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acute hepatic failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775111/tamoxifen-prevents-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-acute-hepatic-failure-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-mmd-2-upregulation
#1
Xiaoxue Gong, Peng Cao, Liping Liu, Yan Lin, Qing Yang, Linyu Zhou, Tianen Wu, Mansheng Luo
Oxidative stress is considered one of the major mechanisms underlying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF). Tamoxifen has been reported to ameliorate LPS-induced ALF via the induction of monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd-2). Whether antioxidant effects are involved remains unknown. Mice were given tamoxifen (TAM) once a day for 3 days. Twelve hours later, d-galactosamine (GaIN) and LPS were injected intraperitoneally to induce ALF. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered immediately after ALF induction as a positive control...
May 18, 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765485/spontaneous-hemoperitoneum-resulting-from-segmental-arterial-mediolysis
#2
Emily Olivares, Harlan Vingan, Qiao Zhou
Segmental arterial mediolysis is a rare but potentially life-threatening arteropathy of medium to large arteries that can be managed with endovascular treatment for patients who are hemodynamically unstable. We present a case of segmental arterial mediolysis in a 73-year-old woman who developed spontaneous hemoperitoneum in the emergency department after initially presenting with unrelated upper respiratory complaints. Her initial computed tomography revealed an aneurysm arising off the right hepatic artery...
June 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762630/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-china-rationale-for-developing-a-patient-registry-and-baseline-characteristics
#3
Wen-Yi Gu, Bao-Yan Xu, Xin Zheng, Jinjun Chen, Xian-Bo Wang, Yan Huang, Yan-Hang Gao, Zhong-Ji Meng, Zhi-Ping Qian, Feng Liu, Xiao-Bo Lu, Jia Shang, Hai Li, Shao-Yang Wang, Xin Sun, Hai Li
Definitions and descriptions of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) vary between Western and Eastern types, and alcoholism and hepatitis B virus(HBV) are the main etiologies, respectively. To determine whether there are unified diagnostic criteria and common treatment programs for different etiologies of ACLF, a multicenter prospective cohort with the same inclusion criteria and disease indicators as those used in the European CANONIC (Chronic liver failure-ACLF in Cirrhosis) study is urgently needed in Asia, where the prevalence of HBV is high...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762236/acute-pancreatitis-following-peptide-receptor-radionuclide-therapy-an-unusual-adverse-event
#4
Ioannis Karfis, Gwennaëlle Marin, Godelieve Machiels, Alain Hendlisz, Patrick Flamen
A 54-year-old man with grade 2 rectal neuroendocrine tumor and hepatic, pancreatic, and bone metastases was treated with Lu-DOTATATE as second-line therapy, after failure of somatostatin analogues. Two weeks after the first injection, he presented at the emergency department with acute pancreatitis. We hypothesized that this unusual adverse event, never been reported so far, was the result of acute tumor irradiation after PRRT, leading to peritumoral inflammation and edema with obstruction of an accessory pancreatic duct...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753761/grand-rounds-alcoholic-hepatitis
#5
REVIEW
Ashwani K Singal, Alexandre Louvet, Vijay H Shah, Patrick S Kamath
Alcoholic hepatitis presents with acute on chronic liver failure among patients with chronic and active heavy use of alcohol, with high short-term mortality. These patients suffer from two problems, namely hepatic dysfunction and alcohol use disorder. Short-term outcome is impacted by liver failure and the long-term outcome by alcoholism and relapse to alcohol use. Clearly, these patients need integrated and coordinated management from the beginning by multi-disciplinary team. Herein, we describe a clinical vignette on a 33 year old male patient who survived the first episode of alcoholic hepatitis with this integrated management approach...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749699/histological-findings-in-protocol-biopsies-following-pediatric-liver-transplant-low-incidence-of-abnormalities-at-5-years
#6
Amin Sheikh, Kai Y Chau, Helen M Evans
Histological abnormalities, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, and steatosis, are increasingly reported in liver biopsies of children after LT. These changes may be progressive and represent a form of rejection. Liver biochemistry is often initially normal. Our LT program began in 2002, utilizing tacrolimus and low-dose steroids for the first year post-LT. Patients undergo a protocol biopsy at 1 year post-LT prior to stopping steroids, then at 5 years and every 5 years thereafter. Target tacrolimus levels are 5-8 μg/L and 3-5 μg/L after 3 and 12 months, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747301/-the-463rd-case-rhabdomyolysis-acute-kidney-failure-and-acute-hepatic-failure
#7
W Shi, D Wu, N Si, W Jiang, J Ma, X M Li
We represented a 22-year-old male patient who developed rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney failure and acute hepatic failure and was finally diagnosed as multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. The patient appeared temporary stable status after high dose vitamine-B(2) supplement whereas deterioration was still fatal with pulmonary infection, acute respiratory failure and acute heart failure.
May 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743800/a-case-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-aclf-due-to-an-uncommon-acute-and-chronic-event
#8
Swastik Agrawal, Baldev S Rana, Suvradeep Mitra, Ajay Duseja, Ashim Das, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
Acute on Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF) is an acute worsening of patients with chronic liver disease resulting in liver failure. Usually these patients have cirrhosis as the underlying liver disease with alcohol being the most common etiology. Common hepatitic illnesses causing acute worsening in Indian patients of ACLF include alcoholic hepatitis, acute viral hepatitis related to hepatitis E virus and acute flare in chronic hepatitis B. We report an adult case of ACLF due acute viral hepatitis related to hepatitis A virus infection superimposed on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis without cirrhosis...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743020/ifi16-is-involved-in-hbv-associated-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-inflammation
#9
Xiuqing Pang, Xinhua Li, Zhishuo Mo, Jing Huang, Hong Deng, Ziying Lei, Xingrong Zheng, Zhiying Feng, Dongying Xie, Zhiliang Gao
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic DNA virus, and its DNA may be a potent inflammatory molecule. Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), a newly discovered DNA sensor, plays an important role in the process of inflammation in viral infections. Our study sought to identify a correlation between IFI16 expression and inflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and HBV-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). METHODS: We performed flow cytometry to measure IFI16 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and used immunohistochemistry and western blotting to measure IFI16 protein levels in liver tissues...
May 9, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742228/sofa-in-the-first-24-hours-as-an-outcome-predictor-of-acute-liver-failure
#10
Edison Moraes Rodrigues-Filho, Rogério Fernandes, Anderson Garcez
OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of patients with acute liver failure and to analyze the demographic and clinical factors associated with mortality. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in which all patients admitted for acute liver failure from July 28, 2012, to August 31, 2017, were included. Clinical and demographic data were collected using the Epimed System. The SAPS 3, SOFA, and MELD scores were measured. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739258/4-methylpyrazole-protects-against-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity-in-mice-and-in-primary-human-hepatocytes
#11
J Y Akakpo, A Ramachandran, S E Kandel, H M Ni, S C Kumer, B H Rumack, H Jaeschke
Liver injury due to acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the major cause of acute liver failure in the United States. While treatment with N-acetylcysteine is the current standard of care for APAP overdose, anecdotal evidence suggests that administration of 4-methylpyrazole (4MP) may be beneficial in the clinic. The objective of the current study was to examine the protective effect of 4MP and its mechanism of action. Male C57BL/6J mice were co-treated with 300 mg/kg of APAP and 50 mg/kg of 4MP. The severe liver injury induced by APAP at 6 h as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activities, centrilobular necrosis, and nuclear DNA fragmentation was almost completely eliminated by 4MP...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739113/combination-of-micrornas-and-cytokines-a-method-for-better-evaluation-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#12
Chunwen Pu, Chunmeng Jiang, Lang Lang, Huang Hui, Zhidong Wang, Dapeng Ma, Yong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim was to establish expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) and of plasma cytokines from the patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) and high-risk of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients as well as healthy people and to examine the relationships between these profiles and clinical features. METHODS: Herein, we collected PBMCs and plasma from peripheral blood of HBV-ACLF and ACLF patients as well as healthy people...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738353/spleen-stiffness-differentiates-between-acute-and-chronic-liver-damage-and-predicts-hepatic-decompensation
#13
Phil Meister, Alexander Dechêne, Matthias Büchter, Julia Kälsch, Guido Gerken, Ali Canbay, Christoph Jochum
OBJECTIVES: Spleen stiffness (SS) correlates with liver stiffness (LS) and hepatic venous pressure gradient. The latter is currently the most accurate predictor of hepatic decompensation. Our study aims to check whether SS has a similar predictive capability, while being an easy-to-perform noninvasive test in a real-life patient cohort. METHODS: Concomitantly, 210 successive patients were examined and received liver and SS measurements and a standard laboratory...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735790/comparison-of-dynamic-changes-among-various-prognostic-scores-in-viral-hepatitis-related-acute-liver-failure
#14
Shalimar -, Ujjwal Sonika, Saurabh Kedia, Soumya J Mahapatra, Baibaswata Nayak, Dawesh P Yadav, Deepak Gunjan, Bhaskar Thakur, Harpreet Kaur, Subrat K Acharya
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Multiple prognostic scores are available for acute liver failure (ALF). Our objective was to compare the dynamicity of model for end stage liver disease (MELD), MELD-sodium, acute liver failure early dynamic model (ALFED), chronic liver failure (CLIF)-consortium ACLF score and King's College Hospital Criteria (KCH) for predicting outcome in ALF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients with ALF at a tertiary care centre in India were included...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735782/an-overview-of-liver-transplant-pathology-data-from-a-tertiary-referral-centre-in-western-india
#15
Fiona Fonseca, Bijal Kulkarni, Meenal Hastak, Vinay Kumaran, Vibha Varma, Sorabh Kapoor
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: 1. Study of liver explants - Etiologic types of end-stage chronic liver disease (ESCLD) and acute liver failure (ALF) in adults and children. 2. Assessment of donor steatosis and incidental granulomas. 3. Post-transplant liver biopsies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens of 180 explant hepatectomies, 173 donor wedge and 30 core liver biopsies, and 58 post transplant liver biopsies received in our department from April 2013 to March 2017. RESULTS: 1...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735580/natural-history-clinical-manifestations-and-pathogenesis-of-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-1-and-2-infections
#16
Rakesh Aggarwal, Amit Goel
Infection with genotype 1 or 2 hepatitis E virus (HEV) results primarily from human-to-human transmission through the fecal-oral route in low-resource countries. It presents primarily as "acute viral hepatitis" syndrome, usually a self-limiting illness. A few cases progress to acute liver failure, a serious illness with high fatality. Clinical disease is infrequent among children. Infection during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of symptomatic disease, severe liver injury, and mortality...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735575/acute-and-persistent-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-and-4-infection-clinical-features-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#17
Nassim Kamar, Sven Pischke
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 and 4 infections are prevalent in industrialized and high-income countries. Although most HEV gt3 and gt4 infections are clinically silent, acute infection may be symptomatic in some patients. In persons with underlying liver disease and in elderly men, HEV infections may present as acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure. Chronic hepatitis may develop in immunosuppressed individuals, including transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and persons with hematologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy, and may progress to life-threatening liver cirrhosis...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731771/undifferentiated-adipose-tissue-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-hepatic-regeneration-ameliorates-histopathologic-damage-of-the-liver-and-upregulates-the-expression-of-liver-regeneration-and-liver-specific-genes-in-a-rat-model-of-partial-hepatectomy
#18
Konstantinos G Apostolou, Ioannis G Papanikolaou, Charalampos Katselis, Themistoklis Feretis, Dimitrios Kletsas, Manousos M Konstadoulakis, Maria Lymperi, Angelica A Saetta, Spiros Tsikalakis, George Agrogiannis, Efstratios Patsouris, George C Zografos, Apostolos E Papalois
Objective: Adipose tissue stem cells (ADSCs) present a promising therapeutic method to alleviate liver failure (LF). The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of undifferentiated ADSC transplantation on liver regeneration and on the expression of liver regeneration- and liver-specific genes, following 60% partial hepatectomy (PHx). Methods: Sixty female rats were subjected to PHx and were transplanted with 106 or 2 × 106 ADSCs, either into the portal vein (PV) or into the hepatic parenchyma...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727380/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#19
Bin Chen, Yong-Hong Wang, Jin-Qin Qian, Dong-Bo Wu, En-Qiang Chen, Hong Tang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a condition with high mortality. New strategies are urgently required. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) treatment in patients with ACLF associated with hepatitis B virus infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for the relevant publications. If appropriate, a meta-analysis was carried out for the following outcomes: survival rate, model for end-stage liver disease score, and liver function...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727379/severe-liver-failure-rather-than-cirrhosis-is-associated-with-mortality-in-patients-with-infectious-endocarditis-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#20
Manon Allaire, Jean-François D Cadranel, Christophe Bureau, Salah Zerkly, Thierry Thévenot, Armand Garioud, Patrice Cacoub, Gilles Macaigne, Laurent Alric, Vincent Jouannaud, Hortensia Lison, Carine Chagneau-Derrode, Alexandre Pariente, Agne Combining Grave Accent S Pe Combining Acute Accent Laquier, Marc Bourlie Combining Grave Accent Re, Xavier Causse, Jean-Baptiste Nousbaum, Je Combining Acute Accent Rôme Dumortier, Alexandre Louvet, Isabelle Rosa-He Combining Acute Accent Zode, Nathalie Ganne-Carrie Combining Acute Accent, Ryme Chentouh, Anis Sfaxi, Je Combining Acute Accent Rome Gournay, He Combining Acute Accent le Combining Grave Accent Ne Blasco-Perrin, Teresa Antonini, Laurent Spahr, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Christine Silvain, Vincent Di Martino, Jean-Didier Grange, Jacques Denis, Karine Dupont, Pierre Iaria, Isabelle Ollivier-Hourmand, Thong Dao
BACKGROUND: Data on infectious endocarditis (IE) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are sparse. We aimed to describe the characteristics and predictors of mortality from IE in patients with LC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 101 patients with LC and 101 controls with IE matched for sex, age, date of IE, and diabetes were retrospectively selected in 23 liver units between 2000 and 2013. RESULTS: Mean age was 60.8±10.5 and 60.6±11.5 years in LC and controls, respectively...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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