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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926891/-advances-in-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#1
X R Zhu, L Z Zheng
Currently, immunotherapy is considered as the fourth major modality of cancer treatment except surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The new therapeutic approach based on immune checkpoint inhibitors is a landmark innovation. Strategies considering checkpoint inhibitors have shown good anti-tumor effect by targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Moreover, DNA mismatch repair-deficient tumors appear to be potential candidates for these therapies...
September 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926689/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-for-a-case-of-refractory-opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia-syndrome
#2
Jocelyn E Greensher, James Louie, Jonathan D Fish
Opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (OMAS) can be refractory to standard therapies and devastating. Alternative treatments are imperative. A 14-month-old male diagnosed with neuroblastoma and paraneoplastic OMAS achieved complete cancer remission with chemotherapy. The OMAS, however, persisted over the subsequent 4 years despite numerous immune-modulatory and immunosuppressive therapies. The patient ultimately achieved complete remission following therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) combined with rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926349/a-nurse-led-care-program-for-breast-cancer-patients-in-a-chemotherapy-day-center-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Xiao Bin Lai, Shirley Siu Yin Ching, Frances Kam Yuet Wong, Carenx Wai Yee Leung, Lai Ha Lee, Jessica Shuk Yin Wong, Yim Fan Lo
BACKGROUND: Healthcare providers are facing the challenge of helping cancer patients cope with the impact of outpatient-based chemotherapy. A nurse-led care program was proposed to address this challenge. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a nurse-led care program for patients receiving outpatient-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This was a single-center, open-label, 2-arm parallel trial with equal randomization (NCT02228200)...
September 19, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923303/an-extremely-high-bioavailability-of-orally-administered-vancomycin-in-a-patient-with-severe-colitis-and-renal-insufficiency
#4
Shingo Yamazaki, Takaaki Suzuki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Hirokazu Takatsuka, Masayuki Ishikawa, Noriyuki Hattori, Takeshi Fujishiro, Hideaki Miyauchi, Takehiko Oami, Noritaka Ariyoshi, Shigeto Oda, Hisahiro Matsubara, Itsuko Ishii
Because there is little absorption of orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) through the normal intestinal microvillus membrane, the pharmacokinetics of VCM absorbed from the digestive tract are mostly unknown. Here we report a case of severe colitis and renal insufficiency in which the serum concentration of VCM reached the supratherapeutic range after oral administration. A 54-year-old man receiving outpatient chemotherapy for rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis and acute renal failure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922986/attenuation-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-by-an-indole-based-natural-compound-3-3-diindolylmethane-dim-through-activation-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathways-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#5
Subhadip Hajra, Abhishek Basu, Somnath Singha Roy, Arup Ranjan Patra, Sudin Bhattacharya
The most crucial complication related to doxorubicin (DOX) therapy is nonspecific cytotoxic effect on healthy normal cells. The clinical use of this broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent is restricted due to development of severe form of cardiotoxicity, myelosuppression and genotoxicity which interfere with therapeutic schedule, compromise treatment outcome and may lead to secondary malignancy. 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid formed by the hydrolysis of indolylmethyl glucosinolate (glucobrassicin)...
September 18, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922727/the-relevance-of-gastric-cancer-biomarkers-in-prognosis-and-pre-and-post-chemotherapy-in-clinical-practice
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad Abbas, Murad Habib, Muhammad Naveed, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Kuldeep Dhama, Meiqi Shi, Chen Dingding
Gastric cancer (GC) is one among the major cancer types, causing human deaths and present noticeable heterogeneity. The incidences and mortality rates are higher in males in comparison to females with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. A lot of studies have revealed out the molecular basis, pathogenesis, invasion and metastasis related findings of gastric stomach cancer. Present review encompasses the salient information on various biomarkers for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer elaborate the clinical importance of serum tumor markers in patients with this cancer as well as checking the growths, together with epigenetic changes and genetic polymorphisms...
September 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921872/first-line-therapy-with-dacomitinib-an-orally-available-pan-her-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-for-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-penile-squamous-cell-carcinoma-results-of-an-open-label-single-arm-single-center-phase-2-study
#7
A Necchi, S Lo Vullo, F Perrone, D Raggi, P Giannatempo, G Calareso, N Nicolai, L Piva, D Biasoni, M Catanzaro, T Torelli, S Stagni, E Togliardi, M Colecchia, A Busico, A Gloghini, A Testi, L Mariani, R Salvioni
OBJECTIVE: To harness the frontline therapy in advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC), for which chemotherapy exerts moderate activity but poor efficacy. Dacomitinib is an irreversible, pan-epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) inhibitor. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a phase 2 study (NCT01728233), patients received dacomitinib 45 mg/day, orally, continuously. Inclusion criteria were SCC histology, clinical stage N2-3 or M1 (TNM 2009), and no prior chemotherapy administration...
September 16, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921641/pharmacokinetic-guided-dosing-of-new-oral-cancer-agents
#8
Catherine J Lucas, Jennifer H Martin
Generally, licensed drug-dosing recommendations for chemotherapy are based on results from clinical trials in which subjects are usually of relatively normal body size, middle-aged, and are relatively racially homogeneous, with minimal comorbidity and specific tumor characteristics. Very few nontrial patients meet these characteristics, resulting in clinical practice having to extrapolate dosing recommendations to the specific patient. There is insufficient research on the impact of obesity-associated physiological changes prevalent in patients with common cancers on standard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919712/recent-developments-in-the-clinical-pharmacology-of-rolapitant-subanalyses-in-specific-populations
#9
REVIEW
Bernardo Leon Rapoport, Matti Aapro, Martin R Chasen, Karin Jordan, Rudolph M Navari, Ian Schnadig, Lee Schwartzberg
Knowledge of the involvement of the neurokinin substance P in emesis has led to the development of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1 RAs) for control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), in combination with serotonin type 3 receptor antagonists and corticosteroids. The NK-1 RA rolapitant, recently approved in oral formulation, has nanomolar affinity for the NK-1 receptor, as do the other commercially available NK-1 RAs, aprepitant and netupitant. Rolapitant is rapidly absorbed and has a long half-life in comparison to aprepitant and netupitant...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918879/axitinib-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw
#10
Vinod Patel, Chris Sproat, Jerry Kwok, Nikki Tanna
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are oral chemotherapy drugs used primarily to treat leukemias, renal cell carcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors. Within this group, a number of drugs have already been implicated in jaw necrosis. Axitinib (Inlyta) is a novel TKI currently licensed for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of jaw necrosis solely related to this medication and review the literature surrounding TKIs and their implication in osteonecrosis of the jaw...
August 18, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916367/rucaparib-maintenance-treatment-for-recurrent-ovarian-carcinoma-after-response-to-platinum-therapy-ariel3-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#11
Robert L Coleman, Amit M Oza, Domenica Lorusso, Carol Aghajanian, Ana Oaknin, Andrew Dean, Nicoletta Colombo, Johanne I Weberpals, Andrew Clamp, Giovanni Scambia, Alexandra Leary, Robert W Holloway, Margarita Amenedo Gancedo, Peter C Fong, Jeffrey C Goh, David M O'Malley, Deborah K Armstrong, Jesus Garcia-Donas, Elizabeth M Swisher, Anne Floquet, Gottfried E Konecny, Iain A McNeish, Clare L Scott, Terri Cameron, Lara Maloney, Jeff Isaacson, Sandra Goble, Caroline Grace, Thomas C Harding, Mitch Raponi, James Sun, Kevin K Lin, Heidi Giordano, Jonathan A Ledermann
BACKGROUND: Rucaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, has anticancer activity in recurrent ovarian carcinoma harbouring a BRCA mutation or high percentage of genome-wide loss of heterozygosity. In this trial we assessed rucaparib versus placebo after response to second-line or later platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with high-grade, recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinoma. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 87 hospitals and cancer centres across 11 countries...
September 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915584/a-phase-1-dose-escalation-study-of-the-oral-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-abexinostat-in-combination-with-standard-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-in-advanced-solid-tumors
#12
Eric Deutsch, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Vanesa Gregorc, Paolo Andrea Zucali, Jean Menard, Jean-Charles Soria, Ioana Kloos, Jeff Hsu, Ying Luan, Emily Liu, Remus Vezan, Thorsten Graef, Sofia Rivera
Current treatments for advanced solid tumors tend to be only palliative. Although radiotherapy is administered with a curative intent, radioresistance and dose-limiting toxicities pose limitations to treatment. Abexinostat, an oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to radiation in various solid tumor cell lines. We conducted an exploratory, phase 1, dose-escalation study of abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a palliative setting...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913619/bile-duct-obstruction-in-a-patient-treated-with-nivolumab-as-second-line-chemotherapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#13
Jumpei Kashima, Yusuke Okuma, Ryoko Shimizuguchi, Kazuro Chiba
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are becoming a standard therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer in the advanced stage. As these ICIs become widely available in clinical practice, immune-related adverse effects will become more common. Here we report a patient with lung adenocarcinoma who was treated with nivolumab and developed obstruction because of biliary inflammation. A 63-year-old Japanese man having lung adenocarcinoma with pleural dissemination complained of epigastric pain on the fifth cycle of nivolumab...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912409/-a-case-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-during-adjuvant-dose-dense-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#14
Noriko Sagawa, Norie Abe, Tomohiko Ishimine, Hisamitsu Zaha
A 47-year-old woman received adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. On the 13th day of 4 courses of dose-dense AC therapy, she developed a fever. She was orally administered an antibioticfor febrile neutropenia treatment. She showed no improvement of symptoms and gradually presented with new symptoms, including a non-productive cough and dyspnea. After admission, she underwent a further examination, and was provided a diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia. It is reported that patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors are less likely to develop opportunistic infections...
September 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911091/a-phase-iii-trial-comparing-oral-s-1-cisplatin-and-intravenous-5-fluorouracil-cisplatin-in-patients-with-untreated-diffuse-gastric-cancer
#15
J A Ajani, M Abramov, I Bondarenko, Y Shparyk, V Gorbunova, A Hontsa, N Otchenash, M Alsina, S Lazarev, J Feliu, A Elme, V Esko, K Abdalla, U Verma, F Benedetti, T Aoyama, H Mizuguchi, L Makris, G Rosati
Background: The effect of histology-based treatment regimen on diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma has not been evaluated in clinical trials. This international phase III trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of S-1 (a contemporary oral fluoropyrimidine)/cisplatin versus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/cisplatin in chemotherapy-naïve patients with diffuse-type adenocarcinoma involving the gastroesophageal junction or stomach. Patients and methods: Eligibility criteria included untreated, measurable, advanced diffuse adenocarcinoma confirmed by central pathology and performance status of 0-1...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911059/forcing-the-vicious-circle-sarcopenia-increases-toxicity-decreases-response-to-chemotherapy-and-worsens-with-chemotherapy
#16
F Bozzetti
Sarcopenia has recently emerged as a new condition that, independently from malnutrition, may adversely affect the prognosis of cancer patients. Purpose of this narrative review is to define the prevalence of sarcopenia in different primaries, its role in leading to chemotherapy toxicity and decreased compliance with the oncological therapy and the effect of some drugs on the onset of sarcopenia. Finally, the review aims to describe the current approaches to restore the muscle mass through nutrition, exercise and anti-inflammatory agents or multimodal programmes with a special emphasis on the results of randomized controlled trials...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910982/exosomes-containing-mir-21-transfer-the-characteristic-of-cisplatin-resistance-by-targeting-pten-and-pdcd4-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Tao Liu, Gang Chen, Dawei Sun, Minghui Lei, Yongqiang Li, Changming Zhou, Xiaodong Li, Wei Xue, Hong Wang, Chunjun Liu, Jiang Xu
Resistance to chemotherapy remains a major obstacle for the effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Evidence for the involvement of exosomes as important regulators of cisplatin chemoresistance in OSCC is still poorly understood. Our objective of this study was to explore the roles for exosomes in modulating key cellular pathways mediating response to chemotherapy. We first developed the cisplatin-resistant cell lines (HSC-3-R and SCC-9-R) and found that the conditioned media from cisplatin-resistant OSCC cells enhanced the chemoresistance of parental OSCC cell...
September 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906561/bioequivalence-of-intravenous-and-oral-rolapitant-results-from-a-randomized-open-label-pivotal-study
#18
Xiaodong Wang, Zhi-Yi Zhang, Daniel Powers, Jing Wang, Sharon Lu, Sujata Arora, Lorraine Hughes, Jennifer Christensen, Vikram Kansra
Rolapitant, a selective and long-acting neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, is approved in an oral formulation for the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults. The objective of this pivotal study was to assess the bioequivalence of a single intravenous infusion of rolapitant versus a single oral dose of rolapitant. In this randomized, open-label phase 1 study, healthy volunteers were administered rolapitant as a 180-mg oral dose or a 30-minute 166.5-mg intravenous infusion. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected predose and at points up to 912 hours postdose...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906558/effects-of-rolapitant-administered-intravenously-or-orally-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-digoxin-p-glycoprotein-substrate-and-sulfasalazine-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-substrate-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
Xiaodong Wang, Zhi-Yi Zhang, Sujata Arora, Lorraine Hughes, Jing Wang, Daniel Powers, Jennifer Christensen, Sharon Lu, Vikram Kansra
Rolapitant is a selective and long-acting neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist approved in an oral formulation in combination with other antiemetic agents for the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults. Four open-label phase 1 studies evaluated the safety and drug-drug interactions of a single dose of rolapitant given intravenously (166.5 mg) or orally (180 mg) with oral digoxin (0.5 mg) or sulfasalazine (500 mg), probe substrates for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), respectively...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903447/locoregionally-recurrent-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-incidence-survival-prognostic-factors-and-treatment-outcomes
#20
Jer-Hwa Chang, Chia-Che Wu, Kevin Sheng-Po Yuan, Alexander T H Wu, Szu-Yuan Wu
PURPOSE: For locoregionally recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), appropriate therapeutic decisions remain unclear. We examined the treatment outcomes of a national cohort to determine suitable treatments for and prognostic factors in patients with locoregionally recurrent HNSCCs at different stages and sites. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data of >20-year-old patients with HNSCC at American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical stages I-IV without metastasis from Taiwan National Health Insurance and cancer registry databases...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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