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acute hepatic failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097670/acute-liver-failure-in-scotland-changes-in-aetiology-and-outcomes-over-time-the-scottish-look-back-study
#1
M C Donnelly, J S Davidson, K Martin, A Baird, P C Hayes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure is a rare and devastating clinical condition resulting from sudden loss of hepatic parenchyma and metabolic function. The Scottish Liver Transplant Unit (SLTU) offers specialist management and emergency liver transplantation to patients with acute liver failure from across Scotland. AIM: To describe temporal changes in number of admissions, aetiology of acute liver failure, severity of disease at presentation and outcomes over a 22-year period...
January 18, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097104/massive-hemolysis-causing-renal-failure-in-acute-hepatitis-e-infection
#2
Pragya Karki, Sarthak Malik, Bipadabhanjan Mallick, Vishal Sharma, Surinder S Rana
Acute viral hepatitis is usually a self-limiting illness. However, it can lead to complications that can be life-threatening, such as acute liver failure. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the setting of acute viral hepatitis can lead to a massive hemolysis, manifesting as acute kidney injury and markedly raised bilirubin levels; although cases are rare. Here, we report such a case. The patient had a viral hepatitis E infection and presented with kidney injury requiring dialysis. Examination showed very high mixed hyperbilirubinemia due to massive intravascular hemolysis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093870/acute-management-of-autoimmune-toxicity-in-cancer-patients-on-immunotherapy-common-toxicities-and-the-approach-for-the-emergency-physician
#3
Anna J Lomax, Catriona McNeil
When a patient receiving anti-cancer treatment presents acutely unwell, an understanding of associated side effects of their therapy is critical. This review will discuss the approach to patients receiving anti-cancer treatment with immunotherapy presenting with autoimmune toxicities in the emergency setting. These toxicities are commonly referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). IrAE might consist of, but are not limited to, dermatologic, gastrointestinal (diarrhoea, colitis), hepatic, endocrine (thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis, adrenal crisis), renal, ocular and pulmonary toxicity...
January 16, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088582/ripk1-protects-hepatocytes-from-kupffer-cells-mediated-tnf-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-models-of-pamp-induced-hepatitis
#4
Aveline Filliol, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Céline Raguénès-Nicol, Sarah Dion, Muhammad Farooq, Catherine Lucas-Clerc, Peter Vandenabeele, Mathieu J M Bertrand, Jacques Le Seyec, Michel Samson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The severity of liver diseases is exacerbated by the death of hepatocytes, which can be induced by the sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) derived from the gut microbiota. The molecular mechanisms regulating these cell death pathways are poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the role of the Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 1 (RIPK1), a protein known to regulate cell fate decisions, in the death of hepatocytes using two in vivo models of PAMP-induced hepatitis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088461/changes-in-the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-alcoholic-liver-disease-among-patients-with-cirrhosis-or-liver-failure-on-the-waitlist-for-liver-transplantation
#5
David Goldberg, Ivo C Ditah, Kia Saeian, Mona Lalehzari, Andrew Aronsohn, Emmanuel C Gorospe, Michael Charlton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Concurrent to development of more effective drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), infection, there has been an increase in the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Data indicate that liver transplantation prolongs survival times of patient with acute hepatitis associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We compared data on disease prevalence in the population with data from liver transplantation waitlists to evaluate changes in the burden of liver disease in the United States...
January 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079146/nitrosative-stress-induced-disruption-of-baroreflex-neural-circuits-in-a-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-dti-study
#6
Ching-Yi Tsai, Chia-Hao Su, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
The onset of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver failure is associated with high mortality; the underlying mechanism is undecided. Here we report that in an acute liver failure model employing intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide in Sprague-Dawley rats, diffusion weighted imaging revealed a progressive reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient in the brain stem. Diffusion tensor imaging further showed that the connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the terminal site of baroreceptor afferents in brain stem and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of sympathetic innervation of blood vessels, was progressively disrupted until its disappearance, coincidental with the irreversible cessation of baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone signifying clinically the occurrence of brain death...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078736/investigation-of-underlying-comorbidities-as-risk-factors-for-symptomatic-human-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#7
S Zhang, C Chen, J Peng, X Li, D Zhang, J Yan, Y Zhang, C Lu, J Xun, W Li, Y Ling, Y Huang, L Chen
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection occurs in few infected subjects, and the risk factors are not completely known. AIMS: To explore the risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes in acute HEV infections. METHODS: A large retrospective study was conducted. The baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and laboratory data of 512 acute HEV infection cases were analysed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: All patients exhibited autochthonous sporadic HEV infections, and most were elderly...
January 12, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078470/appropriate-timing-to-start-and-optimal-response-evaluation-of-high-dose-corticosteroid-therapy-for-patients-with-acute-liver-failure
#8
Keisuke Kakisaka, Kojiro Kataoka, Yuji Suzuki, Hidekatsu Kuroda, Yasuhiro Takikawa
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid therapy has been commonly administered to patients with acute liver injury (ALI)/acute liver failure (ALF) in Japan to prevent the development of hepatic encephalopathy, but the appropriate timing to start corticosteroid therapy has not been determined and optimal response evaluation of the therapy has not been conducted. We prospectively investigated the optimal timing to start therapy on the established severity indication: the Japan Hepatic Encephalopathy Prediction Model (JHEPM) and prothrombin time (PT)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070199/performance-and-utility-of-transient-elastography-and-non-invasive-markers-of-liver-fiibrosis-in-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-single-centre-experience
#9
Olympia E Anastasiou, Matthias Büchter, Hideo A Baba, Johannes Korth, Ali Canbay, Guido Gerken, Alisan Kahraman
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a relatively rare cause of hepatic dysfunction, which can lead to acute liver failure (ALV) and cirrhosis if not treated. The performance of transient elastography (TE) compared to liver biopsy has been evaluated in many liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of TE and other non-invasive markers for liver fiibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven AIH. METHODS: Fifty-three patients who were treated at the department of gastroenterology and hepatology of the University Clinic Essen from 2008 to 2013 included in this retrospective study...
November 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068185/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-coxiella-burnetii-in-korean-native-cattle-dairy-cattle-and-dogs-in-south-korea
#10
Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Doo Kim, Hyung Gwan Jang, Seung-Joon Lee, Mi Yeoun Park, Tae-Wook Hahn
Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent and causes coxiellosis, which is a cause of reproductive failure in a range of animal species, including abortion and stillbirth and Q fever, which is most often characterized by an acute flu-like illness, mild pneumonia, and/or hepatitis in humans. While livestock are well recognized worldwide as a source of infection, the zoonotic risk of C. burnetii infection in companion animals such as dogs may be overlooked. For serological diagnosis, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are generally considered good methods for prevalence surveys of coxiellosis...
January 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067752/efficacy-and-safety-of-lamivudine-versus-entecavir-for-treating-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-exacerbation-and-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Kuang-Wei Huang, Ka-Wai Tam, Jiing-Chyuan Luo, Yi-Chun Kuan
BACKGROUND: Oral nucleos(t)ide analogs are recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute exacerbation (AE) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The efficacy and safety of administering entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LAM) to such patients remain unclear. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed to select studies published before December 2015 on therapy involving ETV or LAM for chronic HBV-related AE with or without ACLF...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060446/successful-treatment-of-donor-derived-hepatitis-c-viral-infection-in-three-transplant-recipients-from-a-donor-at-increased-risk-for-bloodborne-pathogens
#12
Ashesh P Shah, Andrew Cameron, Pooja Singh, Adam M Frank, Jonathan M Fenkel
We report here the successful treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmitted from a nucleic acid testing (NAT)-negative donor to 3 HCV-negative recipients - 2 renal transplants and 1 liver. Both renal recipients underwent standard deceased-donor renal transplantation with immediate graft function. The liver recipient underwent standard orthotopic liver transplantation and recovered uneventfully. The donor was a 39-year-old woman with a terminal serum creatinine of 0.7 mg/dL. She was high risk for bloodborne pathogens, based upon a history of sexual contact with an HCV-infected male partner...
January 6, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058226/time-spent-in-hospital-after-liver-transplantation-effects-of-primary-liver-disease-and-comorbidity
#13
Chutwichai Tovikkai, Susan C Charman, Raaj K Praseedom, Alexander E Gimson, Jan van der Meulen
AIM: To explore the effect of primary liver disease and comorbidities on transplant length of stay (TLOS) and LOS in later admissions in the first two years after liver transplantation (LLOS). METHODS: A linked United Kingdom Liver Transplant Audit - Hospital Episode Statistics database of patients who received a first adult liver transplant between 1997 and 2010 in England was analysed. Patients who died within the first two years were excluded from the primary analysis, but a sensitivity analysis was also performed including all patients...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058019/clinical-features-of-acute-hepatitis-e-super-infections-on-chronic-hepatitis-b
#14
Chong Chen, Shu-Ye Zhang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Xin-Yan Li, Yu-Ling Zhang, Wei-Xia Li, Jing-Jing Yan, Min Wang, Jing-Na Xun, Chuan Lu, Yun Ling, Yu-Xian Huang, Liang Chen
AIM: To examine the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcomes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) superimposed with hepatitis E virus (HEV). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 228 patients with acute HEV infection (showing clinical acute hepatitis symptomology and positivity for anti-HEV immunoglobulin M) with underlying CHB (confirmed by positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA over 6 mo) who had been admitted to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, which represents the regional tertiary hospital for infectious diseases in Shanghai city, China...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054280/successful-bypass-operation-for-esophageal-obstruction-after-acute-esophageal-necrosis-a-case-report
#15
Yayoi Sakatoku, Masahide Fukaya, Kazushi Miyata, Masato Nagino
BACKGROUND: Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is a rare clinical disorder. Esophageal stenosis or obstruction is one of severe complications, but there are a few reports about surgical treatments. In such a situation, it still remains controversial which to choose, esophagectomy or bypass operation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old woman was admitted to the local hospital for septic shock with diabetic ketoacidosis due to necrotizing fasciitis of the right thigh. Three days later, she had hematemesis, and gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed black mucosal coloration throughout the entire esophagus...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053053/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Ruben Hernaez, Elsa Solà, Richard Moreau, Pere Ginès
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome characterised by acute decompensation of chronic liver disease associated with organ failures and high short-term mortality. Alcohol and chronic viral hepatitis are the most common underlying liver diseases. Up to 40%-50% of the cases of ACLF have no identifiable trigger; in the remaining patients, sepsis, active alcoholism and relapse of chronic viral hepatitis are the most common reported precipitating factors. An excessive systemic inflammatory response seems to play a crucial role in the development of ACLF...
January 4, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041935/role-of-interleukin-23-in-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-of-hbv-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-and-its-correlation-with-the-severity-of-liver-damage
#17
Suxia Bao, Jianming Zheng, Ning Li, Chong Huang, Mingquan Chen, Qi Cheng, Qian Li, Qing Lu, Mengqi Zhu, Qingxia Ling, Kangkang Yu, Shengshen Chen, Guangfeng Shi
BACKGROUND: The role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) from hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to observe the correlation between the activation of the IL-23 signaling pathway and the prognosis of HBV-ACLF patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The baseline levels of serum IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) from immune tolerant (IT), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), HBV-ACLF patients and healthy individuals who served as healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed using the Luminex system, whereas serum IL-23 from HBV-ACLF patients was measured by ELISA before and after treatment...
December 29, 2016: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039098/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-interferon-free-antiviral-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#18
Inmaculada Fernández, Raquel Muñoz-Gómez, Juan M Pascasio, Carme Baliellas, Natalia Polanco, Nuria Esforzado, Ana Arias, Martín Prieto, Lluis Castells, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Olga Hernández, Javier Crespo, José L Calleja, Xavier Forns, María-Carlota Londoño
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is a major step forward in the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV). The aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of DAAs in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. METHODS: Hepa-C is a Spanish registry of patients treated with DAAs in which clinical, virological and analytical data were prospectively included. RESULTS: We report on the data from 103 KT recipients who received DAAs...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035464/the-lipoxin-a4-agonist-bml-111-attenuates-acute-hepatic-dysfunction-induced-by-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-in-rats
#19
Ghada S El-Tanbouly, Mohammed S El-Awady, Nermeen A Megahed, Hassan A El-Kashef, Hatem A Salem
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response associating severe infection leading to multi-organ failure, such as hepatic dysfunction. This study investigates the possible hepatoprotective effect of the lipoxin A4 agonist (BML-111) in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model in rats. Pretreatment with BML-111 (1 mg/kg, i.p., 1 h before CLP) protected against CLP-induced mortality after 24 h. BML-111 prevented marked inflammatory cells in liver tissues and decreased elevation in serum hepatic biomarkers [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT)] induced by CLP...
December 29, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031453/acute-liver-failure-meets-soph-syndrome-a-case-report-on-an-intermediate-phenotype
#20
Fanny Kortüm, Iris Marquardt, Malik Alawi, Georg Christoph Korenke, Stephanie Spranger, Peter Meinecke, Kerstin Kutsche
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening condition in the absence of preexisting liver disease in children. The main clinical presentation comprises hepatic dysfunction, elevated liver biochemical values, and coagulopathy. The etiology of ALF remains unclear in most affected children; however, the recent identification of mutations in the neuroblastoma amplified sequence (NBAS) gene in autosomal recessively inherited ALF has shed light on the cause of a subgroup of fever-triggered pediatric ALF episodes...
January 2017: Pediatrics
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