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Tanja Mayer, Jürgen Kopitz, Konstanze Plaschke, Johanna Weiss, Hanna M Seidling, Walter E Haefeli
OBJECTIVE: The anticholinergic activity (AA) assay is a common method to determine a patient's anticholinergic load. Several limitations, however, are expected when applying the AA assay to patients or using drug scales to estimate anticholinergic burden based on AA levels. This study aims to demonstrate common pitfalls in an experimental setting and outline their clinical consequences. METHODS: The AA was analyzed for five drugs with reported interaction with muscarinic receptors...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Yaser Ghavami, Yarah M Haidar, Kasra N Ziai, Omid Moshtaghi, Jay Bhatt, Harrison W Lin, Hamid R Djalilian
OBJECTIVE: Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a balance disorder that typically starts after an extended exposure to passive motion, such as a boat or plane ride. Management is typically supportive (e.g. physical therapy), and symptoms that persist beyond 6 months have been described as unlikely to remit. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of patients with MdDS to management with migraine prophylaxis, including lifestyle changes and medical therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective review...
October 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
Theresa Mallick-Searle, Brett Snodgrass, Jeannine M Brant
Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a distinctive clinical condition caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster (chickenpox) virus following an initial infection. Approximately 1 million cases of herpes zoster occur annually in the US, and one in every three people develops herpes zoster during their lifetime. Postherpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome characterized by pain that persists for months to years after resolution of the herpes zoster rash. It stems from damage to peripheral and central neurons that may be a byproduct of the immune/inflammatory response accompanying varicella zoster virus reactivation...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Karim Malki, Maria Grazia Tosto, Héctor Mouriño-Talín, Sabela Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Oliver Pain, Irfan Jumhaboy, Tina Liu, Panos Parpas, Stuart Newman, Artem Malykh, Lucia Carboni, Rudolf Uher, Peter McGuffin, Leonard C Schalkwyk, Kevin Bryson, Mark Herbster
Response to antidepressant (AD) treatment may be a more polygenic trait than previously hypothesized, with many genetic variants interacting in yet unclear ways. In this study we used methods that can automatically learn to detect patterns of statistical regularity from a sparsely distributed signal across hippocampal transcriptome measurements in a large-scale animal pharmacogenomic study to uncover genomic variations associated with AD. The study used four inbred mouse strains of both sexes, two drug treatments, and a control group (escitalopram, nortriptyline, and saline)...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Matheus Marcon, Ana P Herrmann, Ricieri Mocelin, Cassiano L Rambo, Gessi Koakoski, Murilo S Abreu, Greicy M M Conterato, Luiza W Kist, Maurício R Bogo, Leila Zanatta, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Angelo L Piato
RATIONALE: Several model organisms have been employed to study the impacts of stress on biological systems. Different models of unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) have been established in rodents; however, these protocols are expensive, long-lasting, and require a large physical structure. Our group has recently reported an UCS protocol in zebrafish with several advantages compared to rodent models. We observed that UCS induced behavioral, biochemical, and molecular changes similar to those observed in depressed patients, supporting the translational relevance of the protocol...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Prerna Kukreti, Wazid Ali, R C Jiloha
Non puerperal lactation or galactorrhea is a well known side effect of antipsychotic drugs but has been infrequently described with the use of antidepressants. In past few decades, there have been emerging trend of isolated case reports of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors induced non puerperal lactation. We report a case of non puerperal lactation following usage of second generation tricyclic antidepressant, nortriptyline and resolution on withdrawing the drug. Literature review has been done for antidepressant induced galactorrhea to understand the current trends, putative mechanism as different from one implicated for antipsychotics and its clinical utility...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Emma Beard, Lion Shahab, Damian M Cummings, Susan Michie, Robert West
A wide range of support is available to help smokers to quit and to aid attempts at harm reduction, including three first-line smoking cessation medications: nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion. Despite the efficacy of these, there is a continual need to diversify the range of medications so that the needs of tobacco users are met. This paper compares the first-line smoking cessation medications with (1) two variants of these existing products: new galenic formulations of varenicline and novel nicotine delivery devices; and (2) 24 alternative products: cytisine (novel outside Central and Eastern Europe), nortriptyline, other tricyclic antidepressants, electronic cigarettes, clonidine (an anxiolytic), other anxiolytics (e...
October 2016: CNS Drugs
Sirous Momenzadeh, Vahid Akhyani, Zahra Razaghi, Asghar Ebadifar, Mohammadzaki Abbasi
INTRODUCTION: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) treatment is challenging with a high recurrence rate and still lacks a clear treatment frame. Therefore research on new, more efficient and long lasting effect treatment modalities is necessary. This study looked at the effects of intravenous laser therapy (IVL) and percutaneous low level laser (PLLL) in the management of shoulder MPS. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 30 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomly equally allocated to 3 groups, control, IVL and PLLL...
2016: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
Amir Farnoudian-Habibi, Bakhshali Massoumi, Mehdi Jaymand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Andrea Cipriani, Xinyu Zhou, Cinzia Del Giovane, Sarah E Hetrick, Bin Qin, Craig Whittington, David Coghill, Yuqing Zhang, Philip Hazell, Stefan Leucht, Pim Cuijpers, Juncai Pu, David Cohen, Arun V Ravindran, Yiyun Liu, Kurt D Michael, Lining Yang, Lanxiang Liu, Peng Xie
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental disorders in children and adolescents. However, whether to use pharmacological interventions in this population and which drug should be preferred are still matters of controversy. Consequently, we aimed to compare and rank antidepressants and placebo for major depressive disorder in young people. METHODS: We did a network meta-analysis to identify both direct and indirect evidence from relevant trials...
August 27, 2016: Lancet
Jose L Barboza, Radha Patel, Pooja Patel, Karen Suchanek Hudmon
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking can damage every organ in the body and is the leading known preventable cause of death globally. It is estimated that 70% of patients want to quit, and about 50% report a quit attempt in the past year, yet only 4-7% are successful. These low quit rates represent the importance of appropriate treatment for smoking cessation through behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic means. AREAS COVERED: Pharmacotherapy approximately doubles patients' chances of quitting, and the first-line approved pharmacotherapetuic options include nicotine gum, lozenge, patch, nasal spray, and inhaler, sustained-release bupropion, and varenicline...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
I Yazdani, M Ghazi-Khansari, S S Saeedi Saravi, M Nobakht, R Majdani, S M Rezayat, S E Mousavi, A Yari, A R Dehpour
We designed this experiment to evaluate the effects of nortriptyline on testicular injury after torsion/detorsion (T/D). Ninety-six adult Wistar rats were divided into six groups 16 each in control group (Group 1), sham operated (Group 2), T/D + saline (Group 3), and in groups 4-6; were administered 2, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) , i.p. of nortriptyline 30 and 90 min after torsion respectively. Testicular torsion was created by twisting the right testis 720° in clockwise direction for 1 h. In six rats of each group, tissue MDA level and caspase-3 activity increased and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in compared with control group 4 h after detorsion (P < 0...
May 5, 2016: Andrologia
Victor A D Holanda, Iris U Medeiros, Laila Asth, Remo Guerrini, Girolamo Calo', Elaine C Gavioli
RATIONALE: Pharmacological and genetic evidence support antidepressant-like effects elicited by the blockade of the NOP receptor. The learned helplessness (LH) model employs uncontrollable and unpredictable electric footshocks as a stressor stimulus to induce a depressive-like phenotype that can be reversed by classical antidepressants. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the action of NOP receptor antagonists in helpless mice. METHODS: Male Swiss mice were subjected to the three steps of the LH paradigm (i...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
E Berm, R Kok, E Hak, B Wilffert
Objectives: To determine relations between drug concentrations and the cytochrome P450-CYP2D6 genotype or phenotype among elderly patients treated with nortriptyline or venlafaxine. Methods: A post-hoc analysis of a clinical trial was performed. Patients were grouped into phenotypes according to the metabolite/mother compound ratio. Genotypes were assessed by the CYP2D6 *3 and *4 alleles. Results: Data was available from 81 patients (41 nortriptyline, 40 venlafaxine) with a mean age of 72 years. No phenoconversion from poor metabolizers (PM) to extensive metabolizers (EM), or vice versa, was found...
April 21, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Qinghua Weng, Bingqing Liang, Yali Zhou, Xiangyu Li, Hao Wang, Yunyun Zhan, Dapeng Dai, JianPing Cai, Guoxin Hu
CONTEXT: Amitriptyline (AT), one of the tricyclic antidepressants, is still widely used for the treatment of the depression and control of anxiety states and panic disorders in the developing countries. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the catalytic activities of CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*10 and 22 novel alleles in Han Chinese population and their effects on the N-demethylation of AT in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CYP2D6*1 and 24 CYP2D6 allelic variants were highly expressed in insect cells, and all variants were characterized using AT as a substrate...
April 20, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Raquel Iniesta, Karim Malki, Wolfgang Maier, Marcella Rietschel, Ole Mors, Joanna Hauser, Neven Henigsberg, Mojca Zvezdana Dernovsek, Daniel Souery, Daniel Stahl, Richard Dobson, Katherine J Aitchison, Anne Farmer, Cathryn M Lewis, Peter McGuffin, Rudolf Uher
The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remission during treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline and to identify contributing predictors from a range of demographic and clinical variables in 793 adults with major depressive disorder...
July 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Edward C Lauterbach
Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD...
2016: American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease
Eimear O'Neill, Billy Kwok, Jennifer S Day, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
Neuritic degeneration and synaptic loss are features of both neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease. The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline has neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory properties and acts as a novel agonist of the neurotrophin Trk receptors. Primary cortical neurons were treated with amitriptyline, nortriptyline and NGF and tested for neuronal complexity by Sholl analysis, protein expression by Western immunoblotting, and synapse number by colocalization of pre and postsynaptic makers...
April 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Célia Soares, Natália Fernandes, Pedro Morgado
At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by searching the PubMed/MEDLINE database...
April 2016: CNS Drugs
Lindsay F Stead, Priya Koilpillai, Thomas R Fanshawe, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Both behavioural support (including brief advice and counselling) and pharmacotherapies (including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion) are effective in helping people to stop smoking. Combining both treatment approaches is recommended where possible, but the size of the treatment effect with different combinations and in different settings and populations is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of combining behavioural support and medication to aid smoking cessation, compared to a minimal intervention or usual care, and to identify whether there are different effects depending on characteristics of the treatment setting, intervention, population treated, or take-up of treatment...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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