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Bile acid diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316592/influence-of-stress-factors-related-to-cheese-making-process-and-to-stec-detection-procedure-on-the-induction-of-stx-phages-from-stec-o26-h11
#1
Ludivine Bonanno, Benjamin Delubac, Valérie Michel, Frédéric Auvray
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for human infections, ranging from mild watery diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (CH) that may be complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The main STEC virulence factor is Shiga toxin encoded by the stx gene, located in the genome of a bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial chromosome. The serotype O26:H11 is the second HUS-causing serotype worldwide (after O157:H7), and the first found in dairy products such as raw-milk cheeses. A small number of HUS cases identified each year in France are caused by serotype O26:H11...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288854/irinotecan-induced-bile-acid-malabsorption-is-associated-with-down-regulation-of-ileal-asbt-slc10a2-in-mice
#2
A-Xi Shi, Yan Zhou, Xiao-Yi Zhang, Yan-Shu Zhao, Hong-Yan Qin, Yan-Ping Wang, Xin-An Wu
Irinotecan, (CPT-11), an antitumor agent primarily used for the treatment of solid tumors, has often compromised clinical application due to the inducement of severe delay-onset diarrhea. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is widely accepted as the common cause of diarrhea. However, whether CPT-11-induced diarrhea has correlation with BAM is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CPT-11 on the bile acid homeostasis in mice. The mice were administrated with CPT-11 intravenously for four consecutive days...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275113/potential-mechanisms-of-effects-of-serum-derived-bovine-immunoglobulin-protein-isolate-therapy-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#3
Nelson Valentin, Michael Camilleri, Paula Carlson, Sean C Harrington, Deborah Eckert, Jessica O'Neill, Duane Burton, Jun Chen, Audrey L Shaw, Andres Acosta
Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI), an oral nutritional therapy, is efficacious in diverse diarrheal diseases. In an open-label study in 15 patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D), we evaluated effects of SBI (5.0 g, twice a day) for 8 weeks on safety, on bowel function and abdominal pain, tryptophan metabolism (K:T ratio), intestinal permeability ((13)C-mannitol and lactulose excretion), bile acid synthesis (fasting serum FGF-19 and C4), duodenal and stool microbiome, and the expression of 90 genes related to inflammation, immune function, and tight junctions in duodenal mucosa...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177354/dietary-supplementation-with-tributyrin-prevented-weaned-pigs-from-growth-retardation-and-lethal-infection-via-modulation-of-inflammatory-cytokines-production-ileal-expression-and-intestinal-acetate-fermentation
#4
Y Gu, Y Song, H Yin, S Lin, X Zhang, L Che, Y Lin, S Xu, B Feng, D Wu, Z Fang
Weanling pigs, with an underdeveloped intestine and immature immune system, are usually subjected to depressed feed intake, growth retardation, and postweaning diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine 1) the growth response of weaned pigs to supplemental tributyrin (TB) and 2) the potential effects and mechanisms of TB in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. A total of 240 piglets (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were weaned at 21 d of age to a control (basal diet), supplemented with antibiotics (AB; +AB), supplemented with TB (+TB), or with supplemental AB and TB (+AB+TB) diets, with 10 replicate pens (6 piglets/pen) per diet...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174746/the-farnesoid-x-receptor-good-for-bad
#5
REVIEW
Stephen J Keely, Julian R F Walters
Diarrhea is a feature of several chronic intestinal disorders that are associated with increased delivery of bile acids into the colon. Although the prevalence of bile acid diarrhea is high, affecting approximately 1% of the adult population, current therapies often are unsatisfactory. By virtue of its capacity to inhibit colonic epithelial fluid secretion and to down-regulate hepatic bile acid synthesis through induction of the ileal fibroblast growth factor 19 release, the nuclear bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor, represents a promising target for the development of new therapeutic approaches...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169840/bile-acid-disease-the-emerging-epidemic
#6
Ibironke Oduyebo, Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our objective was to review advances in bile acids in health and disease published in the last 2 years. Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is recognized as a common cause of chronic diarrhea, and its recognition has been facilitated by development of new screening tests. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary BAD can account for 30% of cases of chronic diarrhea. The mechanisms leading to BAD include inadequate feedback regulation by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) from ileal enterocytes, abnormalities in synthesis or degradation of proteins involved in FGF-19 regulation in hepatocytes and variations as a function of the bile acid receptor, TGR5 (GPBAR1)...
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169559/challenges-in-diagnosing-medication-resins-in-surgical-pathology-specimens-a-crystal-clear-review-guide
#7
Raul S Gonzalez, Stephen M Lagana, Oliver Szeto, Christina A Arnold
CONTEXT: -Medication resins, including Kayexalate, sevelamer, and bile acid sequestrants, can be encountered in gastrointestinal tract specimens. Their classic histologic appearances have been well documented, but pathologist recognition of the resins is 75%, patient history is not always available, and atypical morphologic findings are sometimes present. OBJECTIVE: -To offer a succinct overview of resins in the gastrointestinal tract, including typical and atypical appearances, in order to serve as a quick reference guide...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078458/superiority-of-laparoscopic-proximal-gastrectomy-with-hand-sewn-esophagogastrostomy-over-total-gastrectomy-in-improving-postoperative-body-weight-loss-and-quality-of-life
#8
Tatsuto Nishigori, Hiroshi Okabe, Shigeru Tsunoda, Hisashi Shinohara, Kazutaka Obama, Hisahiro Hosogi, Shigeo Hisamori, Kikuko Miyazaki, Takeo Nakayama, Yoshiharu Sakai
BACKGROUND: Proximal gastrectomy is not widely performed because the procedure is complicated, particularly under laparoscopy. We developed a simple laparoscopic technique of hand-sewn esophagogastrostomy with an anti-reflux mechanism. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the postoperative body weight loss (BWL) and quality of life (QOL) following laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) and laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) in patients with upper gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with stage I upper gastric cancer undergoing LPG or LTG at Kyoto University Hospital between March 2006 and June 2014...
January 11, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027573/defects-in-myo5b-are-associated-with-a-spectrum-of-previously-undiagnosed-low-%C3%AE-glutamyltransferase-cholestasis
#9
Yi-Ling Qiu, Jing-Yu Gong, Jia-Yan Feng, Ren-Xue Wang, Jun Han, Teng Liu, Yi Lu, Li-Ting Li, Mei-Hong Zhang, Jonathan A Sheps, Neng-Li Wang, Yan-Yan Yan, Jia-Qi Li, Lian Chen, Christoph H Borchers, Bence Sipos, A S Knisely, Victor Ling, Qing-He Xing, Jian-She Wang
Hereditary cholestasis in childhood and infancy with normal serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity (GGT) is linked to several genes. Many patients, however, remain genetically undiagnosed. Defects in myosin 5B (MYO5B) cause microvillus inclusion disease (MVID, MIM251850) with recurrent watery diarrhea. Cholestasis reported as an atypical presentation in MVID has been considered a side effect of parenteral alimentation. Here, however, we report ten patients who experienced cholestasis associated with biallelic, or suspected biallelic, mutations in MYO5B and who neither had recurrent diarrhea nor received parenteral alimentation...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#10
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858369/cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-presenting-with-infantile-spasms-and-intellectual-disability
#11
Austin Larson, James D Weisfeld-Adams, Tim A Benke, Penelope E Bonnen
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an inborn error of metabolism leading to progressive multisystem disease. Symptoms often begin in the first decade of life with chronic diarrhea, cataracts, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and cerebellar or pyramidal dysfunction. Later manifestations include tendon xanthomas, polyneuropathy, and abnormal neuroimaging. Pathogenic biallelic variants in CYP27A1 leading to compromised function of sterol 27-hydroxylase result in accumulation of detectable toxic intermediates of bile acid synthesis rendering both genetic and biochemical testing effective diagnostic tools...
November 18, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856362/colonic-transit-and-bile-acid-synthesis-or-excretion-in-patients%C3%A2-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-diarrhea-without-bile%C3%A2-acid-malabsorption
#12
Cédric Peleman, Michael Camilleri, Irene Busciglio, Duane Burton, Leslie Donato, Alan R Zinsmeister
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bile acids (BAs) are passively absorbed to a different extent along the mammalian colon, so that levels are lower in the feces than in proximal colon. Our aim was to explore associations among total, primary, and secretory BA in stool and colonic transit in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) without overt BA malabsorption (BAM). METHODS: In a cross-sectional observational study of 116 patients with IBS-D recruited from local communities in Minnesota, we measured total and individual main fecal BA excretion, fecal fat and fecal weight over 48 hours, fasting serum levels of C4 (surrogate for BA synthesis), and overall colonic transit by scintigraphy (geometric center at 24 hours and 48 hours)...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777930/characterization-of-aqps-in-mouse-rat-and-human-colon-and-their-selective-regulation-by-bile-acids
#13
Jonathan Yde, Stephen Keely, Qi Wu, Johan F Borg, Natalia Lajczak, Aoife O'Dwyer, Peter Dalsgaard, Robert A Fenton, Hanne B Moeller
In normal individuals, the epithelium of the colon absorbs 1.5-2 l of water a day to generate dehydrated feces. However, in the condition of bile acid malabsorption (BAM), an excess of bile acids in the colon results in diarrhea. Several studies have attempted to address the mechanisms contributing to BAM induced by various bile acids. However, none have addressed a potential dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels, which are responsible for the majority of transcellular water transport in epithelial cells, as a contributing factor to the onset of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of BAM...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777888/ursodeoxycholic-acid-in-treatment-of-non-cholestatic-liver-diseases-a-systematic-review
#14
Jillian Reardon, Trana Hussaini, Majid Alsahafi, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Nilufar Partovi, Eric M Yoshida
Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684270/the-expanding-role-of-the-bile-acid-receptor-farnesoid-x-in-the-intestine-and-its-potential-clinical-implications
#15
Laurens J Ceulemans, Emilio Canovai, Len Verbeke, Jacques Pirenne, Ricard Farré
Knowledge about the role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the intestine is rapidly expanding. In pre-clinical animal models of inflammatory bowel disease and bile duct ligation, FXR activation has proven to directly target the three pillars of intestinal homeostasis: intestinal permeability, inflammation and bacterial translocation. The protective role of FXR-ligands on this homeostasis has implications for many intestinal pathologies like inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia reperfusion injury, the metabolic syndrome, colon cancer and even diarrhea...
August 10, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616761/a-systematic-literature-search-and-review-of-sodium-concentrations-of-body-fluids%C3%A2
#16
REVIEW
Elaine M Kaptein, Divya Sreeramoju, John M Kaptein, Matthew J Kaptein
BACKGROUND: Wide ranges of sodium concentrations for different body fluid losses have been noted with minimal substantiating data and variability among sources, leading to use of "cumulative fluid balance" regardless of composition in hospitalized patients. AIMS: To define the sodium concentrations of fluid losses from the body. METHOD: We performed a systematic search and literature review in adult humans using PubMed database. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met for 107 full-text articles...
October 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609770/chemical-and-molecular-factors-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-current-knowledge-challenges-and-unanswered-questions
#17
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Ibironke Oduyebo, Houssam Halawi
Several chemical and molecular factors in the intestine are reported to be altered and to have a potentially significant role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), particularly in IBS with diarrhea. These include bile acids; short-chain fatty acids; mucosal barrier proteins; mast cell products such as histamine, proteases, and tryptase; enteroendocrine cell products; and mucosal mRNAs, proteins, and microRNAs. This article reviews the current knowledge and unanswered questions in the pathobiology of the chemical and molecular factors in IBS...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570415/mechanisms-of-triglyceride-metabolism-in-patients-with-bile-acid-diarrhea
#18
Nidhi Midhu Sagar, Michael McFarlane, Chuka Nwokolo, Karna Dev Bardhan, Ramesh Pulendran Arasaradnam
Bile acids (BAs) are essential for the absorption of lipids. BA synthesis is inhibited through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity. BA sequestration is known to influence BA metabolism and control serum lipid concentrations. Animal data has demonstrated a regulatory role for the FXR in triglyceride metabolism. FXR inhibits hepatic lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c via small heterodimer primer activity. Conversely, FXR promotes free fatty acids oxidation by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512828/an-integrated-multi-omic-approach-to-assess-radiation-injury-on-the-host-microbiome-axis
#19
Maryam Goudarzi, Tytus D Mak, Jonathan P Jacobs, Bo-Hyun Moon, Steven J Strawn, Jonathan Braun, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace, Heng-Hong Li
Medical responders to radiological and nuclear disasters currently lack sufficient high-throughput and minimally invasive biodosimetry tools to assess exposure and injury in the affected populations. For this reason, we have focused on developing robust radiation exposure biomarkers in easily accessible biofluids such as urine, serum and feces. While we have previously reported on urine and serum biomarkers, here we assessed perturbations in the fecal metabolome resulting from exposure to external X radiation in vivo...
September 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501174/primary-pancreatic-secretinoma-further-evidence-supporting-secretin-as-a-diarrheogenic-hormone
#20
William Y Chey, Wendy L Frankel, Sashwati Roy, Soma Datta, Chandan K Sen, Mary Dillhoff, Peter Muscarella, Konrad H Soergel, Ronald K Tompkins, Ta-Min Chang, Edward L Bradley, Edwin Christopher Ellison
OBJECTIVES: To document the existence of primary pancreatic secretinoma in patients with watery diarrhea syndrome (WDS) and achlorhydria and establish secretin as a diarrheogenic hormone. BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been widely accepted as the main mediator of WDS. However, in 1968, Zollinger et al reported 2 female patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, WDS, and achlorhydria. During surgery on the first, a 24-year-old patient, they noticed distended duodenum filled with fluid and a dilated gallbladder containing dilute bile with high bicarbonate concentration...
August 5, 2016: Annals of Surgery
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