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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524871/in-situ-light-responses-of-the-proteorhodopsin-bearing-antarctic-sea-ice-bacterium-psychroflexus-torques
#1
David J Burr, Andrew Martin, Elizabeth W Maas, Ken G Ryan
Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a wide-spread protein found in many marine prokaryotes. PR allows for the potential conversion of solar energy to ATP, possibly assisting in cellular growth and survival during periods of high environmental stress. PR utilises either blue or green light through a single amino acid substitution. We incubated the PR-bearing bacterium Psychroflexus torquis 50 cm deep within Antarctic sea ice for 13 days, exposing cultures to diurnal fluctuations in light and temperature. Enhanced growth occurred most prominently in cultures incubated under irradiance levels of ∼50 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), suggesting PR provides a strong selective advantage...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523375/a-model-for-one-dimensional-morphoelasticity-and-its-application-to-fibroblast-populated-collagen-lattices
#2
Shakti N Menon, Cameron L Hall, Scott W McCue, D L Sean McElwain
The mechanical behaviour of solid biological tissues has long been described using models based on classical continuum mechanics. However, the classical continuum theories of elasticity and viscoelasticity cannot easily capture the continual remodelling and associated structural changes in biological tissues. Furthermore, models drawn from plasticity theory are difficult to apply and interpret in this context, where there is no equivalent of a yield stress or flow rule. In this work, we describe a novel one-dimensional mathematical model of tissue remodelling based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient...
May 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516840/victim-alcohol-intoxication-during-a-sexual-assault-relations-with-subsequent-ptsd-symptoms
#3
Anna E Jaffe, Anne L Steel, David DiLillo, Lesa Hoffman, Kim L Gratz, Terri L Messman-Moore
This study examines associations between women's alcohol intoxication at the time of sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Drawing on the dual representation theory (Brewin, Gregory, Lipton, & Burgess, 2010), we hypothesized that intoxication at the time of assault would be positively associated with both overall symptoms of PTSD and PTSD reexperiencing symptoms in particular. A total of 143 community women (ages 18-26 years; 71.3% European American) reporting sexual victimization completed questionnaires assessing severity of coercion involved in the assault, perceived level of intoxication at the time of assault, and current PTSD symptoms...
May 17, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515334/central-acting-therapeutics-alleviate-respiratory-weakness-caused-by-heart-failure-induced-ventilatory-overdrive
#4
Andrew J Foster, Mathew J Platt, Jason S Huber, Ashley L Eadie, Alicia M Arkell, Nadya Romanova, David C Wright, Todd E Gillis, Coral L Murrant, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson
Diaphragmatic weakness is a feature of heart failure (HF) associated with dyspnea and exertional fatigue. Most studies have focused on advanced stages of HF, leaving the cause unresolved. The long-standing theory is that pulmonary edema imposes a mechanical stress, resulting in diaphragmatic remodeling, but stable HF patients rarely exhibit pulmonary edema. We investigated how diaphragmatic weakness develops in two mouse models of pressure overload-induced HF. As in HF patients, both models had increased eupneic respiratory pressures and ventilatory drive...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512221/shear-bands-as-manifestation-of-a-criticality-in-yielding-amorphous-solids
#5
Giorgio Parisi, Itamar Procaccia, Corrado Rainone, Murari Singh
Amorphous solids increase their stress as a function of an applied strain until a mechanical yield point whereupon the stress cannot increase anymore, afterward exhibiting a steady state with a constant mean stress. In stress-controlled experiments, the system simply breaks when pushed beyond this mean stress. The ubiquity of this phenomenon over a huge variety of amorphous solids calls for a generic theory that is free of microscopic details. Here, we offer such a theory: The mechanical yield is a thermodynamic phase transition, where yield occurs as a spinodal phenomenon...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511058/stability-behavior-of-antiretroviral-drugs-and-their-combinations-7-comparative-degradation-pathways-of-lamivudine-and-emtricitabine-and-explanation-to-their-differential-degradation-behavior-by-density-functional-theory
#6
Moolchand Kurmi, Saranjit Singh
The interest in this study was to establish comparative degradation behavior of lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) under solution and solid state stress conditions. Structurally, the two drugs differ only in terms of additional fluorine at 5 position in FTC. Along with the known degradation products of both the drugs, one additional degradation product was observed in each case, which was characterized by mass spectrometry. Both the drugs degraded via the same route, but at a differential rate in acid, base and oxidative stress conditions...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510261/constraints-on-trait-combinations-explain-climatic-drivers-of-biodiversity-the-importance-of-trait-covariance-in-community-assembly
#7
John M Dwyer, Daniel C Laughlin
Trade-offs maintain diversity and structure communities along environmental gradients. Theory indicates that if covariance among functional traits sets a limit on the number of viable trait combinations in a given environment, then communities with strong multidimensional trait constraints should exhibit low species diversity. We tested this prediction in winter annual plant assemblages along an aridity gradient using multilevel structural equation modelling. Univariate and multivariate functional diversity measures were poorly explained by aridity, and were surprisingly poor predictors of community richness...
May 16, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507525/modernizing-relationship-therapy-through-social-thermoregulation-theory-evidence-hypotheses-and-explorations
#8
Hans IJzerman, Emma C E Heine, Saskia K Nagel, Tila M Pronk
In the present article the authors propose to modernize relationship therapy by integrating novel sensor and actuator technologies that can help optimize people's thermoregulation, especially as they pertain to social contexts. Specifically, they propose to integrate Social Thermoregulation Theory (IJzerman et al., 2015a; IJzerman and Hogerzeil, 2017) into Emotionally Focused Therapy by first doing exploratory research during couples' therapy, followed by Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs). The authors thus suggest crafting a Social Thermoregulation Therapy (STT) as enhancement to existing relationship therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507189/oxidative-stress-affects-sperm-performance-and-ejaculate-redox-status-in-subordinate-house-sparrows
#9
Alfonso Rojas Mora, Alexandra Firth, Sophie Blareau, Armelle Vallat, Fabrice Helfenstein
Oxidative stress (OS) is the result of random cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species that leads to cell death, ageing, or illness. Most physiological processes can result in OS, which in turn has been identified as a major cause of infertility. In promiscuous species, the fertilizing ability of the ejaculate partly determines the male reproductive success. When dominance determines access to fertile females, theory predicts that lower ranking males should increase resource investment into enhancing ejaculate quality...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505728/j-shaped-stress-strain-diagram-of-collagen-fibers-frame-tension-of-triangulated-surfaces-with-fixed-boundaries
#10
Yu Takano, Hiroshi Koibuchi
We present Monte Carlo data of the stress-strain diagrams obtained using two different triangulated surface models. The first is the canonical surface model of Helfrich and Polyakov (HP), and the second is a Finsler geometry (FG) model. The shape of the experimentally observed stress-strain diagram is called J-shaped. Indeed, the diagram has a plateau for the small strain region and becomes linear in the relatively large strain region. Because of this highly nonlinear behavior, the J-shaped diagram is far beyond the scope of the ordinary theory of elasticity...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504542/do-changes-in-trauma-related-beliefs-predict-ptsd-symptom-improvement-in-prolonged-exposure-and-sertraline
#11
Andrew A Cooper, Lori A Zoellner, Peter Roy-Byrne, Matig R Mavissakalian, Norah C Feeny
OBJECTIVE: Negative trauma-related belief change has been found to predict subsequent improvement in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in prolonged exposure (PE) and other therapies, consistent with several psychological theories of treatment change (e.g., Foa & Kozak, 1986). However, belief change has not been examined in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline. We examined processes associated with symptom improvement in 2 treatments for PTSD, hypothesizing that belief change would robustly predict PTSD improvement in patients treated with PE but not those treated with sertraline, reflecting moderation by treatment...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504293/quantifying-the-sensitivity-of-the-network-structure-and-properties-from-simultaneous-measurements-during-photopolymerization
#12
Swarnavo Sarkar, Paula J Baker, Edwin P Chan, Sheng Lin-Gibson, Martin Y M Chiang
We present a method that combines experimental and computational approaches to assess a comprehensive set of structural and functional evolution during a network formation process via photopolymerization. Our work uses the simultaneous measurement of the degree of conversion, polymerization stress, the change in reaction temperature, and shrinkage strain in situ. These measurements are combined with the theory of viscoelastic materials to deduce the relaxation time and frequency-dependent modulus of the polymerizing network...
May 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503366/is-trauma-memory-special-trauma-narrative-fragmentation-in-ptsd-effects-of-treatment-and-response
#13
Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Lori A Zoellner, Norah C Feeny
Seminal theories posit that fragmented trauma memories are critical to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; van der Kolk & Fisler, 1995; Brewin, 2014) and that elaboration of the trauma narrative is necessary for recovery (e.g., Foa, Huppert, & Cahill, 2006). According to fragmentation theories, trauma narrative changes, particularly for those receiving trauma-focused treatment, should accompany symptom reduction. Trauma and control narratives in 77 men and women with chronic PTSD were examined pre- and post-treatment, comparing prolonged exposure (PE) and sertraline...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503039/the-possible-role-of-meditation-in-myofascial-pain-syndrome-a-new-hypothesis
#14
Prashanth Panta
BACKGROUND OF HYPOTHESIS: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502239/data-versus-spock-lay-theories-about-whether-emotion-helps-or-hinders
#15
Melissa M Karnaze, Linda J Levine
The android Data from Star Trek admired human emotion whereas Spock viewed emotion as irrational and maladaptive. The theory that emotions fulfil adaptive functions is widely accepted in academic psychology but little is known about laypeople's theories. The present study assessed the extent to which laypeople share Data's view of emotion as helpful or Spock's view of emotion as a hindrance. We also assessed how help and hinder theory endorsement were related to reasoning, emotion regulation, and well-being...
May 13, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498704/slip-morphology-of-elastic-strips-on-frictional-rigid-substrates
#16
Tomohiko G Sano, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Hirofumi Wada
The morphology of an elastic strip subject to vertical compressive stress on a frictional rigid substrate is investigated by a combination of theory and experiment. We find a rich variety of morphologies, which-when the bending elasticity dominates over the effect of gravity-are classified into three distinct types of states: pinned, partially slipped, and completely slipped, depending on the magnitude of the vertical strain and the coefficient of static friction. We develop a theory of elastica under mixed clamped-hinged boundary conditions combined with the Coulomb-Amontons friction law and find excellent quantitative agreement with simulations and controlled physical experiments...
April 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497021/understanding-rare-adverse-sequelae-of-breast-implants-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-late-seromas-and-double-capsules
#17
REVIEW
Mark W Clemens, Maurizio Bruno Nava, Nicola Rocco, Roberto N Miranda
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) is a distinct type of T-cell lymphoma arising around breast implants. The United States FDA recently updated the 2011 safety communication, warning that women with breast implants may have a very low risk of developing ALCL adjacent to a breast implant. According to the World Health Organization, BI-LCL is not a breast cancer or cancer of the breast tissue; it is a lymphoma, a cancer of immune cells. BI-ALCL is highly curable in the majority of patients...
April 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493745/-treating-adult-survivors-of-childhood-emotional-abuse-and-neglect-a-new-framework-correction-to-grossman-et-al-2017
#18
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework" by Frances K. Grossman, Joseph Spinazzola, Marla Zucker and Elizabeth Hopper (American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2017, Vol 87[1], 86-93). In the article, in the second sentence of the third paragraph of the "The Empirical Base for CBP" section, "construction of a life narrative" should have read "construction of a trauma narrative." The full corrected sentence follows: "Therefore, the trauma treatment component traditionally focused upon construction of a trauma narrative must be expanded to address the effects of trauma on our clients' entire life narratives, including their development of a sense of self and social identity...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493505/resilience-in-ecotoxicology-towards-a-multiple-equilibrium-concept
#19
REVIEW
Mirco Bundschuh, Ralf Schulz, Ralf B Schäfer, Craig R Allen, David G Angeler
The term resilience describes stress-response patterns across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly define resilience based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used to describe the ability of organisms to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), being the rate of recovery. By contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change; that is, when ecosystems reorganize into a new regime following disturbance. Under this new regime, structural and functional aspects change considerably relative to the previous regime, without recovery...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492694/tuning-the-electronic-properties-of-monolayer-and-bilayer-transition-metal-dichalcogenide-compounds-under-direct-out-of-plane-compression
#20
Ángel Morales García, Elena Del Corro, Martin Kalbac, Otakar Frank
The band-gap modulation of atomically thin semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2; M = Mo or W, X = S or Se) under direct out-of-plane compression is systematically studied by means of the density functional theory (DFT) formalism including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and dispersion correction (D3). The out-of-plane compared with other regimes stress regime significantly reduces the pressure threshold at which the semimetal state is achieved (2.7-3.1 and 1.9-3.2 GPa for mono- and bilayer systems, respectively)...
May 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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