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plant-based diet and immune system

Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Katia Aquilano
The standard cancer treatments include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or their combination, which are generally associated with a multitude of side effects ranging from discomfort to the development of secondary tumors and severe toxicity to multiple systems including immune system. Mounting evidence has highlighted that the fine-tuning of nutrients may selectively sensitize cancer cells to conventional cancer therapies, while simultaneously protecting normal cells from their side effects. Nutrient modulation through diet also improves cancer immunesurveillance in a way that severe immunosuppression could be avoided or even the immune response or immune-based cancer therapies be potentiated also through patient microbiota remodeling...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Mari C López-Pérez, Fabián Pérez-Labrada, Lino J Ramírez-Pérez, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado, América B Morales-Díaz, Susana González-Morales, Luis R García-Dávila, Jesús García-Mata, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza
Silicon is an essential nutrient for humans, additionally is beneficial for terrestrial plants. In plants Si enhances tolerance to different types of stress; in humans, it improves the metabolism and increases the strength of skeletal and connective tissues as well as of the immune system. Most of the Si intake of humans come from edible plants creating a double benefit: first, because the absorption of Si increases the antioxidants and other phytochemicals in plants, thereby increasing its functional value, and second because the higher concentration of Si in plants increases intake in human consumers...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sharique A Ali, Naima Parveen, Ayesha S Ali
Nutrition and other bioactive natural products present in specific foods within a balanced diet play an indispensable role in maintaining and promoting human health. Plants are rich sources of a balanced nutrition because of high content of bioactive products; hence, most of them recently have acquired the status of superfoods. It has been used since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments, and these traditional medicines still remain as one of the most affordable and easily accessible sources of treatment in the primary health-care system...
March 2018: International Journal of Health Sciences
K A de Souza, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, A P Brandão, T F Schumaher, I N Prado, R S Marques, D W Bohnert
With increased regulations regarding the use of feed-grade antimicrobials in livestock systems, alternative strategies to enhance growth and immunity of feedlot cattle are warranted. Hence, this experiment compared performance, health and physiological responses of cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients during the initial 60 days in the feedlot. Angus×Hereford calves (63 steers+42 heifers) originating from two cow-calf ranches were weaned on day -3, obtained from an auction yard on day -2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the feedlot...
March 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Mahalingam Anjugam, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Narayanan Gobi, Mani Divya, Merlin P Thangaraj, Preetham Elumalai
Recently, several immunostimulants such as β-glucan, microbial and plant products have been used as dietary supplements to combat disease outbreaks in aquaculture. The present study investigates the potential of Portunus pelagicus β-1, 3 glucan binding protein based zinc oxide nanoparticles (Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs) supplemented diet on growth, immune response and disease resistance in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The immune-related protein β-GBP was purified from the haemolymph of P. pelagicus using Sephadex G-100 affinity column chromatography...
May 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jason Abernathy, Andreas Brezas, Kevin R Snekvik, Ronald W Hardy, Ken Overturf
Finding suitable alternative protein sources for diets of carnivorous fish species remains a major concern for sustainable aquaculture. Through genetic selection, we created a strain of rainbow trout that outperforms parental lines in utilizing an all-plant protein diet and does not develop enteritis in the distal intestine, as is typical with salmonids on long-term plant protein-based feeds. By incorporating this strain into functional analyses, we set out to determine which genes are critical to plant protein utilization in the absence of gut inflammation...
2017: PloS One
Rita Azeredo, Marina Machado, Eva Kreuz, Sven Wuertz, Aires Oliva-Teles, Paula Enes, Benjamín Costas
Inclusion of prebiotics in aqua feeds, though a costly strategy, has increased as a means to improve growth. Still, its effects on health improvement are not fully disclosed. Regarding their immunestimulatory properties, research has focused on carbohydrates such as fructooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides demonstrating their modulatory effects on immune defences in higher vertebrates but few studies have been done on their impact on fish immunity. Replacing fish meal (FM) by plant protein (PP) sources is a current practice in the aquaculture business but their content in antinutrients is still a drawback in terms of gut well-functioning...
January 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Matteo Soverini, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Stephanie L Schnorr, Sara Quercia, Andrea Castagnetti, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
Studies of the gut microbiome variation among human populations revealed the existence of robust compositional and functional layouts matching the three subsistence strategies that describe a trajectory of changes across our recent evolutionary history: hunting and gathering, rural agriculture, and urban post-industrialized agriculture. In particular, beside the overall reduction of ecosystem diversity, the gut microbiome of Western industrial populations is typically characterized by the loss of Treponema and the acquisition of Bifidobacterium as an abundant inhabitant of the post-weaning gut microbial ecosystem...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katherine Esposito, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Dario Giugliano
Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals...
April 2017: Endocrine
Eva Vallejos-Vidal, Felipe Reyes-López, Mariana Teles, Simon MacKenzie
In order to maintain fish health and to improve performance immunostimulants have been used as dietary additives to improve weight gain, feed efficiency, and/or disease resistance in cultured fish. In aquaculture, non-specific immunostimulants have been widely used probably due to the limited knowledge of the immune response in fish and the ease of their application. Many studies have been carried out to assess the effect of dietary immunostimulants in fish including algal derivatives, herb and plant extract containing diets using a wide range of downstream analytical techniques...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Restricted dietary intakes of protein or essential amino acids tend to slow aging and boost lifespan in rodents, presumably because they downregulate IGF-I/Akt/mTORC1 signaling that acts as a pacesetter for aging and promotes cancer induction. A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort has revealed that relatively low protein intakes in mid-life (under 10 % of calories) are indeed associated with decreased subsequent risk for mortality. However, in those over 65 at baseline, such low protein intakes were associated with increased risk for mortality...
October 2015: Age (2005-)
G Estruch, M C Collado, D S Peñaranda, A Tomás Vidal, M Jover Cerdá, G Pérez Martínez, S Martinez-Llorens
Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata), the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, also considering parameters of growth, survival and nutrient utilisation indices...
2015: PloS One
Pamela Fuentes-Appelgren, Rafael Opazo, Luis Barros, Carmen G Feijoó, Victoria Urzúa, Jaime Romero
Some components of plant-based meals, such as saponins and vegetal proteins, have been proposed as inducers of intestinal inflammation in some fish. However, the molecular and cellular bases for this phenomenon have not been reported. In this work, zebrafish were used as a model to evaluate the effects of individual soybean meal components, such as saponins and soy proteins. Zebrafish larvae fed a fish meal feed containing soy components were assessed according to low and high inclusion levels. The granulocytes associated with the digestive tract and the induction of genes related to the immune system were quantitated as markers of the effects of the dietary components...
February 2014: Zebrafish
Ian B Jeffery, Paul W O'Toole
It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large contribution of the gut microbiota to this effect. As well as providing basic nutritional requirements, the long-term diet of an animal modifies its gut microbiota. In adults, diets that have a high proportion of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of meat are associated with a highly diverse microbiota and are defined by a greater abundance of Prevotella compared to Bacteroides, while the reverse is associated with a diet that contains a low proportion of plant-based foods...
January 17, 2013: Nutrients
Maria Baranowski, Jennifer Enns, Heather Blewett, Uma Yakandawala, Peter Zahradka, Carla G Taylor
BACKGROUND: Adipocyte dysfunction is characterized by an increase in adipocyte size and changes to their adipokine profiles. Immune cell infiltration into adipose tissue is thought to contribute to the metabolic complications of obesity, with local and systemic consequences for the inflammatory status of the obese individual. Dietary interventions with omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources have been successful at reducing inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine whether flaxseed oil containing the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) is an effective modulator of inflammation and adipocyte dysfunction...
August 2012: Cytokine
Florian Geay, Serena Ferraresso, Jose L Zambonino-Infante, Luca Bargelloni, Claire Quentel, Marc Vandeputte, Sachi Kaushik, Chantal L Cahu, David Mazurais
BACKGROUND: Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM) or fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)...
2011: BMC Genomics
Kasper Hettinga, Hein van Valenberg, Sacco de Vries, Sjef Boeren, Toon van Hooijdonk, Johan van Arendonk, Jacques Vervoort
Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk...
2011: PloS One
Robert A Gibson, Bev Muhlhausler, Maria Makrides
Over the past two decades, there has been a marked shift in the fatty acid composition of the diets of industrialized nations towards increased intake of the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), largely as a result of the replacement of saturated fats with plant-based polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). While health agencies internationally continue to advocate for high n-6 PUFA intake combined with increased intakes of preformed n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are questions as to whether this is the best approach...
April 2011: Maternal & Child Nutrition
David Heber
Obesity is the result of the accumulation of excess body fat and not simply excess weight that can be muscle or fat. Adipocytes function in the adaptation to starvation, in exercise energetics, and in the immune defense against pathogens. Sustained positive energy balance results in excessive accumulation of adipocytes, which, in the abdomen, leads to chronic inflammation. Although informative studies have been performed with cultured adipocytes, an integrative approach to the regulation of abdominal adipose tissue involves feedback from autocrine and paracrine effectors secreted by adipocytes, the immune system, and blood flow through adipose tissue...
January 2010: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Clifford A Adams
Events such as BSE, foot and mouth disease and avian influenza illustrate the importance of animal health on a global basis. The only practical solution to deal with such problems has usually been mass culling of millions of animals at great effort and expense. Serious consideration needs to be given to nutrition as a practical solution for health maintenance and disease avoidance of animals raised for food. Health or disease derives from a triad of interacting factors; diet-disease agent, diet-host and disease agent-host...
June 2006: Nutrition Research Reviews
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