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stress theory

Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Sanna Rönkä, Anu Katainen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. METHODS: The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Rachel H Farr
Same-sex adoptive couples are increasingly visible, yet few studies have addressed relationship stability and dissolution among these couples. In this study, using a theoretical framework based on Investment Models and Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Theory, factors associated with dissolution and post-dissolution adjustment among 27 lesbian adoptive couples were examined across two points. At Wave 1, all 27 couples were together; children were on average 3 years old. Results revealed that nearly one third broke up over 5 years (between Waves 1 and 2)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Kurt K Hubbard, Diane Blyler
Research involving working memory has indicated that stress and anxiety compete for attentional resources when a person engages in attention-dependent cognitive processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived stress and state anxiety on working memory and academic performance among health science students and to explore whether the reduction of stress and anxiety was achieved through progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training. A convenience sample of 128 graduate students participated in this study...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Mahdiyar Shahbazi, Rammile Ettelaie, Ghadir Rajabzadeh
This article presents the complementary data regarding compatibilization of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte complex for synthesizing of a soft film using ascorbic acid. It includes the thermal-theory for estimating the degradation of κ-carrageenan, as reflected in alteration of the structural properties of the blend. The data has been provided to demonstrate that the blend solution based on chitosan, a polycation, and κ-carrageenan, a polyanion polymer, produces an incompatible polyelectrolyte composite, susceptible to coaservative phase separation...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Rachel H Farr
Controversy continues to surround parenting by lesbian and gay (LG) adults and outcomes for their children. As sexual minority parents increasingly adopt children, longitudinal research about child development, parenting, and family relationships is crucial for informing such debates. In the psychological literature, family systems theory contends that children's healthy development depends upon healthy family functioning more so than family structure. From the framework of family stress theory, it was expected that longitudinal outcomes for school-age children adopted in infancy could be distinct among those with same-sex versus other-sex parents (N = 96 families)...
October 20, 2016: Developmental Psychology
Behdin Nowrouzi, Christine Nguyen, Jennifer Casole, Behnam Nowrouzi-Kia
This study determined the impact and influence of published articles on the field of occupational stress. A transdisciplinary approach was used to identify the 50 work-related stress articles with the most lifetime citations and the 50 work-related stress articles with the highest annual citation rates. Studies were categorized based on their primary focus: (a) etiology, (b) predictor of outcome for which occupational stress is the outcome or predictor of outcome for which occupational stress is an independent variable, (c) management/intervention, (d) theory/model/framework, or (e) methodologies...
October 6, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
Norma Alva, Ronald Alva, Teresa Carbonell
In clinical and experimental settings, a great deal of effort is being made to protect cells and tissues against harmful conditions and to facilitate metabolic recovery following these insults. Much of the recent attention has focused on the protective role of a natural form of sugar, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F16bP). F16bP is a high-energy glycolytic intermediate that has been shown to exert a protective action in different cell types and tissues (including the brain, kidney, intestine, liver and heart) against various harmful conditions...
October 14, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Annerine Roos, Jean-Paul Fouche, Dan J Stein
Evidence suggests that women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have structural and functional alterations in specific brain regions. Yet, little is known about how brain connectivity may be altered in individuals with IPV, but without PTSD. Women exposed to IPV (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) underwent structural brain imaging using a Siemens 3T MRI. Global and regional brain network connectivity measures were determined, using graph theory analyses...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
C Hetzel, R Baumann, J Diekmann, I Froböse
The aim of this study is to describe the concept of a prevention program for informal caregivers and its fit into stress theory and quality criteria. The program combines a 4-day group intervention outside the home with individual professional care in familiar domestic surroundings (family health care for persons with high burden, home training for specific care aspects). The program applies strategies focusing on problems and emotions. The program can be financed by social security funds. The 4-day respite service closes a gap in health services for informal caregivers...
October 18, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Sheri E Pegram, Antonia Abbey
There are well-established associations between sexual assault victimization and deleterious psychological and physical health outcomes. The present study contributes to the emerging health disparities literature by examining similarities and differences in relationships between the severity of the sexual assault and health in a community sample of African American and Caucasian survivors. Although the overall pattern of relationships was expected to be comparable for all survivors, some associations were hypothesized to be stronger for African American survivors as compared with Caucasian survivors based on theories of chronic stress...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Francesca Taylor, Jennifer Hare, Gill Combes
BACKGROUND: Many patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have significant psychosocial needs as a consequence of their illness and treatment. Unmet needs can impact negatively on their health and well-being. Patients want improved psychosocial support particularly in relation to coping and adjustment. Little is known about the relevance and applicability to patients of intervention approaches to support their psychosocial needs. OBJECTIVES: To explore patients' attitudes to different intervention approaches that could be developed to help them cope with the psychosocial stressors of ESKD, and to assess the potential acceptability of these approaches...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Renal Care
Usha Goswami, Lisa Barnes, Natasha Mead, Alan James Power, Victoria Leong
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory...
October 17, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Christina Dyar, Brian A Feinstein, Nicholas R Eaton, Bonita London
The negative impact of discrimination on mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations has been well documented. However, the possible mediating roles of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress in the association between discrimination and internalizing symptoms remain unclear. Rejection-based proximal stress is a subset of proximal stressors that are theorized to arise from concerns about and expectations of sexual orientation-based rejection and discrimination...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Rabea Seyboldt, Dimitri Merger, Fabian Coupette, Miriam Siebenbürger, Matthias Ballauff, Manfred Wilhelm, Matthias Fuchs
The leading nonlinear stress response in a periodically strained concentrated colloidal dispersion is studied experimentally and by theory. A thermosensitive microgel dispersion serves as well-characterized glass-forming model, where the stress response at the first higher harmonic frequency (3ω for strain at frequency ω) is investigated in the limit of small amplitude. The intrinsic nonlinearity at the third harmonic exhibits a scaling behavior which has a maximum in an intermediate frequency window and diverges when approaching the glass transition...
October 18, 2016: Soft Matter
Alexander L Weldon, Kedar Joshi, Alexander F Routh, James F Gilchrist
Rapid convective deposition is used to assemble nanoparticle coatings from suspension, with controllable thickness. Varying film thickness generates stress-induced linear cracks with highly monodisperse spacing. Film thickness is controlled through mechanical means, suspension volume fraction, and the use of applied thermal gradients. These cracks extend in the deposition direction, and a uniform crack spacing from 2 to 160μm is observed. The nanoparticle film thickness is the relevant length scale for hydrodynamic flow, and films will crack with this spacing, in a characteristic manner to minimize the system energy and capillary stresses...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Magdalena Pertynska-Marczewska, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator, the pituitary gonadotropes, the ovaries, and the uterus play a crucial role in female fertility. A decline in reproductive performance represents a complex interplay of actions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Recently, in the field of female reproductive aging attention is drawn to the carbonyl stress theory. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute directly to protein damage, induce a chain of oxidative stress (OS) reactions, and increase inflammatory reactions...
October 3, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Koushik Viswanathan, Narayan K Sundaram, Srinivasan Chandrasekar
Stick-slip in sliding of soft adhesive surfaces has long been associated with the propagation of Schallamach waves, a type of slow surface wave. Recently it was demonstrated using in situ experiments that two other kinds of slow waves-separation pulses and slip pulses-also mediate stick-slip (Viswanathan et al., Soft Matter, 2016, 12, 5265-5275). While separation pulses, like Schallamach waves, involve local interface detachment, slip pulses are moving stress fronts with no detachment. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the propagation of these three waves in a linear elastodynamics framework...
October 17, 2016: Soft Matter
Liying Ying, Xiaomin Chen, Lai Har Wu, Jing Shu, Xiangli Wu, Alice Yuen Loke
PURPOSE: Couples as dyads suffer from the diagnosis of infertility and related treatment. These couples commonly experience emotional and physical pain and tension in their marital lives. The purpose of this study is to report on the process of developing a potentially feasible and effective complex intervention for couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in China. METHODS: The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating the complex intervention was adopted to guide the development of the Partnership and Coping Enhancement Programme (PCEP)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Jessica E Miller, Soo Hyun Ahn, Stephany P Monsanto, Kasra Khalaj, Madhuri Koti, Chandrakant Tayade
Endometriosis is a complex, inflammatory disease that affects 6-10% of reproductive-aged women. Almost half of the women with endometriosis experience infertility. Despite the excessive prevalence, the pathogenesis of endometriosis and its associated infertility is unknown and a cure is not available. While many theories have been suggested to link endometriosis and infertility, a consensus among investigators has not emerged. In this extensive review of the literature as well as research from our laboratory, we provide potential insights into the role of immune dysfunction in endometriosis associated infertility...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
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