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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761096/electrophysiological-evidence-for-pre-attention-information-processing-improvement-in-patients-with-central-hemiplegic-after-peripheral-nerve-rewiring-a-pilot-study
#1
Tie Li, Xu-Yun Hua, Mou-Xiong Zheng, Yu-Lan Zhu, Yan-Qun Qiu, Yun-Dong Shen, Jian-Guang Xu, Yu-Dong Gu, Wen-Dong Xu
Central neurologic injury (CNI) causes dysfunctions not only in limbs but also in cognitive ability. We applied a novel peripheral nerve rewiring (PNR) surgical procedure to restore limb function. Here, we conducted a prospective study to develop estimates for the extent of preattentive processes to cognitive function changes in CNI patients after PNR. Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) was measured in CNI patients who received the PNR surgery plus conventional rehabilitation treatment. During the 2-year follow-up, the MMN was enhanced with increased amplitude in the PNR plus rehabilitation group compared to the rehabilitation-only group as the experiment progressed, and progressive improvement in behavioural examination tests was also observed...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743017/development-pubertal-hormones-meet-the-adolescent-brain
#2
Cheryl L Sisk
At the onset of puberty, ovarian hormones increase inhibitory tone in the prefrontal cortex. Inhibitory maturation is a hallmark of the initiation of developmental windows of neural plasticity; pubertal hormones may trigger the opening of an adolescent critical period for experience-dependent rewiring of circuits underlying executive function.
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663547/explicit-instructions-and-consolidation-promote-rewiring-of-automatic-behaviors-in-the-human-mind
#3
Emese Szegedi-Hallgató, Karolina Janacsek, Teodóra Vékony, Lia Andrea Tasi, Leila Kerepes, Emőke Adrienn Hompoth, Anna Bálint, Dezső Németh
One major challenge in human behavior and brain sciences is to understand how we can rewire already existing perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills or habits. Here we aimed to characterize one aspect of rewiring, namely, how we can update our knowledge of sequential/statistical regularities when they change. The dynamics of rewiring was explored from learning to consolidation using a unique experimental design which is suitable to capture the effect of implicit and explicit processing and the proactive and retroactive interference...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654038/rewiring-neuronal-circuits-a-new-method-for-fast-neurite-extension-and-functional-neuronal-connection
#4
Margaret H Magdesian, Madeleine Anthonisen, G Monserratt Lopez-Ayon, Xue Ying Chua, Matthew Rigby, Peter Grütter
Brain and spinal cord injury may lead to permanent disability and death because it is still not possible to regenerate neurons over long distances and accurately reconnect them with an appropriate target. Here a procedure is described to rapidly initiate, elongate, and precisely connect new functional neuronal circuits over long distances. The extension rates achieved reach over 1.2 mm/h, 30-60 times faster than the in vivo rates of the fastest growing axons from the peripheral nervous system (0.02 to 0.04 mm/h)(28) and 10 times faster than previously reported for the same neuronal type at an earlier stage of development(4)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648457/enriched-environment-promotes-remyelination-and-motor-function-recovery-through-modulation-of-hdac1-2-in-mice
#5
Jian Zheng, Weijun Ding, Baoming Li, Youjun Yang
Brain structure and functions are significantly affected by enriched environment (EE). Rodent and rhesus monkeys raised in EE will increase myelination in development, and these increase correlate with improved cognitive functions on learning and memory. However, whether and how EE influences remyelination in the adult remained undefined. Here, we used a cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model demonstrate that EE significantly enhances remyelination. This EE-regulated remyelination is associated with improved motor skills...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643802/optogenetic-rewiring-of-thalamocortical-circuits-to-restore-function-in-the-stroke-injured-brain
#6
Kelly A Tennant, Stephanie L Taylor, Emily R White, Craig E Brown
To regain sensorimotor functions after stroke, surviving neural circuits must reorganize and form new connections. Although the thalamus is critical for processing and relaying sensory information to the cortex, little is known about how stroke affects the structure and function of these connections, or whether a therapeutic approach targeting these circuits can improve recovery. Here we reveal with in vivo calcium imaging that stroke in somatosensory cortex dampens the excitability of surviving thalamocortical circuits...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620275/genome-wide-target-analyses-of-otx2-homeoprotein-in-postnatal-cortex
#7
Akiko Sakai, Ryuichiro Nakato, Yiwei Ling, Xubin Hou, Norikazu Hara, Tomoya Iijima, Yuchio Yanagawa, Ryozo Kuwano, Shujiro Okuda, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Sayaka Sugiyama
Juvenile brain has a unique time window, or critical period, in which neuronal circuits are remodeled by experience. Mounting evidence indicates the importance of neuronal circuit rewiring in various neurodevelopmental disorders of human cognition. We previously showed that Otx2 homeoprotein, essential for brain formation, is recaptured during postnatal maturation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV cells) to activate the critical period in mouse visual cortex. Cortical Otx2 is the only interneuron-enriched transcription factor known to regulate the critical period, but its downstream targets remain unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520454/acupuncture-rewires-the-brain-%C3%A2-with-lasting-effects
#8
Richard E Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457596/homeostatic-plasticity-shapes-cell-type-specific-wiring-in-the-retina
#9
Nai-Wen Tien, Florentina Soto, Daniel Kerschensteiner
Convergent input from different presynaptic partners shapes the responses of postsynaptic neurons. Whether developing postsynaptic neurons establish connections with each presynaptic partner independently or balance inputs to attain specific responses is unclear. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) receive convergent input from bipolar cell types with different contrast responses and temporal tuning. Here, using optogenetic activation and pharmacogenetic silencing, we found that type 6 bipolar (B6) cells dominate excitatory input to ONα-RGCs...
May 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452683/mechanisms-and-pathways-of-toxoplasma-gondii-transepithelial-migration
#10
Emily J Jones, Tamas Korcsmaros, Simon R Carding
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasite and a prevalent food-borne parasitic pathogen. Infection of the host occurs principally through oral consumption of contaminated food and water with the gastrointestinal tract being the primary route for entry into the host. To promote infection, T. gondii has evolved highly specialized strategies for rapid traversal of the single cell thick intestinal epithelial barrier. Parasite transmigration via the paracellular pathway between adjacent cells enables parasite dissemination to secondary sites of infection where chronic infection of muscle and brain tissue is established...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445807/rewiring-brain-circuits-to-block-cataplexy-in-murine-models-of-narcolepsy
#11
REVIEW
Meng Liu, Carlos Blanco-Centurion, Priyattam J Shiromani
Narcolepsy was first identified almost 130 years ago, but it was only 15 years ago that it was identified as a neurodegenerative disease linked to a loss of orexin neurons in the brain. It is unclear what causes the orexin neurons to die, but our strategy has been to place the gene for orexin into surrogate neurons in the validated mouse models of narcolepsy, and test whether it can block narcolepsy symptoms, such as cataplexy. In both the orexin knockout and the orexin-ataxin-3 mouse models of narcolepsy we have found that cataplexy can be blocked if the surrogate neurons are part of the circuit responsible for cataplexy...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428423/fructose-driven-glycolysis-supports-anoxia-resistance-in-the-naked-mole-rat
#12
Thomas J Park, Jane Reznick, Bethany L Peterson, Gregory Blass, Damir Omerbašić, Nigel C Bennett, P Henning J L Kuich, Christin Zasada, Brigitte M Browe, Wiebke Hamann, Daniel T Applegate, Michael H Radke, Tetiana Kosten, Heike Lutermann, Victoria Gavaghan, Ole Eigenbrod, Valérie Bégay, Vince G Amoroso, Vidya Govind, Richard D Minshall, Ewan St J Smith, John Larson, Michael Gotthardt, Stefan Kempa, Gary R Lewin
The African naked mole-rat's (Heterocephalus glaber) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414105/functional-reorganization-after-hemispherectomy-in-humans-and-animal-models-what-can-we-learn-about-the-brain-s-resilience-to-extensive-unilateral-lesions
#13
REVIEW
Luca Sebastianelli, Viviana Versace, Alexandra Taylor, Francesco Brigo, Wolfgang Nothdurfter, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Raffaele Nardone
Hemispherectomy (HS) is an effective surgical procedure aimed at managing otherwise intractable epilepsy in cases of diffuse unihemispheric pathologies. Neurological recovery in subjects treated with HS is not limited to seizure reduction, rather, sensory-motor and behavioral improvement is often observed. This outcome highlights the considerable capability of the brain to react to such an extensive lesion, by functionally reorganizing and rewiring the cerebral cortex, especially early in life. In this narrative review, we summarize the animal studies as well as the human neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies dealing with the reorganizational processes that occur after HS...
April 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396882/afferent-fiber-remodeling-in-the-somatosensory-thalamus-of-mice-as-a-neural-basis-of-somatotopic-reorganization-in-the-brain-and-ectopic-mechanical-hypersensitivity-after-peripheral-sensory-nerve-injury
#14
Yuichi Takeuchi, Hironobu Osaki, Yuki Yagasaki, Yoko Katayama, Mariko Miyata
Plastic changes in the CNS in response to peripheral sensory nerve injury are a series of complex processes, ranging from local circuit remodeling to somatotopic reorganization. However, the link between circuit remodeling and somatotopic reorganization remains unclear. We have previously reported that transection of the primary whisker sensory nerve causes the abnormal rewiring of lemniscal fibers (sensory afferents) on a neuron in the mouse whisker sensory thalamus (V2 VPM). In the present study, using transgenic mice whose lemniscal fibers originate from the whisker sensory principle trigeminal nucleus (PrV2) are specifically labeled, we identified that the transection induced retraction of PrV2-originating lemniscal fibers and invasion of those not originating from PrV2 in the V2 VPM...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346453/activity-induced-histone-modifications-govern-neurexin-1-mrna-splicing-and-memory-preservation
#15
Xinlu Ding, Sanxiong Liu, Miaomiao Tian, Wenhao Zhang, Tao Zhu, Dongdong Li, Jiawei Wu, HaiTeng Deng, Yichang Jia, Wei Xie, Hong Xie, Ji-Song Guan
Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the formation, consolidation and reconsolidation of memories. However, the signaling path from neuronal activation to epigenetic modifications within the memory-related brain circuit remains unknown. We report that learning induces long-lasting histone modifications in hippocampal memory-activated neurons to regulate memory stability. Neuronal activity triggers a late-onset shift in Nrxn1 splice isoform choice at splicing site 4 by accumulating a repressive histone marker, H3K9me3, to modulate the splicing process...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334999/rewiring-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-with-acupuncture
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yumi Maeda, Hyungjun Kim, Norman Kettner, Jieun Kim, Stephen Cina, Cristina Malatesta, Jessica Gerber, Claire McManus, Rebecca Ong-Sutherland, Pia Mezzacappa, Alexandra Libby, Ishtiaq Mawla, Leslie R Morse, Ted J Kaptchuk, Joseph Audette, Vitaly Napadow
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting the median nerve at the wrist. Acupuncture is a minimally-invasive and conservative therapeutic option, and while rooted in a complex practice ritual, acupuncture overlaps significantly with many conventional peripherally-focused neuromodulatory therapies. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms by which acupuncture impacts accepted subjective/psychological and objective/physiological outcomes are not well understood. Eligible patients (n = 80, 65 female, age: 49...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254829/inhibition-of-the-mitochondrial-pyruvate-carrier-protects-from-excitotoxic-neuronal-death
#17
Ajit S Divakaruni, Martina Wallace, Caodu Buren, Kelly Martyniuk, Alexander Y Andreyev, Edward Li, Jerel A Fields, Thekla Cordes, Ian J Reynolds, Brenda L Bloodgood, Lynn A Raymond, Christian M Metallo, Anne N Murphy
Glutamate is the dominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, but under conditions of metabolic stress it can accumulate to excitotoxic levels. Although pharmacologic modulation of excitatory amino acid receptors is well studied, minimal consideration has been given to targeting mitochondrial glutamate metabolism to control neurotransmitter levels. Here we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) protects primary cortical neurons from excitotoxic death. Reductions in mitochondrial pyruvate uptake do not compromise cellular energy metabolism, suggesting neuronal metabolic flexibility...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185062/decoupling-between-the-hand-territory-and-the-default-mode-network-after-bilateral-arm-transplantation-four-year-follow-up-case-study
#18
Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Jörn Diedrichsen, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Martin Iglesias
Several studies have suggested both a local and network reorganization of the sensorimotor system following amputation. Transplantation of a new limb results in a new shifting of cortical activity in the local territory of the transplanted limb. However, there is a lack of information about the reversibility of the abnormalities at the network level. The objective of this study was to characterize the functional connectivity changes between the cortical territory of the new hand and two intrinsic network of interest: the sensorimotor network (SMN) and the default mode network (DMN) of one patient whom received bilateral forearm transplants...
February 9, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095198/effects-of-small-world-rewiring-probability-and-noisy-synaptic-conductivity-on-slow-waves-cortical-network
#19
Ramazan Tekin, Mehmet Emin Tagluk
Physiological rhythms play a critical role in the functional development of living beings. Many biological functions are executed with an interaction of rhythms produced by internal characteristics of scores of cells. While synchronized oscillations may be associated with normal brain functions, anomalies in these oscillations may cause or relate the emergence of some neurological or neuropsychological pathologies. This study was designed to investigate the effects of topological structure and synaptic conductivity noise on the spatial synchronization and temporal rhythmicity of the waves generated by cells in the network...
March 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088535/neurobiological-consequences-of-juvenile-stress-a-gabaergic-perspective-on-risk-and-resilience
#20
REVIEW
Anne Albrecht, Iris Müller, Ziv Ardi, Gürsel Çalışkan, David Gruber, Sebastian Ivens, Menahem Segal, Joachim Behr, Uwe Heinemann, Oliver Stork, Gal Richter-Levin
ALBRECHT, A., MÜLLER, I., ARDI, Z., ÇALIŞKAN, G., GRUBER, D., IVENS, S., SEGAL, M., BEHR, J., HEINEMANN, U., STORK, O., and RICHTER-LEVIN, G. Neurobiological consequences of juvenile stress: A GABAergic perspective on risk and resilience. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, 2016.- Childhood adversity is among the most potent risk factors for developing mood and anxiety disorders later in life. Therefore, understanding how stress during childhood shapes and rewires the brain may optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies for these disorders...
March 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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