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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762694/comparative-study-of-postmortem-concentrations-of-antidepressants-in-several-different-matrices
#1
Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Sidsel Rogde, Stian Nilsen, Kari-Beate Boye Eldor, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Marianne Arnestad, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Mariana Dadalto Peres, Lena Kristoffersen, Vigdis Vindenes
Peripheral blood (PB) is considered to be the golden standard for measuring postmortem drug concentrations. In several cases, PB is however not available, but information regarding drug findings might still be crucial in order to determine the cause of death. Antidepressants are frequently detected in postmortem samples from forensic toxicology cases, but the literature investigating concentrations in other matrices than peripheral and heart blood is limited.We here describe a study for comparison of concentrations for a large number of different drugs in six different matrices...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742266/efficacy-acceptability-and-tolerability-of-antidepressant-treatments-for-patients-with-post-stroke-depression-a-network-meta-analysis
#2
B Qin, H Chen, W Gao, L B Zhao, M J Zhao, H X Qin, W Chen, L Chen, M X Yang
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of antidepressants in treating post-stroke depression (PSD) by performing a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the current literature. Eligible studies were retrieved from online databases, and relevant data were extracted. The primary outcome was efficacy as measured by the mean change in overall depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes included discontinued treatment for any reason and specifically due to adverse events...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694468/exploding-head-syndrome-as-aura-of-migraine-with-brainstem-aura-a-case-report
#3
Fabian H Rossi, Elizabeth Gonzalez, Elisa Marie Rossi, Nina Tsakadze
This article reports a case of exploding head syndrome (EHS) as an aura of migraine with brainstem aura (MBA). A middle-aged man presented with intermittent episodes of a brief sensation of explosion in the head, visual flashing, vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, confusion, ataxia, dysarthria, and bilateral visual impairment followed by migraine headache. The condition was diagnosed as MBA. Explosive head sensation, sensory phenomena, and headaches improved over time with nortriptyline. This case shows that EHS can present as a primary aura symptom in patients with MBA...
April 2018: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674001/in-vitro-assessment-of-competitive-and-time-dependent-inhibition-of-the-nevirapine-metabolism-by-nortriptyline-in-rats
#4
Iris Usach, José-Maria Ferrer, José-Esteban Peris
Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) widely used as a component of High Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) since it is inexpensive, readily absorbed after oral administration and non-teratogenic. In the present work, the mechanism of a previously described pharmacokinetic interaction between NVP and the antidepressant drug nortriptyline (NT) was studied using rat hepatic microsomes. The obtained results showed a competitive inhibition of the NVP metabolism by NT...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669175/antidepressants-for-preventing-postnatal-depression
#5
REVIEW
Emma Molyneaux, Laurence A Telesia, Carol Henshaw, Elizabeth Boath, Eleanor Bradley, Louise M Howard
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in the postnatal period and can lead to adverse effects on the infant and wider family, in addition to the morbidity for the mother. It is not clear whether antidepressants are effective for the prevention of postnatal depression and little is known about possible adverse effects for the mother and infant, particularly during breastfeeding. This is an update of a Cochrane Review last published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of antidepressant medication for the prevention of postnatal depression, in comparison with any other treatment, placebo or standard care...
April 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626770/estimating-environmental-fate-of-tricyclic-antidepressants-in-wastewater-treatment-plant
#6
Jong-Won Choi, Yufeng Zhao, John Kwame Bediako, Chul-Woong Cho, Yeoung-Sang Yun
TCAs are known to be toxicants and endocrine disrupting agents. Generally, after being used, TCAs are passed through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to be treated. However, still trace amounts (ng/L to μg/L) of TCAs have been founded even in the treated water. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the environmental behaviors of TCAs in the sewage water from WWTPs (Jeonju, Korea). For the experiments, seven TCAs (amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, desipramine, protriptyline, nortriptyline, and doxepin) were selected...
April 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615645/antidepressant-drug-specific-prediction-of-depression-treatment-outcomes-from-genetic-and-clinical-variables
#7
Raquel Iniesta, Karen Hodgson, Daniel Stahl, Karim Malki, Wolfgang Maier, Marcella Rietschel, Ole Mors, Joanna Hauser, Neven Henigsberg, Mojca Zvezdana Dernovsek, Daniel Souery, Richard Dobson, Katherine J Aitchison, Anne Farmer, Peter McGuffin, Cathryn M Lewis, Rudolf Uher
Individuals with depression differ substantially in their response to treatment with antidepressants. Specific predictors explain only a small proportion of these differences. To meaningfully predict who will respond to which antidepressant, it may be necessary to combine multiple biomarkers and clinical variables. Using statistical learning on common genetic variants and clinical information in a training sample of 280 individuals randomly allocated to 12-week treatment with antidepressants escitalopram or nortriptyline, we derived models to predict remission with each antidepressant drug...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609056/smoking-cessation-treatment-outcomes-among-people-with-and-without-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-an-observational-real-world-study
#8
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Aline Rodrigues Loreto, Bruna Beatriz Sales Guimarães-Pereira, Carlos Felipe Cavalcanti Carvalho, Felipe Gil, Fernanda Piotto Frallonardo, Flávia Ismael, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Antonio Ventriglio, Kimber P Richter, Dinesh Bhugra
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of studies evaluating smoking cessation treatment protocols which include people with and without mental and substance use disorders (MSUD), and which allows for individuals with MSUD undergoing their psychiatric treatment. METHODS: We compared treatment success between participants with (n = 277) and without (n = 419) MSUD among patients in a 6-week treatment provided by a Brazilian Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) from 2007 to 2013...
March 30, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579279/distribution-of-eight-qt-prolonging-drugs-and-their-main-metabolites-between-postmortem-cardiac-tissue-and-blood-reveals-potential-pitfalls-in-toxicological-interpretation
#9
Christian R Mikkelsen, Jakob R Jornil, Ljubica V Andersen, Jytte Banner, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
Femoral blood concentrations are usually used in postmortem toxicology to assess possible toxic effects of drugs. This includes QT-prolongation and other cardiac dysrhythmia, which could have been the cause of death. However, blood concentration is only a surrogate for the active site concentration, and therefore cardiac tissue concentration may provide a more accurate toxicological interpretation. Thus, cardiac tissue and femoral and cardiac blood concentrations were examined for eight frequently used QT-prolonging drugs (QTD) and their metabolites in a mentally ill population...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499509/exploring-the-sortilin-related-receptor-sorla-in-depression
#10
Henriette N Buttenschøn, Betina Elfving, Marit Nielsen, Sune Skeldal, Mathias Kaas, Ole Mors, Simon Glerup
BACKGROUND: Studies of individual biomarkers for depression have shown insufficient sensitivity and specificity for clinical use, and most likely combinations of biomarkers may provide a better signature. The sorting-related receptor with A-type repeats (SorLA) is a well-studied pathogenic factor for Alzheimer's. SorLA belongs to the Vps10p domain receptor family, which also encompasses sortilin and SorCS1-3. All family members have been implicated in neurological and mental disorders...
May 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389317/semi-automated-set-up-for-exhaustive-micro-electromembrane-extractions-of-basic-drugs-from-biological-fluids
#11
Miloš Dvořák, Knut Fredrik Seip, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, Pavel Kubáň
Manual handling of microliter volumes of samples and reagents is usually prone to errors and may have direct consequence on the overall performance of microextraction process. Direct connection of a syringe pump and a disposable microextraction unit using flexible polymeric tubing was employed for semi-automated liquid handling in micro-electromembrane extraction (μ-EME). A three-phase μ-EME system was formed by consecutive withdrawal of microliter volumes of donor solution, free liquid membrane (FLM) and acceptor solution into the unit...
April 16, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377288/effects-of-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-the-expression-of-tryptophan-metabolism-genes-by-human-macrophages
#12
Tim Regan, Andrew C Gill, Sara M Clohisey, Mark W Barnett, Carmine M Pariante, Neil A Harrison, David A Hume, Edward T Bullmore, Tom C Freeman
Several lines of evidence link macrophage activation and inflammation with (monoaminergic) nervous systems in the etiology of depression. IFN treatment is associated with depressive symptoms, whereas anti-TNFα therapies elicit positive mood. This study describes the actions of 2 monoaminergic antidepressants (escitalopram, nortriptyline) and 3 anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin, prednisolone, and anti-TNFα antibody) on the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from 6 individuals to LPS or IFN-α...
April 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333862/pharmacokinetic-determination-and-analysis-of-nortriptyline-based-on-gc-ms-coupled-with-hollow-fiber-drop-to-drop-solvent-microextraction-technique
#13
Pratik Kumar Jagtap, Kavita Tapadia
AIM: A simple, sensitive and robust technique of hollow-fiber drop-to-drop solvent microextraction coupled with GC-MS has been successfully developed for the detection of antidepressant drug nortriptyline in human blood and urine samples. The recoveries of the drug from the spiked samples are found to be well within the range and appropriate to support the method. RESULTS: The LOD for the drug was obtained to be 0.007, 0.009 and 0.021 μg ml-1 in deionized water, urine and blood samples of human subjects, respectively...
February 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332813/fast-and-easy-extraction-of-antidepressants-from-whole-blood-using-ionic-liquids-as-extraction-solvent
#14
Marieke De Boeck, Lisa Dubrulle, Wim Dehaen, Jan Tytgat, Eva Cuypers
This study aims to prove that ionic liquids (ILs) can be used as extraction solvents in a liquid-liquid microextraction, coupled to LC-MS/MS, for the quantification of a large group of antidepressants in whole blood samples. The sample preparation procedure consisted of adding 1.0mL aqueous buffer pH 3.0 and 60µL of IL (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) to 1.0mL whole blood. Subsequently, a 5-min rotary mixing step was performed followed by centrifugation. The lower IL phase was collected, diluted 1:10 in methanol and 10µL was injected into the LC-MS/MS...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306690/differential-change-on-depressive-symptom-factors-with-antidepressant-medication-and-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-major-depressive-disorder
#15
Boadie W Dunlop, Steven P Cole, Charles B Nemeroff, Helen S Mayberg, W Edward Craighead
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous condition and individual patients are likely to be differentially responsive to specific treatments. In an exploratory factor analysis of three rating scales, the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) trial identified three factors that were differentially associated with outcome to nortriptyline and escitalopram. However, this factor analysis has neither been replicated or applied to a psychotherapy treatment...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250815/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-cessation-of-tobacco-smoking
#16
REVIEW
Nieves Gómez-Coronado, Adam J Walker, Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd
Tobacco use disorder is a chronic illness. With its high comorbidity rate, it is a major cause of years of life lost or years lived with disability; however, it is also considered the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. Since the development of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in 1978, treatment options have continued to evolve and expand. Despite this, currently available treatments remain insufficient, with less than 25% of smokers remaining abstinent 1 year after treatment. In this article, we review existing and emerging smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, with a special emphasis on the most promising agents that are currently being investigated...
February 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197244/systematic-assessment-of-different-solvents-for-the-extraction-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-pharmaceuticals-from-an-authentic-hair-pool
#17
Milena M Madry, Thomas Kraemer, Markus R Baumgartner
Hair analysis has been established as a prevalent tool for retrospective drug monitoring. In this study, different extraction solvents for the determination of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in hair were evaluated for their efficiency. A pool of authentic hair from drug users was used for extraction experiments. Hair was pulverized and extracted in triplicate with seven different solvents in a one- or two-step extraction. Three one- (methanol, acetonitrile, and acetonitrile/water) and four two-step extractions (methanol two-fold, methanol and methanol/acetonitrile/formate buffer, methanol and methanol/formate buffer, and methanol and methanol/hydrochloric acid) were tested under accurately equal experimental conditions...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175411/mechanistic-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-pbpk-model-of-the-heart-accounting-for-inter-individual-variability-development-and-performance-verification
#18
Zofia Tylutki, Aleksander Mendyk, Sebastian Polak
Modern model-based approaches to cardiac safety and efficacy assessment require accurate drug concentration-effect relationship establishment. Thus, knowledge of the active concentration of drugs in heart tissue is desirable along with inter-subject variability influence estimation. To that end, we developed a mechanistic physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of the heart. The models were described with literature-derived parameters and written in R, v.3.4.0. Five parameters were estimated. The model was fitted to amitriptyline and nortriptyline concentrations after an intravenous infusion of amitriptyline...
April 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141255/is-venlafaxine-more-effective-than-escitalopram-and-nortriptyline-in-the-management-of-painful-symptoms-in-patients-with-major-depression
#19
Jan Jaracz, Karolina Gattner, Krystyna Jaracz, Krystyna Górna, Jerzy Moczko, Joanna Hauser
Background Conflicting data regarding the efficacy of antidepressants of different mechanism of action on unexplained painful physical symptoms (UPPS) in depression have been published so far. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the impact of escitalopram (ESC), nortriptyline (NOR), and venlafaxine (VEN) on UPPS in patients with major depression. Materials and methods Sixty patients, participants in the GENDEP study, with a diagnosis of depression according to the ICD-10 criteria were randomly assigned to treatment with ESC (10-30 mg, mean dose 15...
November 15, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106712/investigation-of-ph-effect-on-cationic-solute-binding-to-keratin-and-partition-to-hair
#20
L Li, S Yang, T Chen, L Han, G Lian
OBJECTIVE: In the process of hair treatment, various cationic actives contained in hair care products can be absorbed into hair fibre to modulate the physicochemical properties of hair such as colour, strength, style and volume. There have been very limited studies on the binding and partition properties of hair care actives to hair. This study aimed to investigate the pH effects on cationic solute absorption into hair and binding to keratin. METHODS: The keratin binding and hair partition properties of three cationic solutes (theophylline, nortriptyline and amitriptyline) have been measured at different pH using fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium absorption experiment...
February 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
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