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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185062/decoupling-between-the-hand-territory-and-the-default-mode-network-after-bilateral-arm-transplantation-four-year-follow-up-case-study
#1
Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Jörn Diedrichsen, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Martin Iglesias
Several studies have suggested both a local and network reorganization of the sensorimotor system following amputation. Transplantation of a new limb results in a new shifting of cortical activity in the local territory of the transplanted limb. However, there is a lack of information about the reversibility of the abnormalities at the network level. The objective of this study was to characterize the functional connectivity changes between the cortical territory of the new hand and two intrinsic network of interest: the sensorimotor network (SMN) and the default mode network (DMN) of one patient whom received bilateral forearm transplants...
February 9, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095198/effects-of-small-world-rewiring-probability-and-noisy-synaptic-conductivity-on-slow-waves-cortical-network
#2
Ramazan Tekin, Mehmet Emin Tagluk
Physiological rhythms play a critical role in the functional development of living beings. Many biological functions are executed with an interaction of rhythms produced by internal characteristics of scores of cells. While synchronized oscillations may be associated with normal brain functions, anomalies in these oscillations may cause or relate the emergence of some neurological or neuropsychological pathologies. This study was designed to investigate the effects of topological structure and synaptic conductivity noise on the spatial synchronization and temporal rhythmicity of the waves generated by cells in the network...
March 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088535/neurobiological-consequences-of-juvenile-stress-a-gabaergic-perspective-on-risk-and-resilience
#3
REVIEW
Anne Albrecht, Iris Müller, Ziv Ardi, Gürsel Çalışkan, David Gruber, Sebastian Ivens, Menahem Segal, Joachim Behr, Uwe Heinemann, Oliver Stork, Gal Richter-Levin
ALBRECHT, A., MÜLLER, I., ARDI, Z., ÇALIŞKAN, G., GRUBER, D., IVENS, S., SEGAL, M., BEHR, J., HEINEMANN, U., STORK, O., and RICHTER-LEVIN, G. Neurobiological consequences of juvenile stress: A GABAergic perspective on risk and resilience. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, 2016.- Childhood adversity is among the most potent risk factors for developing mood and anxiety disorders later in life. Therefore, understanding how stress during childhood shapes and rewires the brain may optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies for these disorders...
March 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068482/metabolic-reprogramming-in-brain-tumors
#4
Sriram Venneti, Craig B Thompson
Next-generation sequencing has substantially enhanced our understanding of the genetics of primary brain tumors by uncovering several novel driver genetic alterations. How many of these genetic modifications contribute to the pathogenesis of brain tumors is not well understood. An exciting paradigm emerging in cancer biology is that oncogenes actively reprogram cellular metabolism to enable tumors to survive and proliferate. We discuss how some of these genetic alterations in brain tumors rewire metabolism...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046127/structure-function-network-mapping-and-its-assessment-via-persistent-homology
#5
Hualou Liang, Hongbin Wang
Understanding the relationship between brain structure and function is a fundamental problem in network neuroscience. This work deals with the general method of structure-function mapping at the whole-brain level. We formulate the problem as a topological mapping of structure-function connectivity via matrix function, and find a stable solution by exploiting a regularization procedure to cope with large matrices. We introduce a novel measure of network similarity based on persistent homology for assessing the quality of the network mapping, which enables a detailed comparison of network topological changes across all possible thresholds, rather than just at a single, arbitrary threshold that may not be optimal...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007647/rewiring-the-spinal-cord-direct-and-indirect-strategies
#6
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Dell'Anno, Stephen M Strittmatter
Spinal cord injury is currently incurable. Treatment is limited to minimizing secondary complications and maximizing residual function by rehabilitation. Neurologic recovery is prevented by the poor intrinsic regenerative capacity of neurons in the adult central nervous system and by the presence of growth inhibitors in the adult brain and spinal cord. Here we identify three approaches to rewire the spinal cord after injury: axonal regeneration (direct endogenous reconnection), axonal sprouting (indirect endogenous reconnection) and neural stem cell transplantation (indirect exogenous reconnection)...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956400/complement-peptide-c3a-stimulates-neural-plasticity-after-experimental-brain-ischaemia
#7
Anna Stokowska, Alison L Atkins, Javier Morán, Tulen Pekny, Linda Bulmer, Michaela C Pascoe, Scott R Barnum, Rick A Wetsel, Jonas A Nilsson, Mike Dragunow, Marcela Pekna
Ischaemic stroke induces endogenous repair processes that include proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and extensive rewiring of the remaining neural connections, yet about 50% of stroke survivors live with severe long-term disability. There is an unmet need for drug therapies to improve recovery by promoting brain plasticity in the subacute to chronic phase after ischaemic stroke. We previously showed that complement-derived peptide C3a regulates neural progenitor cell migration and differentiation in vitro and that C3a receptor signalling stimulates neurogenesis in unchallenged adult mice...
December 12, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900343/divergence-and-rewiring-of-regulatory-networks-for-neural-development-between-human-and-other-species
#8
COMMENT
Ping Wang, Dejian Zhao, Shira Rockowitz, Deyou Zheng
Neural and brain development in human and other mammalian species are largely similar, but distinct features exist at the levels of macrostructure and underlying genetic control. Comparative studies of epigenetic regulation and transcription factor (TF) binding in humans, chimpanzees, rodents, and other species have found large differences in gene regulatory networks. A recent analysis of the cistromes of REST/NRSF, a critical transcriptional regulator for the nervous system, demonstrated that REST binding to syntenic genomic regions (i...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775700/axl-egfr-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-hetero-interaction-provides-egfr-with-access-to-pro-invasive-signalling-in-cancer-cells
#9
M Vouri, D R Croucher, S P Kennedy, Q An, G J Pilkington, S Hafizi
Acquired resistance to conventional and targeted therapies is becoming a major hindrance in cancer management. It is increasingly clear that cancer cells are able to evolve and rewire canonical signalling pathways to their advantage, thus evading cell death and promoting cell invasion. The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) has been shown to modulate acquired resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies in both breast and lung cancers. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative and invasive form of brain tumour with little response to therapy...
October 24, 2016: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749493/impact-of-sleep-restriction-on-the-structural-brain-network
#10
Min-Hee Lee, Youngjin Lee, Yoon Ho Hwang, Areum Min, Bong Soo Han, Dong Youn Kim
Sleep restriction (SR) is defined as the condition of not having enough sleep, and it can cause brain injury. In this study, we examined the impact of SR on the structural brain network. We obtained diffusion MRI (dMRI) data for the SR group of fourteen participants who got less than or equal to 5.5 h of sleep for the last 1 month and normal group of the same number of participants who got 7 h of sleep. We constructed the structural brain networks from the dMRI data and analyzed them using graph theoretical approaches...
September 30, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733606/neural-stem-cell-transplantation-induces-stroke-recovery-by-upregulating-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-astrocytes
#11
Marco Bacigaluppi, Gianluca Luigi Russo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Silvia Rossi, Stefano Sandrone, Erica Butti, Roberta De Ceglia, Andrea Bergamaschi, Caterina Motta, Mattia Gallizioli, Valeria Studer, Emanuela Colombo, Cinthia Farina, Giancarlo Comi, Letterio Salvatore Politi, Luca Muzio, Claudia Villani, Roberto William Invernizzi, Dirk Matthias Hermann, Diego Centonze, Gianvito Martino
: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, but effective therapies are currently widely lacking. Recovery from stroke is very much dependent on the possibility to develop treatments able to both halt the neurodegenerative process as well as to foster adaptive tissue plasticity. Here we show that ischemic mice treated with neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation had on neurophysiological analysis, early after treatment, reduced presynaptic release of glutamate within the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST), and an enhanced NMDA-mediated excitatory transmission in the contralesional CST...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567698/prenatal-cannabis-exposure-the-first-hit-to-the-endocannabinoid-system
#12
REVIEW
Kimberlei A Richardson, Allison K Hester, Gabrielle L McLemore
As more states and countries legalize medical and/or adult recreational marijuana use, the incidences of prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) will likely increase. While young people increasingly view marijuana as innocuous, marijuana preparations have been growing in potency in recent years, potentially creating global clinical, public health, and workforce concerns. Unlike fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, there is no phenotypic syndrome associated with PCE. There is also no preponderance of evidence that PCE causes lifelong cognitive, behavioral, or functional abnormalities, and/or susceptibility to subsequent addiction...
November 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532879/pivotal-response-treatment-prompts-a-functional-rewiring-of-the-brain-among-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Archana Venkataraman, Daniel Y-J Yang, Nicha Dvornek, Lawrence H Staib, James S Duncan, Kevin A Pelphrey, Pamela Ventola
Behavioral interventions for autism have gained prominence in recent years; however, the neural-systems-level targets of these interventions remain poorly understood. We use a novel Bayesian framework to extract network-based differences before and after a 16-week pivotal response treatment (PRT) regimen. Our results suggest that the functional changes induced by PRT localize to the posterior cingulate and are marked by a shift in connectivity from the orbitofrontal cortex to the occipital-temporal cortex. Our results illuminate a potential PRT-induced learning mechanism, whereby the neural circuits involved during social perception shift from sensory and attentional systems to higher-level object and face processing areas...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453939/3d-meshes-of-carbon-nanotubes-guide-functional-reconnection-of-segregated-spinal-explants
#14
Sadaf Usmani, Emily Rose Aurand, Manuela Medelin, Alessandra Fabbro, Denis Scaini, Jummi Laishram, Federica B Rosselli, Alessio Ansuini, Davide Zoccolan, Manuela Scarselli, Maurizio De Crescenzi, Susanna Bosi, Maurizio Prato, Laura Ballerini
In modern neuroscience, significant progress in developing structural scaffolds integrated with the brain is provided by the increasing use of nanomaterials. We show that a multiwalled carbon nanotube self-standing framework, consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) mesh of interconnected, conductive, pure carbon nanotubes, can guide the formation of neural webs in vitro where the spontaneous regrowth of neurite bundles is molded into a dense random net. This morphology of the fiber regrowth shaped by the 3D structure supports the successful reconnection of segregated spinal cord segments...
July 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27407134/stereotactic-modulation-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-to-enhance-drug-delivery
#15
REVIEW
Geoff Appelboom, Alexandre Detappe, Melissa LoPresti, Sijumon Kunjachan, Stefan Mitrasinovic, Serge Goldman, Steve D Chang, Olivier Tillement
Drug delivery in the CNS is limited by endothelial tight junctions forming the impermeable blood-brain barrier. The development of new treatment paradigms has previously been hampered by the restrictiveness of the blood-brain barrier to systemically administered therapeutics. With recent advances in stereotactic localization and noninvasive imaging, we have honed the ability to modulate, ablate, and rewire millimetric brain structures to precisely permeate the impregnable barrier. The wide range of focused radiations offers endless possibilities to disrupt endothelial permeability with different patterns and intensity following 3-dimensional coordinates offering a new world of possibilities to access the CNS, as well as to target therapies...
December 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388328/temporal-rewiring-of-striatal-circuits-initiated-by-nicotine
#16
Louise Adermark, Julia Morud, Amir Lotfi, Klara Danielsson, Lisa Ulenius, Bo Söderpalm, Mia Ericson
Drug addiction has been conceptualized as maladaptive recruitment of integrative circuits coursing through the striatum, facilitating drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. The aim of this study was to define temporal neuroadaptations in striatal subregions initiated by 3 weeks of intermittent nicotine exposure followed by protracted abstinence. Enhanced rearing activity was assessed in motor activity boxes as a measurement of behavioral change induced by nicotine (0.36 mg/kg), whereas electrophysiological field potential recordings were performed to evaluate treatment effects on neuronal activity...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378774/identifying-gene-regulatory-network-rewiring-using-latent-differential-graphical-models
#17
Dechao Tian, Quanquan Gu, Jian Ma
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are highly dynamic among different tissue types. Identifying tissue-specific gene regulation is critically important to understand gene function in a particular cellular context. Graphical models have been used to estimate GRN from gene expression data to distinguish direct interactions from indirect associations. However, most existing methods estimate GRN for a specific cell/tissue type or in a tissue-naive way, or do not specifically focus on network rewiring between different tissues...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329953/illuminating-the-effects-of-stroke-on-the-diabetic-brain-insights-from-imaging-neural-and-vascular-networks-in-experimental-animal-models
#18
Patrick Reeson, Andrew Jeffery, Craig E Brown
Type 1 diabetes is known to cause circulatory problems in the eyes, heart, and limbs, and the brain is no exception. Because of the insidious effects of diabetes on brain circulation, patients with diabetes are two to four times more likely to have an ischemic stroke and are less likely to regain functions that are lost. To provide a more mechanistic understanding of this clinically significant problem, imaging studies have focused on how stroke affects neural and vascular networks in experimental models of type 1 diabetes...
July 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265805/a-potential-role-for-glia-derived-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-in-postinjury-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Soo Young Kim, Brenda E Porter, Alon Friedman, Daniela Kaufer
Head trauma and vascular injuries are known risk factors for acquired epilepsy. The sequence of events that lead from the initial injury to the development of epilepsy involves complex plastic changes and circuit rewiring. In-depth, comprehensive understanding of the epileptogenic process is critical for the identification of disease-modifying targets. Here we review the complex interactions of cellular and extracellular components that may promote epileptogenesis, with an emphasis on the role of astrocytes...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264358/regeneration-and-rewiring-of-rodent-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#20
REVIEW
C Ron Yu, Yunming Wu
The olfactory sensory neurons are the only neurons in the mammalian nervous system that not only regenerate naturally and in response to injury, but also project to specific targets in the brain. The stem cells in the olfactory epithelium commit to both neuronal and non-neuronal lineages depending on the environmental conditions. They provide a continuous supply of new neurons. A newly generated neuron must express a specific odorant receptor gene and project to a central target consist of axons expressing the same receptor type...
January 2017: Experimental Neurology
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