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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922098/the-interactive-effect-of-familial-acculturative-stress-and-hopelessness-on-suicidal-ideation-varies-by-immigration-status-among-college-students
#1
Robert Lane, Regina Miranda
OBJECTIVES: Based on acculturative family distancing theory, we examined whether familial acculturative stress interacted with hopelessness to predict suicidal ideation differentially among emerging adult immigrant versus non-immigrant college students. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 152 generationally and racially/ethnically diverse college students (42 immigrants) from 2012 to 2013. METHODS: Participants completed measures of hopelessness, depressive symptoms, ethnic identity, familial acculturative stress, and suicidal ideation...
September 18, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920011/perceived-racial-ethnic-discrimination-and-mental-health-a-review-and-future-directions-for-social-epidemiology
#2
Anissa I Vines, Julia B Ward, Evette Cordoba, Kristin Z Black
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent literature on racial or ethnic discrimination and mental health was reviewed to assess the current science and identify key areas of emphasis for social epidemiology. Objectives of this review were to: 1) Determine whether there have been advancements in the measurement and analysis of perceived discrimination; 2) Identify the use of theories and/or frameworks in perceived discrimination and mental health research; and 3) Assess the extent to which stress buffers are being considered and evaluated in the existing literature...
June 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918418/new-aspects-in-the-pathomechanism-of-diseases-of-civilization-particularly-psychosomatic-disorders-part-1-theoretical-background-of-a-hypothesis
#3
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The stress defence-cascade is mostly not biphasic as Cannon thought, the sympathicotonic stress response is preceded by a vagotonic phase called freeze response. Alteration of the carbon dioxide level plays an important role during defence-cascade as its changes interfere with stress hormones, e.g. with catecholamines, thus affecting the degree of arousal. In case of humans, learned behaviour dominates instead of instinctive, so the fight-or-flight often lags; the consequence can be persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917098/can-attitudes-about-smoking-impact-cigarette-cravings
#4
Lauren Bertin, Samara Lipsky, Joel Erblich
Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings...
September 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917028/elastic-and-dynamic-properties-of-membrane-phase-field-models
#5
Guillermo R Lázaro, Ignacio Pagonabarraga, Aurora Hernández-Machado
Phase-field models have been extensively used to study interfacial phenomena, from solidification to vesicle dynamics. In this article, we analyze a phase-field model that captures the relevant physical features that characterize biological membranes. We show that the Helfrich theory of elasticity of membranes can be applied to phase-field models, allowing to derive the expressions of the stress tensor, lateral stress profile and elastic moduli. We discuss the relevance and interpretations of these magnitudes from a phase-field perspective...
September 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916752/direct-measurement-of-strain-dependent-solid-surface-stress
#6
Qin Xu, Katharine E Jensen, Rostislav Boltyanskiy, Raphaël Sarfati, Robert W Style, Eric R Dufresne
Surface stress, also known as surface tension, is a fundamental material property of any interface. However, measurements of solid surface stress in traditional engineering materials, such as metals and oxides, have proven to be very challenging. Consequently, our understanding relies heavily on untested theories, especially regarding the strain dependence of this property. Here, we take advantage of the high compliance and large elastic deformability of a soft polymer gel to directly measure solid surface stress as a function of strain...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913952/new-age-ideas-about-age-old-sex-separating-meiosis-from-mating-could-solve-a-century-old-conundrum
#7
Michael Brandeis
Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. I argue that the obstacle for comprehending the role of sex stems from the conceptual entanglement of two distinct processes - gamete production by meiosis and gamete fusion by mating (mixis)...
September 14, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913777/diabetes-and-the-small-intestine
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Gotfried, Stephen Priest, Ron Schey
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated complications are becoming increasingly prevalent. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with diabetes is known as diabetic enteropathy (DE) and may manifest as either diarrhea, fecal incontinence, constipation, dyspepsia, nausea, and vomiting or a combination of symptoms. The long-held belief that vagal autonomic neuropathy is the primary cause of DE has recently been challenged by newer theories of disease development. Specifically, hyperglycemia and the resulting oxidative stress on neural networks, including the nitrergic neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), are now believed to play a central role in the development of DE...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913434/self-determined-shapes-and-velocities-of-giant-near-zero-drag-gas-cavities
#9
Ivan U Vakarelski, Evert Klaseboer, Aditya Jetly, Mohammad M Mansoor, Andres A Aguirre-Pablo, Derek Y C Chan, Sigurdur T Thoroddsen
Minimizing the retarding force on a solid moving in liquid is the canonical problem in the quest for energy saving by friction and drag reduction. For an ideal object that cannot sustain any shear stress on its surface, theory predicts that drag force will fall to zero as its speed becomes large. However, experimental verification of this prediction has been challenging. We report the construction of a class of self-determined streamlined structures with this free-slip surface, made up of a teardrop-shaped giant gas cavity that completely encloses a metal sphere...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913421/curvature-and-rho-activation-differentially-control-the-alignment-of-cells-and-stress-fibers
#10
Nathan D Bade, Randall D Kamien, Richard K Assoian, Kathleen J Stebe
In vivo, cells respond to a host of physical cues ranging from substrate stiffness to the organization of micro- and nanoscale fibrous networks. We show that macroscale substrates with radii of curvature from tens to hundreds of micrometers influence cell alignment. In a model system of fibroblasts, isolated cells aligned strongly in the axial direction on cylinders with radii similar to the cell length and more weakly on cylinders of much larger radius. Isolated vascular smooth muscle cells did not align as effectively as fibroblasts...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912958/a-nurse-delivered-mental-health-intervention-for-obstetric-fistula-patients-in-tanzania-results-of-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Melissa H Watt, Mary V Mosha, Alyssa C Platt, Kathleen J Sikkema, Sarah M Wilson, Elizabeth L Turner, Gileard G Masenga
BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistula has severe psychological consequences, but no evidence-based interventions exist to improve mental health in this population. This pilot trial evaluated a psychological intervention for women receiving surgical care for obstetric fistula. METHODS: A parallel two-armed pilot RCT was conducted between 2014 and 2016. The intervention was six individual sessions, based on psychological theory and delivered by a nurse facilitator. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Moshi, Tanzania...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912738/prejudice-and-health-anxiety-about-radiation-exposure-from-second-generation-atomic-bomb-survivors-results-from-a-qualitative-interview-study
#12
Yuka Kamite
The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors' (SGS) psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS' experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912469/softening-non-metallic-crystals-by-inhomogeneous-elasticity
#13
P R Howie, R P Thompson, S Korte-Kerzel, W J Clegg
High temperature structural materials must be resistant to cracking and oxidation. However, most oxidation resistant materials are brittle and a significant reduction in their yield stress is required if they are to be resistant to cracking. It is shown, using density functional theory, that if a crystal's unit cell elastically deforms in an inhomogeneous manner, the yield stress is greatly reduced, consistent with observations in layered compounds, such as Ti3SiC2, Nb2Co7, W2B5, Ta2C and Ta4C3. The mechanism by which elastic inhomogeneity reduces the yield stress is explained and the effect demonstrated in a complex metallic alloy, even though the electronegativity differences within the unit cell are less than in the layered compounds...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910130/and-still-we-rise-parent-child-relationships-resilience-and-school-readiness-in-low-income-urban-black-families
#14
Riana Elyse Anderson
The Family Stress Model acknowledges forms of resilience in the face of hardship; however, few studies have emerged on the potentially positive role of familial relationships in the academic, psychological, and prosocial success of impoverished Black children. The current study evaluates how parent-child relationship conflict and financial stress are associated with children's school readiness (i.e., academic, psychosocial, and socioemotional indicators). Latent profile analyses, incorporating financial stress, general stress, and parent-child relationship variables were used to test whether varying family stress profiles differentially predicted children's school readiness in Black families with children entering kindergarten (N = 292)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906364/altered-default-mode-network-configuration-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-earthquake-a-resting-stage-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Xiao-Dong Zhang, Yan Yin, Xiao-Lei Hu, Lian Duan, Rongfeng Qi, Qiang Xu, Guang-Ming Lu, Ling-Jiang Li
The neural substrates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are still not fully elucidated. Hence, this study is to explore topological alterations of the default mode network (DMN) in victims with PTSD after a magnitude of 8.0 earthquake using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).This study was approved by the local ethical review board, and all participants signed written informed consent. Sixty-two PTSD victims from the 2008 Sichuan earthquake and 62 matched exposed controls underwent rs-fMRI...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905122/static-and-free-vibration-analyses-of-dental-prosthesis-and-atherosclerotic-human-artery-by-refined-finite-element-models
#16
E Carrera, D Guarnera, A Pagani
Static and modal responses of representative biomechanical structures are investigated in this paper by employing higher-order theories of structures and finite element approximations. Refined models are implemented in the domain of the Carrera unified formulation (CUF), according to which low- to high-order kinematics can be postulated as arbitrary and, eventually, hierarchical expansions of the generalized displacement unknowns. By using CUF along with the principle of virtual work, the governing equations are expressed in terms of fundamental nuclei of finite element arrays...
September 13, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904614/theoretical-simulation-of-the-infrared-signature-of-mechanically-stressed-polymer-solids
#17
Matthew S Sammon, Milan Ončák, Martin K Beyer
Mechanical stress leads to deformation of strands in polymer solids, including elongation of covalent bonds and widening of bond angles, which changes the infrared spectrum. Here, the infrared spectrum of solid polymer samples exposed to mechanical stress is simulated by density functional theory calculations. Mechanical stress is described with the external force explicitly included (EFEI) method. The uneven distribution of the external stress on individual polymer strands is accounted for by a convolution of simulated spectra with a realistic force distribution...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901205/satisfaction-burnout-and-turnover-among-nurse-practitioners-and-physician-assistants-a-review-of-the-empirical-literature
#18
Timothy Hoff, Shannon Carabetta, Grace E Collinson
Examining the work-related psychological states of nurse practitioners and physician assistants is important, given their increased role expansion. The current PRISMA-guided review examined studies published between 2000 and 2016 for both these groups. The review also examined features of the research to draw conclusions about overall quality. Applying theories in job enrichment and job demands, 32 articles were identified that contained analyses of satisfaction, burnout, stress, and turnover. Key findings include the lack of robust research designs, overemphasis on job satisfaction, lower levels of satisfaction across both groups, and higher intrinsic versus extrinsic satisfaction levels generally...
September 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895942/disrupted-cortical-brain-network-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients-a-resting-state-electroencephalographic-study
#19
M Shim, C-H Im, S-H Lee
This study aimed to examine the source-level cortical brain networks of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the graph theory using electroencephalography (EEG). Sixty-six cortical source signals were estimated from 78 PTSD and 58 healthy controls (HCs) of resting-state EEG. Four global indices (strength, clustering coefficient (CC), path length (PL) and efficiency) and one nodal index (CC) were evaluated in six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, low beta, high beta and gamma). PTSD showed decreased global strength, CC and efficiency, in delta, theta, and low beta band and enhanced PL in theta and low beta band...
September 12, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894873/shear-induced-formation-of-lubrication-layers-of-negative-normal-stress-gels
#20
Tetsuya Yamamoto, Yuichi Masubuchi, Masao Doi
Many biopolymer gels generate negative normal stress, with which the polymer networks shrink in the normal of applied shear. Here we theoretically predict the sliding velocity of such a gel on a solid surface when a constant shear stress is applied to the gel. Our theory predicts that the negative normal stress drives the flow of the solvent in the gel and this produces a solvent layer between the gel and the surface. The sliding velocity of the gel is proportional to the thickness of the solvent layer and is a cubic function of the applied shear stress...
September 12, 2017: Soft Matter
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