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plant-based and apo A-1

Xiaoqiong Qin, Kathryn Fischer, Shu Yu, Jorge Dubcovsky, Li Tian
BACKGROUND: β-carotene, the most active provitamin A molecule produced by plants, plays important roles in human nutrition and health. β-carotene does not usually accumulate in the endosperm (i.e. flour) of mature wheat grains, which is a major food source of calories for humans. Therefore, enriching β-carotene accumulation in wheat grain endosperm will enable a sustainable dietary supplementation of provitamin A. Several metabolic genes affecting β-carotene accumulation have already been isolated from wheat, including phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYe) and carotenoid β-ring hydroxylase1/2 (HYD1/2)...
July 12, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
T Fu, J J Hull, T Yang, G Wang
As signal integrators that respond to various physical and chemical stimuli, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels fulfil critical functional roles in the sensory systems of both vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. Here, four variants of TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were identified and cloned from the green plant bug, Apolygus lucorum. Spatiotemporal expression profiling across development and in different adult tissues revealed that the highest relative-transcript levels occurred in first-instar nymphs and antennae, respectively...
August 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Bronwyn Lyons, Ravikiran Ravulapalli, Jason Lanoue, Miguel R Lugo, Debajyoti Dutta, Stephanie Carlin, A Rod Merrill
A bioinformatics strategy was used to identify Scabin, a novel DNA-targeting enzyme from the plant pathogen 87.22 strain of Streptomyces scabies Scabin shares nearly 40% sequence identity with the Pierisin family of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins. Scabin was purified to homogeneity as a 22-kDa single-domain enzyme and was shown to possess high NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (Km (NAD) = 68 ± 3 μm; kcat = 94 ± 2 min(-1)) activity with an RSQXE motif; it was also shown to target deoxyguanosine and showed sigmoidal enzyme kinetics (K0...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xinmei Yang, Takashi Matsui, Takeshi Kodama, Takahiro Mori, Xiaoxi Zhou, Futoshi Taura, Hiroshi Noguchi, Ikuro Abe, Hiroyuki Morita
UNLABELLED: In polyketide biosynthesis, ring formation is one of the key diversification steps. Olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC) from Cannabis sativa, involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis, is the only known plant polyketide cyclase. In addition, it is the only functionally characterized plant α+β barrel (DABB) protein that catalyzes the C2-C7 aldol cyclization of the linear pentyl tetra-β-ketide CoA as the substrate, to generate olivetolic acid (OA). Herein, we solved the OAC apo and OAC-OA complex binary crystal structures at 1...
March 2016: FEBS Journal
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