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plant-based diet and immune system

Jason Abernathy, Andreas Brezas, Kevin R Snekvik, Ronald W Hardy, Ken Overturf
Finding suitable alternative protein sources for diets of carnivorous fish species remains a major concern for sustainable aquaculture. Through genetic selection, we created a strain of rainbow trout that outperforms parental lines in utilizing an all-plant protein diet and does not develop enteritis in the distal intestine, as is typical with salmonids on long-term plant protein-based feeds. By incorporating this strain into functional analyses, we set out to determine which genes are critical to plant protein utilization in the absence of gut inflammation...
2017: PloS One
Rita Azeredo, Marina Machado, Eva Kreuz, Sven Wuertz, Aires Oliva-Teles, Paula Enes, Benjamín Costas
Inclusion of prebiotics in aqua feeds, though a costly strategy, has increased as a means to improve growth. Still, its effects on health improvement are not fully disclosed. Regarding their immunestimulatory properties, research has focused on carbohydrates such as fructooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides demonstrating their modulatory effects on immune defences in higher vertebrates but few studies have been done on their impact on fish immunity. Replacing fish meal (FM) by plant protein (PP) sources is a current practice in the aquaculture business but their content in antinutrients is still a drawback in terms of gut well-functioning...
January 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Matteo Soverini, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Stephanie L Schnorr, Sara Quercia, Andrea Castagnetti, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
Studies of the gut microbiome variation among human populations revealed the existence of robust compositional and functional layouts matching the three subsistence strategies that describe a trajectory of changes across our recent evolutionary history: hunting and gathering, rural agriculture, and urban post-industrialized agriculture. In particular, beside the overall reduction of ecosystem diversity, the gut microbiome of Western industrial populations is typically characterized by the loss of Treponema and the acquisition of Bifidobacterium as an abundant inhabitant of the post-weaning gut microbial ecosystem...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katherine Esposito, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Dario Giugliano
Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals...
April 2017: Endocrine
Eva Vallejos-Vidal, Felipe Reyes-López, Mariana Teles, Simon MacKenzie
In order to maintain fish health and to improve performance immunostimulants have been used as dietary additives to improve weight gain, feed efficiency, and/or disease resistance in cultured fish. In aquaculture, non-specific immunostimulants have been widely used probably due to the limited knowledge of the immune response in fish and the ease of their application. Many studies have been carried out to assess the effect of dietary immunostimulants in fish including algal derivatives, herb and plant extract containing diets using a wide range of downstream analytical techniques...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Restricted dietary intakes of protein or essential amino acids tend to slow aging and boost lifespan in rodents, presumably because they downregulate IGF-I/Akt/mTORC1 signaling that acts as a pacesetter for aging and promotes cancer induction. A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort has revealed that relatively low protein intakes in mid-life (under 10 % of calories) are indeed associated with decreased subsequent risk for mortality. However, in those over 65 at baseline, such low protein intakes were associated with increased risk for mortality...
October 2015: Age (2005-)
G Estruch, M C Collado, D S Peñaranda, A Tomás Vidal, M Jover Cerdá, G Pérez Martínez, S Martinez-Llorens
Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata), the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, also considering parameters of growth, survival and nutrient utilisation indices...
2015: PloS One
Pamela Fuentes-Appelgren, Rafael Opazo, Luis Barros, Carmen G Feijoó, Victoria Urzúa, Jaime Romero
Some components of plant-based meals, such as saponins and vegetal proteins, have been proposed as inducers of intestinal inflammation in some fish. However, the molecular and cellular bases for this phenomenon have not been reported. In this work, zebrafish were used as a model to evaluate the effects of individual soybean meal components, such as saponins and soy proteins. Zebrafish larvae fed a fish meal feed containing soy components were assessed according to low and high inclusion levels. The granulocytes associated with the digestive tract and the induction of genes related to the immune system were quantitated as markers of the effects of the dietary components...
February 2014: Zebrafish
Ian B Jeffery, Paul W O'Toole
It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large contribution of the gut microbiota to this effect. As well as providing basic nutritional requirements, the long-term diet of an animal modifies its gut microbiota. In adults, diets that have a high proportion of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of meat are associated with a highly diverse microbiota and are defined by a greater abundance of Prevotella compared to Bacteroides, while the reverse is associated with a diet that contains a low proportion of plant-based foods...
January 17, 2013: Nutrients
Maria Baranowski, Jennifer Enns, Heather Blewett, Uma Yakandawala, Peter Zahradka, Carla G Taylor
BACKGROUND: Adipocyte dysfunction is characterized by an increase in adipocyte size and changes to their adipokine profiles. Immune cell infiltration into adipose tissue is thought to contribute to the metabolic complications of obesity, with local and systemic consequences for the inflammatory status of the obese individual. Dietary interventions with omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources have been successful at reducing inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine whether flaxseed oil containing the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) is an effective modulator of inflammation and adipocyte dysfunction...
August 2012: Cytokine
Florian Geay, Serena Ferraresso, Jose L Zambonino-Infante, Luca Bargelloni, Claire Quentel, Marc Vandeputte, Sachi Kaushik, Chantal L Cahu, David Mazurais
BACKGROUND: Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM) or fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)...
2011: BMC Genomics
Kasper Hettinga, Hein van Valenberg, Sacco de Vries, Sjef Boeren, Toon van Hooijdonk, Johan van Arendonk, Jacques Vervoort
Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk...
2011: PloS One
Robert A Gibson, Bev Muhlhausler, Maria Makrides
Over the past two decades, there has been a marked shift in the fatty acid composition of the diets of industrialized nations towards increased intake of the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), largely as a result of the replacement of saturated fats with plant-based polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). While health agencies internationally continue to advocate for high n-6 PUFA intake combined with increased intakes of preformed n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are questions as to whether this is the best approach...
April 2011: Maternal & Child Nutrition
David Heber
Obesity is the result of the accumulation of excess body fat and not simply excess weight that can be muscle or fat. Adipocytes function in the adaptation to starvation, in exercise energetics, and in the immune defense against pathogens. Sustained positive energy balance results in excessive accumulation of adipocytes, which, in the abdomen, leads to chronic inflammation. Although informative studies have been performed with cultured adipocytes, an integrative approach to the regulation of abdominal adipose tissue involves feedback from autocrine and paracrine effectors secreted by adipocytes, the immune system, and blood flow through adipose tissue...
January 2010: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Clifford A Adams
Events such as BSE, foot and mouth disease and avian influenza illustrate the importance of animal health on a global basis. The only practical solution to deal with such problems has usually been mass culling of millions of animals at great effort and expense. Serious consideration needs to be given to nutrition as a practical solution for health maintenance and disease avoidance of animals raised for food. Health or disease derives from a triad of interacting factors; diet-disease agent, diet-host and disease agent-host...
June 2006: Nutrition Research Reviews
Klaus W J Wahle, Donatella Caruso, Julio J Ochoa, Jose L Quiles
Epidemiological studies show that populations consuming a predominantly plant-based Mediterranean-style diet exhibit lower incidences of chronic diseases than those eating a northern European or North American diet. This observation has been attributed to the greater consumption of fruits and vegetables and the lower consumption of animal products, particularly fat. Although total fat intake in Mediterranean populations can be higher than in other regions (ca. 40% of calories), the greater proportion is derived from olive oil and not animals...
December 2004: Lipids
W J Malaisse, E Olivares, A Laghmich, L Ladrière, A Sener, F W Scott
The present studies were undertaken to examine concomitant diet-induced changes in pancreatic islets and cells of the gut immune system of diabetes-prone BB rats in the period before classic insulitis. Diabetes-prone (BBdp) and control nondiabetes prone (BBc) BB rats were fed for approximately 17 days either a mainly plant-based standard laboratory rodent diet associated with high diabetes frequency, NIH-07 (NIH) or a protective semipurified diet with hydrolyzed casein (HC) as the amino acid source. By about 7 weeks of age, NIH-fed BBdp rats had lower plasma insulin and insulin/glucose ratio, lower insulin content of isolated islets, lower basal levels of NO but higher responsiveness of NO production to IL-1beta in cultured islets, and higher Con A response and biosynthetic activities in mesenteric lymphocytes than control rats fed the same diet...
2000: International Journal of Experimental Diabetes Research
F W Scott, E Olivares, A Sener, W J Malaisse
The present studies were performed to determine if a protective diet has different effects on the metabolic activity or function of islet cells, as well as the metabolic activity of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells and spleen cells, from BioBreeding (BB) rats. Diabetes-prone BB (BBdp) rats and control non-diabetes-prone BB (BBc) rats were fed for about 20 days either a mainly plant-based diabetogenic diet, NIH-07 (NIH), or a protective semipurified diet with hydrolyzed casein (HC) as the amino acid source...
September 2000: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
R K Buddington, A Krogdahl, A M Bakke-Mckellep
The intestine is a complex multifunctional organ. In addition to digesting and absorbing feedstuffs, the intestine is critical for water and electrolyte balance, endocrine regulation of digestion and metabolism, and immunity. The intestines of carnivorous fish have evolved for processing a highly digestible, nutrient dense diet that is high in protein and low in carbohydrate. Correspondingly, abilities to digest protein are well developed, but carbohydrate digestion is low compared to omnivorous and herbivorous fish...
1997: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum
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