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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812723/the-unconstrained-evolution-of-fast-and-efficient-antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-genomes
#1
Carlos Reding-Roman, Mark Hewlett, Sarah Duxbury, Fabio Gori, Ivana Gudelj, Robert Beardmore
Evolutionary trajectories are constrained by trade-offs when mutations that benefit one life history trait incur fitness costs in other traits. As resistance to tetracycline antibiotics by increased efflux can be associated with an increase in length of the Escherichia coli chromosome of 10% or more, we sought costs of resistance associated with doxycycline. However, it was difficult to identify any because the growth rate (r), carrying capacity (K) and drug efflux rate of E. coli increased during evolutionary experiments where the species was exposed to doxycycline...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812141/next-generation-of-ventricular-catheters-for-hydrocephalus-based-on-parametric-designs
#2
M Galarza, A Giménez, J M Amigó, M Schuhmann, R Gazzeri, U Thomale, J P McAllister
BACKGROUND: The flow pattern of the cerebrospinal fluid is probably the most important factor related to obstruction of ventricular catheters during the normal treatment of hydrocephalus. To better comprehend the flow pattern, we have carried out a parametric study via numerical models of ventricular catheters. In previous studies, the flow was studied under steady and, recently, in pulsatile boundary conditions by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in three-dimensional catheter models...
August 15, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812000/diagnostic-imaging-features-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Francesco Esposito, Rosanna Mamone, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Valerio Vitale, Gianfranco Vallone, Patrizia Oresta
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory process, characterized by intestinal necrosis of variable extension, leading to perforation, generalized peritonitis and death. The classical pathogenetic theory focuses on mucosal damage related to a stress induced intestinal ischemia leading to mucosal injury and bacterial colonization of the wall. A more recent hypothesis emphasizes the role of immaturity of gastrointestinal and immune system, particularly of the premature, responsible of bowel wall vulnerability and suffering...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809052/validation-of-the-resilience-scale-for-adolescents-in-norwegian-adolescents-13-18%C3%A2-years
#4
Unni K Moksnes, Gørill Haugan
AIM: Resilience is seen as a vital resource for coping and mental health in adolescents. However, there is no universally accepted theory or definition of resilience, leading to considerable challenges regarding how to operationalise and measure this construct. The study aimed at providing further knowledge of the psychometric properties (dimensionality, construct validity and internal consistency) of the 28-item version of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) in N = 1183 Norwegian adolescents, 13-18 years old...
August 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808499/epigenetics-and-oxidative-stress-in-aging
#5
REVIEW
Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Yania Yañez, Manuel D Peris-Diaz, Ines Calabria, Cora Palanca-Ballester, Juan Sandoval
Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by the progressive loss of physiological functions, leading to an increased vulnerability to age-associated diseases and finally to death. Several theories have been proposed to explain the nature of aging. One of the most known identifies the free radicals produced by the mitochondrial metabolism as the cause of cellular and DNA damage. However, there are also several evidences supporting that epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, noncoding RNAs, and histone modifications, play a critical role in the molecular mechanism of aging...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807999/role-of-co-occurring-competition-and-facilitation-in-plant-spacing-hydrodynamics-in-water-limited-environments
#6
Andrew C Trautz, Tissa H Illangasekare, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe
Plant performance (i.e., fecundity, growth, survival) depends on an individual's access to space and resources. At the community level, plant performance is reflected in observable vegetation patterning (i.e., spacing distance, density) often controlled by limiting resources. Resource availability is, in turn, strongly dependent on plant patterning mediated by competitive and facilitative plant-plant interactions. Co-occurring competition and facilitation has never been specifically investigated from a hydrodynamic perspective...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807394/preterm-prelabor-rupture-of-the-membranes-a-disease-of-the-fetal-membranes
#7
Ramkumar Menon, Lauren S Richardson
Preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) remains a significant obstetric problem that affects 3-4% of all pregnancies and precedes 40-50% of all preterm births. pPROM arises from complex, multifaceted pathways. In this review, we summarize some old concepts and introduce some novel theories related to pPROM pathophysiology. Specifically, we introduce the concept that pPROM is a disease of the fetal membranes where inflammation-oxidative stress axis plays a major role in producing pathways that can lead to membrane weakening through a variety of processes...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804265/piecewise-affine-stress-free-martensitic-inclusions-in-planar-nonlinear-elasticity
#8
S Conti, M Klar, B Zwicknagl
We consider a partial differential inclusion problem which models stress-free martensitic inclusions in an austenitic matrix, based on the standard geometrically nonlinear elasticity theory. We show that for specific parameter choices there exist piecewise affine continuous solutions for the square-to-oblique and the hexagonal-to-oblique phase transitions. This suggests that for specific crystallographic parameters the hysteresis of the phase transformation will be particularly small.
July 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803423/oxygen-mass-transfer-and-shear-stress-effects-on-pseudomonas-putida-bcrc-14365-growth-to-improve-bioreactor-design-and-performance
#9
Hamed Moradkhani, Mir-Shahabeddin Izadkhah, Navideh Anarjan, Abolfazl Abdi
In this work, the experimental evidence is presented for two basic issues including oxygen mass transfer and shear analysis on the microorganism containing medium on the most prominent sections of the bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology reproduces shear rate values for specific impeller designs using the commercial code (Fluent 6.2). CFD calculates volumetric mass transfer coefficient based on the Higbie's penetration theory. Four types of impeller are used. The spherical probe is used to measure flow hydrodynamic parameters to obtain shear rate by electro-diffusion (ED) method...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799430/genesis-of-an-employee-wellness-program-at-a-large-university
#10
Lisa K Lloyd, Sylvia H Crixell, Janet R Bezner, Katherine Forester, Carolyn Swearingen
University employee wellness programs have potential to support positive changes in employee health, thereby improving productivity and mitigating the rise in health care costs. The purpose of this article is to describe a theory-driven approach to systematically planning, developing, and implementing a comprehensive university employee wellness program. Long-term program goals were to improve employee health, well-being, and productivity by focusing on decreasing sedentary behavior, increasing physical activity, improving dietary habits, and reducing stress...
August 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799380/a-force-level-theory-of-the-rheology-of-entangled-rod-and-chain-polymer-liquids-i-tube-deformation-microscopic-yielding-and-the-nonlinear-elastic-limit
#11
Kenneth S Schweizer, Daniel M Sussman
We employ a first-principles-based, force-level approach to construct the anharmonic tube confinement field for entangled fluids of rigid needles, and also for chains described at the primitive-path (PP) level in two limiting situations where chain stretch is assumed to either be completely equilibrated or unrelaxed. The influence of shear and extensional deformation and polymer orientation is determined in a nonlinear elastic limit where dissipative relaxation processes are intentionally neglected. For needles and PP-level chains, a self-consistent analysis of transverse polymer harmonic dynamical fluctuations predicts that deformation-induced orientation leads to tube weakening or widening...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795823/correction-to-sun-and-chen-2017
#12
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Is Political Behavior a Viable Coping Strategy to Perceived Organizational Politics? Unveiling the Underlying Resource Dynamics" by Shuhua Sun and Huaizhong Chen (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, May 22, 2017, np). Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-22542-001...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794862/case-report-an-incidentaloma-that-catches-your-eye-adrenal-myelolipoma
#13
Rosanna D'Addosio, Joselyn Rojas, Valmore Bermúdez, Flor Ledesma, Kyle Hoedebecke
Background: Adrenal incidentaloma refers to the incidental finding of a tumor in the adrenal gland, where nonfunctional forms are the most common variant. Myelolipoma is a rare (0.08-0.4%) occurrence characterized by adipose and hematopoietic tissue. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and appropriate management of a myelolipoma in an asymptomatic patient, which was originally considered an incidental hepatic hemangioma prior to being identified as a giant adrenal adenoma. Case description: The patient was a 54 year old obese female with a recent diagnosis of diabetes type II and dyslipidemia with recent ultrasound imaging suggestive of a hepatic hemangioma...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793293/triggering-of-eryptosis-the-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-inhibitor-temsirolimus
#14
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Hang Cao, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor temsirolimus is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. Temsirolimus is at least in part effective by triggering suicidal tumor cell death. The most common side effect of temsirolimus treatment is anemia. At least in theory, the anemia following temsirolimus treatment could result from stimulation of eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death. Hallmarks of eryptosis include cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface...
July 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791889/symbiotic-origin-of-aging
#15
Edward Greenberg, Sergei Vatolin
Normally aging cells are characterized by an unbalanced mitochondrial dynamic skewed toward punctate mitochondria. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion cycles can contribute to both accelerated and decelerated cellular or organismal aging. In this work, we connect these experimental data with the symbiotic theory of mitochondrial origin to generate new insight into the evolutionary origin of aging. Mitochondria originated from autotrophic α-proteobacteria during an ancient endosymbiotic event early in eukaryote evolution...
August 9, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782397/spousal-breadwinning-across-30-years-of-marriage-and-husbands-health-a-gendered-life-course-stress-approach
#16
Kristen W Springer, Chioun Lee, Deborah Carr
OBJECTIVE: Wives increasingly outearn their husbands, and gender relations theory suggests this arrangement may undermine men's well-being. We explore how long-term histories of spousal breadwinning may be associated with older men's self-rated mental and physical health, and risk of nine health diagnoses. METHOD: Using 30 years of couple-level income data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 1,095 couples), we use latent class analyses to identify six classes that differ with respect to the timing and level of wife breadwinning...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781928/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-autobiographical-memories-in-everyday-life
#17
Sabine Schönfeld, Anke Ehlers
Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD (N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778002/the-efficacy-of-combined-educational-and-site-management-actions-in-reducing-off-trail-hiking-in-an-urban-proximate-protected-area
#18
Karen S Hockett, Jeffrey L Marion, Yu-Fai Leung
Park and protected area managers are tasked with protecting natural environments, a particularly daunting challenge in heavily visited urban-proximate areas where flora and fauna are already stressed by external threats. In this study, an adaptive management approach was taken to reduce extensive off-trail hiking along a popular trail through an ecologically diverse and significant area in the Chesapeake and Ohio National Historical Park near Washington DC. Substantial amounts of off-trail hiking there had created an extensive 16...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777608/topological-control-on-the-structural-relaxation-of-atomic-networks-under-stress
#19
Mathieu Bauchy, Mengyi Wang, Yingtian Yu, Bu Wang, N M Anoop Krishnan, Enrico Masoero, Franz-Joseph Ulm, Roland Pellenq
Upon loading, atomic networks can feature delayed irreversible relaxation. However, the effect of composition and structure on relaxation remains poorly understood. Herein, relying on accelerated molecular dynamics simulations and topological constraint theory, we investigate the relationship between atomic topology and stress-induced structural relaxation, by taking the example of creep deformations in calcium silicate hydrates (C─S─H), the binding phase of concrete. Under constant shear stress, C─S─H is found to feature delayed logarithmic shear deformations...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776061/role-of-graphene-in-enhancing-the-mechanical-properties-of-tio2-graphene-heterostructures
#20
Changhong Cao, Sankha Mukherjee, Jian Liu, Biqiong Wang, Maedeh Amirmaleki, Zhuole Lu, Jane Y Howe, Doug Perovic, Xueliang Sun, Chandra Veer Singh, Yu Sun, Tobin Filleter
Graphene has been integrated in many heterogeneous structures in order to take advantage of its superior mechanical properties. However, the complex mechanical response of heterogeneous films incorporating graphene is not well understood. Here, we studied the mechanical behavior of atomic layer deposition (ALD) synthesized TiO2/graphene, as a representative building block of a typical composite, to understand the mechanical behavior of heterostructures using an experiment-computational approach. The inclusion of graphene was found to significantly enhance the Young's modulus of TiO2/graphene hetero-films for films below a critical thickness of 3 nm, beyond which the Young's modulus approaches that of pure TiO2 film...
August 4, 2017: Nanoscale
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