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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345489/seymour-sy-epstein-1924-2016
#1
Edward O'Brien, Jean O'Brien, Everett Waters
Presents an obituary for Seymour (Sy) Epstein, who passed away in Amherst on May 20, 2016. Epstein was a significant voice in personality psychology for more than six decades. His wide-ranging, programmatic research addressed cognitive mediation of classical conditioning, stress and coping, the self-concept, drive, conflict, and psychopathology. His research on aggregation strongly influenced the person-situation debate. His most important contribution was his decades-long development of an integrated personality theory, culminating in his magnum opus, Cognitive-Experiential Theory (Oxford University Press, 2014)...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345309/microbial-mitigation-exacerbation-continuum-a-novel-framework-for-microbiome-effects-on-hosts-in-the-face-of-stress
#2
Aaron S David, Khum B Thapa-Magar, Michelle E Afkhami
A key challenge to understanding microbiomes and their role in ecological processes is contextualizing their effects on host organisms, particularly when faced with environmental stress. One influential theory, the Stress Gradient Hypothesis, might predict that the frequency of positive interactions increases with stressful conditions such that microbial taxa would mitigate harmful effects on host performance. Yet, equally plausible is that microbial taxa could exacerbate these effects. Here, we introduce the "Mitigation-Exacerbation Continuum" as a novel framework to conceptualize microbial mediation of stress...
January 18, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342917/nitrogen-doped-carbon-for-red-phosphorous-based-anode-materials-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#3
Jiaoyang Li, Yumin Qian, Li Wang, Xiangming He
Serving as conductive matrix and stress buffer, the carbon matrix plays a pivotal role in enabling red phosphorus to be a promising anode material for high capacity lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries. In this paper, nitrogen-doping is proved to effective enhance the interface interaction between carbon and red phosphorus. In detail, the adsorption energy between phosphorus atoms and oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon is significantly reduced by nitrogen doping, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
January 15, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341660/2d-stress-tensor-for-4d-gravity
#4
Daniel Kapec, Prahar Mitra, Ana-Maria Raclariu, Andrew Strominger
We use the subleading soft-graviton theorem to construct an operator T_{zz} whose insertion in the four-dimensional tree-level quantum gravity S matrix obeys the Virasoro-Ward identities of the energy momentum tensor of a two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT_{2}). The celestial sphere at Minkowskian null infinity plays the role of the Euclidean sphere of the CFT_{2}, with the Lorentz group acting as the unbroken SL(2,C) subgroup.
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337554/light-induced-deformation-of-azobenzene-containing-colloidal-spheres-calculation-and-measurement-of-opto-mechanical-stresses
#5
Sarah Loebner, Nino Lomadze, Alexey Kopyshev, Markus Koch, Olga Guskova, Marina Grenzer Saphiannikova, Svetlana A Santer
We report on light induced deformation of colloidal spheres consisting of azobenzene containing polymers. The colloids of the size between 60nm and 2m in diameter were drop casted on a glass surface and irradiated with linearly polarized light. It was found that colloidal particles can be deformed up to ca. 6 times of their initial diameter. The maximum degree of deformation depends on the irradiation wavelength and intensity, as well as on colloidal particles size. Based on recently proposed theory [V. Toshchevikov et al...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336687/reasons-why-undergraduate-women-comply-with-unwanted-non-coercive-sexual-advances-a-serial-indirect-effect-model-integrating-sexual-script-theory-and-sexual-self-control-perspectives
#6
Christopher Quinn-Nilas, Deborah J Kennett
This study explored the predictors of young women's compliance with unwanted sexual activities integrating the social with the cognitive and behavioural correlates of sexual compliance. In total, 222 young heterosexual women completed measures examining the Sexual Self-Control model including reasons for consenting, sexual resourcefulness, and compliance with unwanted sex, as well as gender role measures pertaining to sexual script theory including the sexual double standard, gender role stress, and virginity scripts...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334414/cryptic-species-as-a-window-into-the-paradigm-shift-of-the-species-concept
#7
Cene Fišer, Christopher T Robinson, Florian Malard
The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new 'species' paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category - which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333059/innate-food-aversions-and-culturally-transmitted-food-taboos-in-pregnant-women-in-rural-southwest-india-separate-systems-to-protect-the-fetus
#8
Caitlyn D Placek, Purnima Madhivanan, Edward H Hagen
Pregnancy increases women's nutritional requirements, yet causes aversions to nutritious foods. Most societies further restrict pregnant women's diet with food taboos. Pregnancy food aversions are theorized to protect mothers and fetuses from teratogens and pathogens or increase dietary diversity in response to resource scarcity. Tests of these hypotheses have had mixed results, perhaps because many studies are in Westernized populations with reliable access to food and low exposure to pathogens. If pregnancy food aversions are adaptations, however, then they likely evolved in environments with uncertain access to food and high exposure to pathogens...
November 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328698/emergence-of-long-ranged-stress-correlations-at-the-liquid-to-glass-transition
#9
Manuel Maier, Annette Zippelius, Matthias Fuchs
A theory for the nonlocal shear stress correlations in supercooled liquids is derived from first principles. It captures the crossover from viscous to elastic dynamics at an idealized liquid to glass transition and explains the emergence of long-ranged stress correlations in glass, as expected from classical continuum elasticity. The long-ranged stress correlations can be traced to the coupling of shear stress to transverse momentum, which is ignored in the classic Maxwell model. To rescue this widely used model, we suggest a generalization in terms of a single relaxation time τ for the fast degrees of freedom only...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325446/reduction-of-ptsd-symptoms-with-pre-reactivation-propranolol-therapy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Alain Brunet, Daniel Saumier, Aihua Liu, David L Streiner, Jacques Tremblay, Roger K Pitman
OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the efficacy of trauma memory reactivation performed under the influence of propranolol, a noradrenergic beta-receptor blocker, as a putative reconsolidation blocker, in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: This was a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in 60 adults diagnosed with long-standing PTSD. Propranolol or placebo was administered 90 minutes before a brief memory reactivation session, once a week for 6 consecutive weeks...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324932/the-neurophysiological-and-evolutionary-considerations-of-close-combat-a-modular-approach
#11
Kostas Dervenis, Evangelos Tsialogiannis
Close Combat may be identified as a physical confrontation involving armed or unarmed fighting, lethal and/or non-lethal methods, or even simply escape from and/or de-escalation of the confrontation. Our model hypothesizes that distinct areas of the brain are utilized for specific levels of violence, based on evolutionary criteria, and that these levels of violence bring into effect distinct physiological criteria and kinesiology. This model is outlined similar to Paul D. MacLean's triune brain theory, but incorporates distinct processes inherent to the autonomic nervous system (i...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323523/trauma-across-generations-and-paths-to-adaptation-and-resilience
#12
Amy Lehrner, Rachel Yehuda
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing literature on the intergenerational transmission of trauma, representing approaches across psychodynamic, family systems, epidemiological, sociological, and biological levels of analysis. Embitterment has been proposed as a response to severe, but normative, stressful events, different from the life-threatening trauma that precedes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: This article reviews the potential applicability of the construct of embitterment to trauma and intergenerational effects through (a) a historical review of the intergenerational transmission of trauma literature, (b) a discussion of embitterment versus PTSD, (c) a brief review of theories of mechanisms of transmission, and (d) a discussion of biological findings and their interpretation...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321534/mitochondrial-network-complexity-emerges-from-fission-fusion-dynamics
#13
Nahuel Zamponi, Emiliano Zamponi, Sergio A Cannas, Orlando V Billoni, Pablo R Helguera, Dante R Chialvo
Mitochondrial networks exhibit a variety of complex behaviors, including coordinated cell-wide oscillations of energy states as well as a phase transition (depolarization) in response to oxidative stress. Since functional and structural properties are often interwinded, here we characterized the structure of mitochondrial networks in mouse embryonic fibroblasts using network tools and percolation theory. Subsequently we perturbed the system either by promoting the fusion of mitochondrial segments or by inducing mitochondrial fission...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319445/development-of-a-taxonomy-of-practice-related-stressors-experienced-by-veterinarians-in-the-united-states
#14
Olivia H Vande Griek, Malissa A Clark, Tracy K Witte, Randall J Nett, Amanda N Moeller, Margaret E Stabler
OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors. PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents' main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319376/the-effect-of-physical-activity-on-ptsd
#15
Lauren M Oppizzi, Reba Umberger
Although physical activity (PA) is known to reduce anxiety and depression, less is known about the effects of PA on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The author examined the state of the science regarding the effect of PA on PTSD. Three themes emerged: PA characteristics, added benefits of PA as a PTSD intervention, and theories on the method of action. Physical activity seems to be an effective adjunct therapy to reduce PTSD symptom severity. Findings are inconsistent between observational and controlled studies...
January 10, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316299/survival-in-spatially-variable-thermal-environments-consequences-of-induced-thermal-defense
#16
Mark Denny
As Earth's climate warms, plants and animals are likely to encounter an increased frequency and severity of extreme thermal events, and the ensuing destruction is likely to play an important role in structuring ecological communities. However, accurate prediction of the population-scale consequences of extreme thermal events requires detailed knowledge of the small-scale interaction between individual organisms and their thermal environment. In this study I propose a simple model that allows one to explore how individual-to-individual variation in body temperature and thermal physiology determines what fraction of a population will be killed by an extreme thermal event...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315186/the-progressive-nature-of-meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-stress-projections-and-lesion-analysis
#17
Daniel J Pender
HYPOTHESIS: An engineering model of the labyrinth can provide a mechanism that accounts for the pattern of lesion development observed in Menière's disease. BACKGROUND: Membrane lesions in Menière's disease can occur in virtually every part of the membranous labyrinth. How these lesions are induced is unclear and their mode of distribution uncertain. Pressure induced stress in the membranous labyrinth may play a mechanistic role in lesion formation and distribution...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306907/new-aspects-in-the-pathomechanism-of-diseases-of-civilization-particularly-psychosomatic-disorders-part-2-chronic-hypocapnia-and-hypercapnia-in-the-medical-practice
#18
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The authors seek to find new connections between recent results of biology and older theories. This paper aims to assemble the jigsaw puzzle. The theoretical background of the hypothesis was described in the previous issue of the journal (Sikter et al. 2017a). Human stress response often coexists with persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia - developing via psychosomatic pathomechanism - which can lead to mental and psychosomatic illnesses. Chronic hypocapnia mainly generates hyperarousal disorders which may be reversible for an extended time, however, vicious cycles may start when hypoxia and/or severe somatic diseases are simultaneously present (commonly in the elderly), which conditions often end with death without medical help...
September 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305106/diabetic-nephropathy-is-there-a-role-for-oxidative-stress
#19
REVIEW
Manpreet K Sagoo, Luigi Gnudi
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Studies in experimental animal models of diabetes strongly implicate oxidant species as a major determinant in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease. The translation, in the clinical setting, of these concepts have been quite disappointing, and new theories have challenged the concepts that oxidative stress per se plays a role in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease. The concept of mitochondrial hormesis has been introduced to explain this apparent disconnect...
January 2, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299788/is-minority-stress-in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-a-test-of-minority-stress-theory-with-christians
#20
Mike C Parent, Melanie E Brewster, Stephen W Cook, Kevin A Harmon
Studies using minority stress theory have focused on the experiences of numerical and social power minorities, though majority individuals may also perceive themselves to be minorities. We explored minority stress theory among a sample of members of a numerically and socially dominant group: Christians in the USA. Perceiving oneself to be a member of a minority as a Christian was associated with stress indirectly via perceived experiences of faith-based discrimination (i.e., harassment due to being Christian)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
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