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plant-based diet and antioxidants

Lucia CrascÌ, Maria Rosaria Lauro, Giovanni Puglisi, Annamaria Panico
The diet polyphenols are a secondary metabolites of plants able to act on inflammation process. Their anti-inflammatory activity is articulated through several mechanisms that are related to their antioxidative and radical scavengers properties. Our work is focused on a novel approach to inflammatory disease management, based on anti-glycative and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibition effects, as a connected phenomena. To better understand these correlation, polyphenols Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) studies were also reported...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Richard Wilson, Ira Cooke, Peter D Nichols
Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon...
2016: PloS One
Jacopo G Cecere, Manuela Caprioli, Chiara Carnevali, Graziano Colombo, Isabella Dalle-Donne, Elisa Mancuso, Aldo Milzani, Marco Parolini, Antea Portanova, Nicola Saino, Lorenzo Serra, Diego Rubolini
Flavonoids are the most abundant plant polyphenols, widely occurring in fruits and berries, and show a strong antioxidant activity in vitro Studies of avian species feeding on berries suggest that dietary flavonoids have health-promoting effects and may enhance the expression of melanin-based plumage traits. These effects are probably mediated by the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. However, the effect of dietary flavonoids on oxidative status has never been investigated in any bird species. We analysed the effects of dietary flavonoids on blood non-enzymatic antioxidants and protein oxidative damage of juvenile European blackbirds (Turdus merula)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Cara L Frankenfeld
Recent evidence supports that the gut microbial community, independently and/or interactively with dietary intake, is a target for reducing CVD risk through its effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. Dietary phytoestrogens may be a source for interactive effects. Phytoestrogens, such as isoflavones, lignans, and flavonoids, are compounds found in plants that have estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activities, as well as antioxidant, anti-proliferative, or apoptotic actions. Given these physiological activities, phytoestrogens may have a role in cardiometabolic health...
July 28, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Katherine Esposito, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Dario Giugliano
Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals...
July 9, 2016: Endocrine
Rebeca García-Varela, Oscar Raúl Fajardo Ramírez, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Julio Altamirano, Guy A Cardineau
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional or folk medicine has led to the discovery of important bioactive substances used in several health-related areas. Phytochemicals in Rhoeo discolor (R. discolor) extracts have proven to have important cancer cell specific cytotoxic activity. In the present research, we determined the cytotoxic effect of extracts of R. discolor, a plant commonly used in Mexico for both medicinal and ornamental purposes. AIM OF THE STUDY: We evaluated the cytotoxic effects against three representative human cancer cell lines: HT-29 colon cancer, Hep-G2 liver cancer and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, as well as a control fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Nancy J McGraw, Elaine S Krul, Elizabeth Grunz-Borgmann, Alan R Parrish
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem as risk factors such as advanced age, obesity, hypertension and diabetes rise in the global population. Currently there are no effective pharmacologic treatments for this disease. The role of diet is important for slowing the progression of CKD and managing symptoms in later stages of renal insufficiency. While low protein diets are generally recommended, maintaining adequate levels of intake is critical for health. There is an increasing appreciation that the source of protein may also be important...
May 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Marion Burckhardt, Max Herke, Tobias Wustmann, Stefan Watzke, Gero Langer, Astrid Fink
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) from fish and plant sources are commonly considered as a promising non-medical alternative to improve brain functions and slow down the progression of dementia. This assumption is mostly based on findings of preclinical studies and epidemiological research. Resulting explanatory models aim at the role omega-3 PUFAs play in the development and integrity of the brain's neurons, their protective antioxidative effect on cell membranes and potential neurochemical mechanisms directly related to Alzheimer-specific pathology...
April 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lais Mattos de Aguiar, Fernanda Hernandes Figueira, Marco Silva Gottschalk, Carlos Eduardo da Rosa
Glyphosate is a non-selective and post-emergent herbicide that affects plant growth. Animal exposure to this herbicide can lead to adverse effects, such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and behavioural disorders. Drosophilids have been utilized previously as an effective tool in toxicological tests. In the present study, the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup [Original]) were investigated regarding oxidative stress, the antioxidant defence system and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Drosophila melanogaster...
July 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Taíssa Torres, Adriana Farah
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative contribution of the most commonly consumed plant foods in Brazil to the total antioxidant capacity (AC) of Brazilian's diet. The importance of regional consuming habits and income for dietary AC was also approached. METHODS: The annual per capita consumption database from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) was used for identification of the most consumed plant foods in Brazil...
March 14, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Monica B Betancor, Thi M C Dam, James Walton, Thea Morken, Patrick J Campbell, Douglas R Tocher
Increased substitution of marine ingredients by terrestrial plant products in aquafeeds has been proven to be suitable for Atlantic salmon farming. However, a reduction in n-3 long-chain PUFA is a consequence of this substitution. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of fishmeal and oil substitution on levels of micronutrients such as Se, considering fish are major sources of this mineral for human consumers. To evaluate the effects of dietary marine ingredient substitution on tissue Se distribution and the expression of Se metabolism and antioxidant enzyme genes, Atlantic salmons were fed three feeds based on commercial formulations with increasing levels of plant proteins (PP) and vegetable oil...
April 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Dong Ho Suh, Eun Sung Jung, Hye Min Park, Seung Hyung Kim, Sarah Lee, Yang Hee Jo, Mi Kyeong Lee, Gayoung Jung, Seon-Gil Do, Choong Hwan Lee
We used ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to study the changes in metabolites in the mixture of Cudrania tricuspidata, Lonicera caerulea, and soybean (CLM) during fermentation. Additionally, the antiobesity effects of CLM and fermented-CLM (FCLM) were studied based on the analysis of plasma from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The levels of cyanidin and the glycosides of luteolin, quercetin, and cyanidin derived from L. caerulea were decreased, whereas the levels of luteolin and quercetin were increased during fermentation...
2016: PloS One
Yan Zhou, Lili Zhou, Zheng Ruan, Shumei Mi, Min Jiang, Xiaolan Li, Xin Wu, Zeyuan Deng, Yulong Yin
Dietary polyphenols are thought to be beneficial for human health by acting as antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is abundant in plant-based foods as an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of CGA on mitochondrial protection. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with CGA ameliorated the intestinal mitochondrial injury induced by H2O2; membrane potential was increased, mitochondrial swelling, levels of reactive oxygen species, contents of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and cytochrome c released were decreased...
May 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Inês Guerreiro, Ana Couto, Marina Machado, Carolina Castro, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Aires Oliva-Teles, Paula Enes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on immune and hepatic oxidative status, and gut morphology of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to the control but supplemented with 1% of scFOS, XOS or GOS. Dietary prebiotic incorporation did not affect total blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood indices or differential white blood cell counts...
March 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Alexandra M Towns, Tinde van Andel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In West Africa, women utilize wild plant species to maintain and enhance their health throughout the duration of pregnancy. These plants are a culturally resilient and financially accessible form of nourishment for pregnant women in the region, many of whom are malnourished, yet studies that identify both the nutritional and medicinal properties of these plants are limited. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study was to analyze women's knowledge of plants consumed in pregnancy in the southern regions of Ghana and Benin from a food-medicine continuum perspective...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Tommy Cederholm, John E Morley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent conundrums in the interface of nutrition, biology and aging. RECENT FINDINGS: A Mediterranean diet with extra virgin olive oil, or similar plant-based diets, including five helpings of fruit and vegetables, exercise and nonsmoking are the mainstays of aging successfully. Recent studies have questioned the utility of weight loss in older persons, the use of antioxidant vitamin supplements as well as the appropriate level of sodium intake...
January 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Francesca Pistollato, Sandra Sumalla Cano, Iñaki Elio, Manuel Masias Vergara, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns' health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants...
September 2015: Advances in Nutrition
Janie Corley, Janet A M Kyle, John M Starr, Geraldine McNeill, Ian J Deary
Epidemiological studies have reported inverse associations between various single healthy diet indices and lower levels of systemic inflammation, but rarely are they examined in the same sample. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential relationships between biomarkers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen) and overall foods (dietary patterns), single foods (fruits and vegetables), and specific nutritive (antioxidants) and non-nutritive (flavonoids) food components in the same narrow-age cohort of older adults...
October 14, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Yukiko Morimoto, Fanchon Beckford, Robert V Cooney, Adrian A Franke, Gertraud Maskarinec
For cancer prevention, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) emphasise recommendations to improve individual behaviour, including avoidance of tobacco products, maintaining a lean body mass, participating in physical activity, consuming a plant-based diet, and minimising the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as sodas, red and processed meats and alcohol. In the present study of 275 healthy premenopausal women, we explored the association of adherence scores with levels of three biomarkers of antioxidant and inflammation status: serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum γ-tocopherol and urinary F2-isoprostane...
July 14, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Kyung-A Hwang, Kyung-Chul Choi
Phytoestrogens are phenolic compounds derived from plants and exert an estrogenic as well as an antiestrogenic effect and also various biological efficacies. Chemopreventive properties of phytoestrogens has emerged from epidemiological observations indicating that the incidence of some cancers including breast and prostate cancers is much lower in Asian people, who consume significantly higher amounts of phytoestrogens than Western people. There are 4 main classes of phytoestrogens: isoflavones, stilbenes, coumestans, and lignans...
2015: Nutrition and Cancer
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