with cell-type-specific changes in neocortical activity. The effect of brain state on circuit output requires understanding of how neuromodulators influence specific neuronal classes and their synapses, with normal patterns of neuromodulator release from endogenous sources. We investigated the state-dependent modulation of a ubiquitous feedforward inhibitory motif in mouse sensory cortex, local pyramidal (Pyr) inputs onto somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413532/adolescent-pruning-and-stabilization-of-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-do-not-depend-on-gonadal-hormones
#7
Josiah R Boivin, David J Piekarski, A Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit 'rewiring'. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323291/neurexin-controls-plasticity-of-a-mature-sexually-dimorphic-neuron
#8
Michael P Hart, Oliver Hobert
During development and adulthood, brain plasticity is evident at several levels, from synaptic structure and function to the outgrowth of dendrites and axons. Whether and how sex impinges on neuronal plasticity is poorly understood. Here we show that the sex-shared GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing DVB neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans displays experience-dependent and sexually dimorphic morphological plasticity, characterized by the stochastic and dynamic addition of multiple neurites in adult males. These added neurites enable synaptic rewiring of the DVB neuron and instruct a functional switch of the neuron that directly modifies a step of male mating behaviour...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234276/functional-reintegration-of-sensory-neurons-and-transitional-dendritic-reduction-of-mitral-tufted-cells-during-injury-induced-recovery-of-the-larval-xenopus-olfactory-circuit
#9
Sara J Hawkins, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Offner, Katarina Dittrich, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini
Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231140/up-regulation-of-dmn-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-via-network-based-cognitive-training
#10
Matteo De Marco, Francesca Meneghello, Cristina Pilosio, Jessica Rigon, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Previous work designed a network-based protocol of cognitive training. This programme exploits a mechanism of induced task-oriented co-activation of multiple regions that are part of the default mode network (DMN), to induce functional rewiring and increased functional connectivity within this network. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the programme was administered to patients with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment to test its effects in a clinical sample...
December 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089981/how-the-brain-can-rewire-itself-after-an-injury-the-lesson-from-hemispherectomy
#11
Luca Sebastianelli, Leopold Saltuari, Raffaele Nardone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030608/self-organisation-of-small-world-networks-by-adaptive-rewiring-in-response-to-graph-diffusion
#12
Nicholas Jarman, Erik Steur, Chris Trengove, Ivan Y Tyukin, Cees van Leeuwen
Complex networks emerging in natural and human-made systems tend to assume small-world structure. Is there a common mechanism underlying their self-organisation? Our computational simulations show that network diffusion (traffic flow or information transfer) steers network evolution towards emergence of complex network structures. The emergence is effectuated through adaptive rewiring: progressive adaptation of structure to use, creating short-cuts where network diffusion is intensive while annihilating underused connections...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025926/enhancing-spinal-plasticity-amplifies-the-benefits-of-rehabilitative-training-and-improves-recovery-from-stroke
#13
Anna M Wiersma, Karim Fouad, Ian R Winship
The limited recovery that occurs following stroke happens almost entirely in the first weeks postinjury. Moreover, the efficacy of rehabilitative training is limited beyond this narrow time frame. Sprouting of spared corticospinal tract axons in the contralesional spinal cord makes a significant contribution to sensorimotor recovery, but this structural plasticity is also limited to the first few weeks after stroke. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inducing plasticity in the spinal cord during chronic stroke could improve recovery from persistent sensorimotor impairment...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016926/activation-of-wee1-confers-resistance-to-pi3k-inhibition-in-glioblastoma
#14
Shaofang Wu, Shuzhen Wang, Feng Gao, Luyuan Li, Siyuan Zheng, W K Alfred Yung, Dimpy Koul
Background: Oncogenic activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling plays a pivotal role in the development of glioblastoma (GBM). However, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K has so far not been therapeutically successful due to adaptive resistance through a rapid rewiring of cancer cell signaling. Here we identified that WEE1 is activated after transient exposure to PI3K inhibition and confers resistance to PI3K inhibition in GBM. Methods: Patient-derived glioma-initiating cells and established GBM cells were treated with PI3K inhibitor or WEE1 inhibitor alone or in combination, and cell proliferation was evaluated by CellTiter-Blue assay...
January 10, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981586/gabapentin-prevents-progressive-increases-in-excitatory-connectivity-and-epileptogenesis-following-neocortical-trauma
#15
D K Takahashi, Sha Jin, D A Prince
Neocortical injury initiates a cascade of events, some of which result in maladaptive epileptogenic reorganization of surviving neural circuits. Research focused on molecular and organizational changes that occur following trauma may reveal processes that underlie human post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), a common and unfortunate consequence of traumatic brain injury. The latency between injury and development of PTE provides an opportunity for prophylactic intervention, once the key underlying mechanisms are understood...
June 26, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968778/neuronal-expression-of-opioid-gene-is-controlled-by-dual-epigenetic-and-transcriptional-mechanism-in-human-brain
#16
Igor Bazov, Daniil Sarkisyan, Olga Kononenko, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Mumtaz Malik Taqi, Lada Stålhandske, Dineke S Verbeek, Jan Mulder, Grazyna Rajkowska, Donna Sheedy, Jillian Kril, Xueguang Sun, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Tatiana Yakovleva, Georgy Bakalkin
Molecular mechanisms that define patterns of neuropeptide expression are essential for the formation and rewiring of neural circuits. The prodynorphin gene (PDYN) gives rise to dynorphin opioid peptides mediating depression and substance dependence. We here demonstrated that PDYN is expressed in neurons in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and identified neuronal differentially methylated region in PDYN locus framed by CCCTC-binding factor binding sites. A short, nucleosome size human-specific promoter CpG island (CGI), a core of this region may serve as a regulatory module, which is hypomethylated in neurons, enriched in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, and targeted by USF2, a methylation-sensitive E-box transcription factor (TF)...
July 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916806/rewiring-of-neuronal-networks-during-synaptic-silencing
#17
Jana Katharina Wrosch, Vicky von Einem, Katharina Breininger, Marc Dahlmanns, Andreas Maier, Johannes Kornhuber, Teja Wolfgang Groemer
Analyzing the connectivity of neuronal networks, based on functional brain imaging data, has yielded new insight into brain circuitry, bringing functional and effective networks into the focus of interest for understanding complex neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the analysis of network changes, based on the activity of individual neurons, is hindered by the lack of suitable meaningful and reproducible methodologies. Here, we used calcium imaging, statistical spike time analysis and a powerful classification model to reconstruct effective networks of primary rat hippocampal neurons in vitro...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761096/electrophysiological-evidence-for-pre-attention-information-processing-improvement-in-patients-with-central-hemiplegic-after-peripheral-nerve-rewiring-a-pilot-study
#18
Tie Li, Xu-Yun Hua, Mou-Xiong Zheng, Yu-Lan Zhu, Yan-Qun Qiu, Yun-Dong Shen, Jian-Guang Xu, Yu-Dong Gu, Wen-Dong Xu
Central neurologic injury (CNI) causes dysfunctions not only in limbs but also in cognitive ability. We applied a novel peripheral nerve rewiring (PNR) surgical procedure to restore limb function. Here, we conducted a prospective study to develop estimates for the extent of preattentive processes to cognitive function changes in CNI patients after PNR. Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) was measured in CNI patients who received the PNR surgery plus conventional rehabilitation treatment. During the 2-year follow-up, the MMN was enhanced with increased amplitude in the PNR plus rehabilitation group compared to the rehabilitation-only group as the experiment progressed, and progressive improvement in behavioural examination tests was also observed...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743017/development-pubertal-hormones-meet-the-adolescent-brain
#19
Cheryl L Sisk
At the onset of puberty, ovarian hormones increase inhibitory tone in the prefrontal cortex. Inhibitory maturation is a hallmark of the initiation of developmental windows of neural plasticity; pubertal hormones may trigger the opening of an adolescent critical period for experience-dependent rewiring of circuits underlying executive function.
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663547/explicit-instructions-and-consolidation-promote-rewiring-of-automatic-behaviors-in-the-human-mind
#20
Emese Szegedi-Hallgató, Karolina Janacsek, Teodóra Vékony, Lia Andrea Tasi, Leila Kerepes, Emőke Adrienn Hompoth, Anna Bálint, Dezső Németh
One major challenge in human behavior and brain sciences is to understand how we can rewire already existing perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills or habits. Here we aimed to characterize one aspect of rewiring, namely, how we can update our knowledge of sequential/statistical regularities when they change. The dynamics of rewiring was explored from learning to consolidation using a unique experimental design which is suitable to capture the effect of implicit and explicit processing and the proactive and retroactive interference...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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