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"posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome"

Austin Castillo, J Drew Payne, Kenneth Nugent
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome has been associated with hypertension, preeclampsia, cancer chemotherapy, and drugs of abuse, such as amphetamine and methamphetamine. We report a young man who suddenly developed severe headache, disorientation, and aphasia following ingestion of kratom and Adderall. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of his head revealed foci of vasogenic edema in the posterior occipital lobes, frontal lobes, and brainstem. In addition, he had a small area of hemorrhage in the left posterior occipital lobe...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Carlos R Camara-Lemarroy, Nicolás Escobedo-Zúñiga, Estefania Villarreal-Garza, Erick García-Valadez, Fernando Góngora-Rivera, Héctor J Villarreal-Velázquez
OBJECTIVES: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) and eclampsia share clinical characteristics and patients may present with a combination of these two entities. Our aim was to study the proportion of patients with eclampsia having evidence of PRES in their brain imaging. METHODS: Retrospective study of pregnant patients diagnosed as having eclampsia that underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during their hospitalization. MRI diagnosis of PRES was assessed by 2 investigators blinded to group...
January 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
R Dhar
Major neurologic morbidity, such as seizures and encephalopathy, complicates 20-30% of organ and stem cell transplantation procedures. The majority of these disorders occur in the early posttransplant period, but recipients remain at risk for opportunistic infections and other nervous system disorders for many years. These long-term risks may be increasing as acute survival increases, and a greater number of "sicker" patients are exposed to long-term immunosuppression. Drug neurotoxicity accounts for a significant proportion of complications, with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, primarily associated with calcineurin inhibitors (i...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ioannis Karakis, Audrey H Nuccio, Jordan P Amadio, Arthur J Fountain
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is linked to various etiologies, including most importantly systemic hypertension. Its association with intracranial hypotension (IH), a potential sequela of various neurosurgical procedures, is underrecognized. We report a case of lumboperitoneal shunt-induced IH resulting in PRES with the goal to increase awareness and elaborate on the potential biologic mechanism, based on the Monro-Kellie hypothesis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 26-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and epilepsy was admitted for recurrent cryptococcal meningitis and breakthrough seizures...
February 2017: World Neurosurgery
Rohit Aiyer, Daniel Klein, Yasir El-Sherif
We present a case of 29/m with a history of sickle cell disease who presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of chest, trunk, extremity, and back pain, consistent in quality and severity with the patient's usual pain crises. Soon after admission to the medical unit for acute chest syndrome (ACS), the patient developed sudden onset of hypertension associated with left sided hemiplegia, lethargy, dysarthria, aphasia, and left sided facial droop. Neuroimaging revealed that on MRI Brain there was multifocal extensive signal abnormality and a small focal areas of hemorrhage compatible with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES)...
2016: Case Reports in Radiology
Fumi Kobayashi, Hidetaka Kato, Miki Suzuki, Ryosuke Usui, Minako Koike, Takashi Ohashi
A 23-year-old woman presented with disturbance of consciousness and seizure. Her blood pressure was remarkably high, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high-intensity T2 signals in the bilateral basal ganglia, corpus callosum, cerebral white matter, and cortex. With the administration of angiotensin II receptor blocker, the symptoms and MRI findings improved, along with normalization of blood pressure, and a diagnosis of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was made. Plasma renin activity was high, and the right kidney was severely atrophic...
September 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Mariam Mathew, Ayesha Salahuddin, Namitha R Mathew, Ramachandiran Nandhagopal
Postpartum headache is described as headache and neck or shoulder pain during the first 6 weeks after delivery. Common causes of headache in the puerperium are migraine headache and tension headache; other causes include pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, post-dural puncture headache, cortical vein thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, brain tumor, cerebral ischemia, meningitis, and so forth. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare cause of postpartum headache...
January 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Ahmad K Rahal, Phu V Truong, K James Kallail
Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX)...
2015: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Melek Karakurt Eryılmaz, Hasan Mutlu, Derya Kıvrak Salim, Fatma Yalçın Musri, Hasan Şenol Coşkun
Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a syndrome characterized by headache, hypertension, confusion, visual disturbance, and seizures accompanied by subcortical vasogenic edema, predominantly involving the parietal and occipital lobes. The syndrome is usually described in malignant hypertension, eclampsia, renal failure, immunosuppressive, and cytotoxic chemotherapies. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been linked to PRES...
December 2016: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Uluç Yiş, Pakize Karaoğlu, Semra Hız Kurul, Alper Soylu, Handan Çakmakçi, Salih Kavukçu
We report the youngest pediatric case of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome confined to brainstem and spinal cord. At presentation bicytopenia, renal derangement, visual disturbances, magnetic resonance imaging findings, increased protein content, IgG index and cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid led us to extensive search for myelitis. She received a short course of steroid treatment. The final diagnosis was hypertension due to reflux nephropathy. Severe hypertension that exceeds the range of autoregulation in anterior spinal territory may result in spinal posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome...
January 2016: Brain & Development
Pranav Parikh, Danielle Duhame, Laura Monahan, Robert Woroniecki
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon disorder usually encountered in the adult population with unilateral renal artery stenosis and is under-recognized in the pediatric population. CASE DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: A 19-month-old male presented with new-onset status epilepticus associated with neurological sequelae, and hypertension to a high of 248/150 mmHg. Lab work revealed significant hyponatremia, elevated peripheral renin activity, and increase in aldosterone and ADH levels...
2015: Frontiers in Pediatrics
N Yafour, A Krim, R Bouhass, M A Bekadja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
David Haughey, Sriram S Narsipur
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by an acute neurologic dysfunction coupled with characteristic findings on brain imaging. PRES occurs in the setting of hypertensive emergencies, eclampsia and as a neurotoxic effect of immunosuppressive agents. While overwhelmingly reversible without residual deficits when promptly recognized, vague symptomatology may delay the diagnosis of PRES. RESULTS/SUMMARY: A 50-year-old man who had undergone a recent kidney transplant was admitted to our clinic due to multiple episodes of seizure...
January 2015: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
A Jaiswal, I Sabnani, D A Baran, M J Zucker
Rituximab is commonly used as a first line therapy to treat posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). It has also proved useful in the management of refractory antibody mediated graft rejection. We report an unusual case in which a heart transplant recipient being treated with rituximab for PTLD developed altered mental status, hallucinations and visual symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of symmetrical enhancement suggestive of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES)...
March 2015: American Journal of Transplantation
Yasmin Leshem, Shlomit Fennig, Elisa Talianski, Gahl Greenberg, Ido Wolf
Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome [PRES] is characterized by a symmetrical brain edema. It is rarely caused by chemotheraphy. While steroids can lead to deterioration in the condition of a PRES patient, they are still the drug of choice for the more common condition of brain edema secondary to metastases. We describe the case of a colon cancer patient who underwent adjuvant treatment with capecitabine and oxaliplatin and was admitted to the hospital with seizures and brain edema. On admission, the condition was attributed to brain metastases and hence a high dose steroid treatment was initiated...
November 2014: Harefuah
Upasana Vrijlal Patel, Nirajkumar Jagjivan Patel
Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis like microscopic polyangiitis and allergic granulomatous angiitis are among the common presentations of perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA) vasculitis. Involvement of central nervous system is rare in contrast to mononeuritis multiplex, which is a well-known neurological manifestation of this condition. We report a case presented with uraemic encephalopathy and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)-related symptoms, which showed recovery after haemodialysis although PRES with seizures recurred later...
May 22, 2014: BMJ Case Reports
C Andrew Kistler, Joseph Caleb McCall, Saad Sultan Ghumman, Ijlal Akbar Ali, Ali A Siddiqui
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) used to treat liver metastases and has never been reported in a patient with metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) to the liver. We report the first case of PRES secondary to TACE with drug eluting beads (DEBs) loaded with doxorubicin in a 56-year-old woman with metastatic UM to the liver.
April 2014: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Faruk İncecik, M Özlem Hergüner, Dinçer Yıldızdaş, Mustafa Yılmaz, Gülen Mert, Özden O Horoz, Şakir Altunbaşak
Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a recently described disorder with typical radiological findings of bilateral grey and white matter abnormalities in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres. It has been described in children in association with some medications, renal disease, autoimmune disease, transplantation, and sepsis. In this report, we discuss an eight-year-old boy with PRES during pulse methylprednisolone therapy. In conclusion, PRES is a neurological complication of pulse methylprednisolone therapy, which responds favorably to prompt therapy withdrawal and blood pressure control...
July 2013: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
John H Pula, Angela M Kao, Jorge C Kattah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic medications may cause side-effects manifesting primarily as neuro-ophthalmologic problems. It is paramount for the physician to be updated on both well recognized and novel associations between drugs and their potential adverse reactions. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a growing list of medications that can cause pupil dilation, pupil constriction, dyschromatopsia, worsening of ocular myasthenia gravis, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, pseudotumor cerebri, disturbances in eye movements, accommodation problems, or optic neuropathy...
November 2013: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Partha S Ghosh, Charles Kwon, Melanie Klein, Julie Corder, Debabrata Ghosh
We reviewed neurologic complications after renal transplantation in children over a 20-year period. Neurologic complications were classified as early (within 3 months) and delayed (beyond 3 months). Of 115 children, 10 (8.7%) had complications. Early complications were found in 4.35% of patients: seizures in 4 (posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome due to immunosuppressant toxicity, sepsis/presumed meningitis, and indeterminate) and headaches in 1. One patient with seizures received levetiracetam for 6 months and 1 with headaches received amitriptyline prophylaxis...
June 2014: Journal of Child Neurology
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