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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778929/anxiety-sensitivity-in-the-association-between-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorders-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Anka A Vujanovic, Samantha G Farris, Brooke A Bartlett, Robert C Lyons, Moira Haller, Peter J Colvonen, Sonya B Norman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. No evidence-based, "gold standard" treatments for PTSD/SUD comorbidity are currently available. Thus, it is imperative to better understand cognitive-affective mechanisms, targetable via cognitive-behavioral intervention (i.e., malleable), that may be related to both disorders in order to improve the theory and treatment of PTSD/SUD. Anxiety sensitivity is a malleable cognitive-affective factor with relevance to both PTSD and SUD...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776585/tears-of-wine-the-dance-of-the-droplets
#2
REVIEW
Alex Nikolov, Darsh Wasan, Jongju Lee
For a long time, the phenomenon known as the "tears of wine" was believed to be due only to the surface tension gradient (e.g., the Thomson-Marangoni stress on the fluid/fluid surface's dynamics of wetting) and gravity. We experimentally demonstrated that the wine tear formation is not solely due to the surface tension gradient; instead, the ridge instability triggers the wine tears. Pouring wine into a glass causes a wine film to form on the glass. The film drains down under gravity and a ridge forms at its upper part...
May 5, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771524/comprehensive-investigation-on-the-antioxidant-and-pro-oxidant-effects-of-phenolic-compounds-a-double-edged-sword-in-the-context-of-oxidative-stress
#3
Romina Castañeda-Arriaga, Adriana Pérez-Gonzalez, Miguel Reina, Juan Raul Alvarez-Idaboy, Annia Galano
Oxidative stress (OS) is a health-threatening process that is involved, at least partially, in the development of several diseases. Although antioxidants can be used as a chemical defense against OS, they might also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, depending on environmental conditions. In this work, such a dual behavior was investigated for phenolic compounds (PhCs), within the framework of the density functional theory, and based on kinetic data. Multiple reaction mechanisms were considered in both cases. The presence of redox metals, the pH, and the possibility that PhCs might be transformed into benzoquinones were identified as key aspects in the antioxidant versus pro-oxidant effects of these compounds...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771241/polydispersity-controls-the-strength-of-semi-flexible-polymer-networks
#4
Mohammad Tehrani, Zahra Ghalamzan, Alireza Sarvestani
The classical theory of polymer elasticity is built upon the assumption of network monodispersity, the premise that polymer networks are comprised from sub-chains of equal length. The crosslinking of biopolymers, however, is a random process and the resultant networks are likely to be polydisperse. The effect of structural polydispersity on mechanical behavior of biopolymer networks is not well understood. The purpose of this contribution is to show how network polydispersity controls the mechanical behavior and ultimate properties of crosslinked semi-flexible filaments at finite deformations...
May 17, 2018: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771220/mindful-self-hypnosis-for-self-care-an-integrative-model-and-illustrative-case-example
#5
Gary R Elkins, R Lynae Roberts, Lauren Simicich
The combination of mindfulness and self-hypnosis could provide a tool that is easily implemented by individuals who want to care for their well-being in times of high stress. Each discipline has been shown to be effective in relieving stress, and integration could further facilitate change while creating a tool that is highly accessible. There are many similarities between the two practices, such as focusing of attention and the emphasis on mind-body connection. However, important distinctions in psychological (e...
July 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768942/updated-meta-review-of-evidence-on-support-for-carers
#6
Jane Dalton, Sian Thomas, Melissa Harden, Alison Eastwood, Gillian Parker
Objective To update a 2010 meta-review of systematic reviews of effective interventions to support carers of ill, disabled, or older adults. In this article, we report the most promising interventions based on the best available evidence. Methods Rapid meta-review of systematic reviews published from January 2009 to 2016. Results Sixty-one systematic reviews were included (27 high quality, 25 medium quality, and nine low quality). The quality of reviews has improved since the original review, but primary studies remain limited in quality and quantity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768047/glucocorticoid-activated-ire1%C3%AE-xbp-1s-signaling-an-autophagy-associated-protective-pathway-against-endotheliocyte-damage
#7
Yanchun Gao, Hongyi Zhu, Fan Yang, Qiyang Wang, Yong Feng, Changqing Zhang
Glucocorticoid-induced endothelial injury has been reported in several diseases. Although there are several theories, the exact mechanism underlying the role of glucocorticoids in this process remains unclear. Autophagy has been reported to occur as a response to different stimuli and can affect cell survival and function. In this study, we found that glucocorticoids induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endotheliocytes. Furthermore, we discovered that glucocorticoids induced autophagy in these cells and the inositol requiring protein 1 (IRE1α)/X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s) axis, one of the downstream signaling pathways of ER stress, was associated with the glucocorticoid-induced autophagy...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766312/posttraumatic-growth-as-a-response-to-natural-disasters-in-children-and-adolescents
#8
REVIEW
Melissa Bernstein, Betty Pfefferbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines factors thought to be associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) (demographic variables, exposure, and family and social processes) among youth exposed to natural disasters, describes the relationship between PTG and posttraumatic stress, and discusses psychological processes (rumination and coping) linked to PTG. RECENT FINDINGS: Guided by PTG theory and the literature on PTG in adults, research has revealed relationships between PTG and child, environmental, and family and social factors among youth though the results are mixed...
May 16, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763642/a-new-insight-into-the-oxidative-mechanism-of-caffeine-and-related-methylxanthines-in-aprotic-medium-may-caffeine-be-really-considered-as-an-antioxidant
#9
Rita Petrucci, Giuseppe Zollo, Antonella Curulli, Giancarlo Marrosu
BACKGROUND: Antioxidant properties have been recently suggested for caffeine that seems showing protective effects against damages caused by oxidative stress. In particular, a HO scavenging activity has been ascribed to caffeine. Even if the oxidation of caffeine has been widely studied, the antioxidant mechanism is still far to be understood. METHODS: The electrochemical behavior of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline was studied in aprotic medium by cyclic voltammetry and electrolysis in UV-vis cell; a computational analysis of the molecular structures based on the Density Functional Theory was performed; the reactivity of all substrates towards lead dioxide, superoxide and galvinoxyl radical was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry...
May 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762315/effectiveness-of-psychosocial-interventions-on-the-psychological-health-and-emotional-well-being-of-family-carers-of-people-with-dementia-following-residential-care-placement-a-systematic-review
#10
Deborah Brooks, Elaine Fielding, Elizabeth Beattie, Helen Edwards, Sonia Hines
OBJECTIVE: To identify, appraise and synthesize existing evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions on the psychological health and emotional well-being of family carers of people with dementia who have moved into residential care. INTRODUCTION: Many carers experience stress, guilt, grief and depression following placement of a relative with dementia into residential care. Psychosocial interventions to support family carers may help to improve psychological health and emotional well-being; however, evidence for such interventions delivered to family carers following placement has yet to be appraised and synthesized...
May 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762313/experiences-of-undergraduate-nursing-students-in-peer-assisted-learning-in-clinical-practice-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#11
Matthew C Carey, Bridie Kent, Jos M Latour
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this qualitative systematic review was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on experiences of peer assisted learning (PAL) among student nurses in clinical practice so as to understand the value of PAL for this population. INTRODUCTION: Peer-assisted learning considers the benefits of peers working in collaboration and supporting each other in professional roles. This approach to facilitate learning is effective within universities, but there is limited exploration within the clinical practice environment...
May 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760788/the-effectiveness-of-stress-management-training-on-blood-glucose-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Marzieh Araban, Hamid Reza Koohestani, Mahmood Karimy
Background: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is expanding at an alarming rate in the world. Research on individuals with type 2 diabetes showed that stressful life events cause problems in the effective management and control of diabetes. This study aimed at investigating the effect of a stress management intervention on blood glucose control in individuals with type 2 diabetes referred to Zarandeh clinic, Iran. Methods: In this experimental study, 230 individuals with type 2 diabetes (179 female and 51 male) were enrolled and assigned to experimental (n = 115) and control (n = 115) groups...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760670/validating-the-copenhagen-psychosocial-questionnaire-copsoq-ii-using-set-esem-identifying-psychosocial-risk-factors-in-a-sample-of-school-principals
#13
Theresa Dicke, Herbert W Marsh, Philip Riley, Philip D Parker, Jiesi Guo, Marcus Horwood
School principals world-wide report high levels of strain and attrition resulting in a shortage of qualified principals. It is thus crucial to identify psychosocial risk factors that reflect principals' occupational wellbeing. For this purpose, we used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II), a widely used self-report measure covering multiple psychosocial factors identified by leading occupational stress theories. We evaluated the COPSOQ-II regarding factor structure and longitudinal, discriminant, and convergent validity using latent structural equation modeling in a large sample of Australian school principals ( N = 2,049)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758656/thermodynamic-dislocation-theory-bauschinger-effect
#14
K C Le, T M Tran
The thermodynamic dislocation theory developed for nonuniform plastic deformations is used here to simulate the stress-strain curves for crystals subjected to antiplane shear-controlled load reversal. We show that the presence of the positive back stress during the load reversal reduces the magnitude of shear stress required to pull excess dislocations back to the center of the specimen. There, the excess dislocations of opposite signs meet and annihilate each other leading to the Bauschinger effect.
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756929/anomalous-chained-turbulence-in-actively-driven-flows-on-spheres
#15
Oscar Mickelin, Jonasz Słomka, Keaton J Burns, Daniel Lecoanet, Geoffrey M Vasil, Luiz M Faria, Jörn Dunkel
Recent experiments demonstrate the importance of substrate curvature for actively forced fluid dynamics. Yet, the covariant formulation and analysis of continuum models for nonequilibrium flows on curved surfaces still poses theoretical challenges. Here, we introduce and study a generalized covariant Navier-Stokes model for fluid flows driven by active stresses in nonplanar geometries. The analytical tractability of the theory is demonstrated through exact stationary solutions for the case of a spherical bubble geometry...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755521/cataract-as-early-ocular-complication-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Marko Šimunović, Martina Paradžik, Roko Škrabić, Ivana Unić, Kajo Bućan, Veselin Škrabić
Cataract is a rare manifestation of ocular complication at an early phase of T1DM in the pediatric population. The pathophysiological mechanism of early diabetic cataract has not been fully understood; however, there are many theories about the possible etiology including osmotic damage, polyol pathway, and oxidative stress. The prevalence of early diabetic cataract in the population varies between 0.7 and 3.4% of children and adolescents with T1DM. The occurrence of diabetic cataract in most pediatric patients is the first sign of T1DM or occurs within 6 months of diagnosis of T1DM...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754116/criminality-in-greece-during-the-years-of-financial-crisis-2008-2014
#17
G Tsouvelas, G Konstantakopoulos, A Vakirtzis, O Giotakos, T Papaslanis, V Kontaxakis
The link between poverty, unemployment and economic downturns and increases in crime rates has long been the subject of social science study. However, the relationships between these phenomena has not been studied sufficiently and through time in most European countries that suffered, or, like Greece, are still suffering the recent financial crisis. We examined if the recent financial crisis in Greece has coincided with an increase in crime, analyzing crime rates since the start of the financial crisis and over an extensive time period (7 years)...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753985/deliberations-about-a-perfect-storm-the-meaning-of-justice-for-food-energy-water-nexus-few-nexus
#18
Holger Schlör, Sandra Venghaus, Wiltrud Fischer, Carolin Märker, Jürgen-Friedrich Hake
The current global developments have the potential to cause a 'perfect storm' at the core of the Anthropocene: the Food-Energy-Water-Nexus. To discuss the ethical consequences of these developments, i.e., insufficient access to the life sustaining nexus resources, the analysis is focused on Rawls' theory of justice and its implementation in Germany with a special focus on the FEW nexus. Rawls stresses in his theory of justice the prominent meaning of institutions for a fair society to meet societal challenges and to meet the challenge of our time: a stable and just society...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751697/-emotional-stress-induced-shanghuo-syndrome-increases-disease-susceptibility
#19
Si-Rui Zhu, Xiang Luo, Yi-Fang Li, Kurihara Hiroshi, Rong-Rong He
Shanghuo(excessive internal heat) is a special organic state based on the concept of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), commonly known as the abnormal heating syndrome of body in folks. With the acceleration of modern life rhythm and the increase of the social competition pressure, emotional stress has become an important cause for the spread of Shanghuo symptoms. What's more, Shanghuo can impact the body physiological functions to cause the onset, recurrence and progression of common diseases, harming the health of the body...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750560/temporally-autocorrelated-environmental-fluctuations-inhibit-the-evolution-of-stress-tolerance
#20
Daniel J Wieczynski, Paul E Turner, David A Vasseur
As global environmental conditions continue to change at an unprecedented rate, many species will experience increases in natural and anthropogenic stress. Generally speaking, selection is expected to favor adaptations that reduce the negative impact of environmental stress (i.e., stress tolerance). However, natural environmental variables typically fluctuate, exhibiting various degrees of temporal autocorrelation, known as environmental colors, which may complicate evolutionary responses to stress. Here we combine experiments and theory to show that temporal environmental autocorrelation can determine long-term evolutionary responses to stress without affecting the total amount of stress experienced over time...
June 2018: American Naturalist
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