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Myelinolysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427777/extrapontine-myelinolysis-in-a-child-with-salt-intoxication
#1
Janaki D Vakharia, Bracha Goldsweig, Jeffery M Rogg, Lisa Swartz Topor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392953/acute-psychosis-as-main-manifestation-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis
#2
Mangala Gopal, Melvin Parasram, Harsh Patel, Chike Ilorah, Hrachya Nersesyan
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is an acute demyelinating neurological disorder affecting primarily the central pons and is frequently associated with rapid correction of hyponatremia. Common clinical manifestations of CPM include spastic quadriparesis, dysarthria, pseudobulbar palsy, and encephalopathy of various degrees; however, coma, "locked-in" syndrome, or death can occur in most severe cases. Rarely, CPM presents with neuropsychiatric manifestations, such as personality changes, acute psychosis, paranoia, hallucinations, or catatonia, typically associated with additional injury to the brain, described as extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM)...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374704/-a-case-report-of-central-pontine-and-extrapontine-myelinolysis-in-the-combination-with-spinal-cord-damage-in-a-patient-with-tuberculosis-in-the-lung
#3
A A Savin, S A Trukhanov, Yu R Zyuzya, I A Sokolina, E M Malysheva, D V Bogomolov, E B Savina, G V Khodyachaya, L A Savin, N N Matrokhin, A V Bugun
A case report of central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis in the combination with spinal cord damage is presented. The authors analyze literature data on this problem and discuss the pathogenesis and diagnostic issues of myelinolysis.
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315624/extrapontine-myelinolysis-manifested-selectively-by-acute-severe-parkinsonian-syndrome-case-report
#4
IIvana Stetkarova, Zuzana Svobodova, Jozef Soltez, Jinda Svatova
OBJECTIVES: Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODMS) is a rare and serious neurologic disorder with acute myelin disintegration, usually in the pontine area (central pontine myelinolysis) and to a lesser extent, even in other areas of the central nervous system (extrapontine myelinolysis). The main underlying mechanism is the change of serum osmolality with quick correction of low mineral levels, mainly hyponatraemia. Clinical manifestation is various and depends on the localization. DESIGN: We describe an acute isolated extrapontine myelinolysis causing acute onset of parkinsonism in a 61-year-old man who developed quickly progressing parkinsonian syndrome after the rapid correction of hyponatraemia...
November 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289647/central-pontine-myelinolysis-induced-by-alcohol-withdrawal-a-case-report
#5
Jae Ho Kim, Sae Hyun Kim, Ho Joong Jeong, Young Joo Sim, Dong Kyu Kim, Ghi Chan Kim
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the loss of myelin in the center of the basis pons, and is mainly caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. We report the case of a young woman who presented with gait disturbance and alcohol withdrawal, and who was eventually diagnosed with CPM. Generally, the cause and pathogenesis of CPM in chronic alcoholics remain unclear. In this cases, the CPM may be unrelated to hyponatremia or its correction. However, it is possible that the osmotic pressure changes due to refeeding syndrome after alcohol withdrawal was the likely cause in this case...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270885/does-accidental-overcorrection-of-symptomatic-hyponatremia-in-chronic-heart-failure-require-specific-therapeutic-adjustments-for-preventing-central-pontine-myelinolysis
#6
REVIEW
Renato De Vecchis, Michel Noutsias, Carmelina Ariano, Arturo Cesaro, Carmela Cioppa, Anna Giasi, Nicola Maurea
This review aims at summarizing essential aspects of epidemiology and pathophysiology of hyponatremia in chronic heart failure (CHF), to set the ground for a practical as well as evidence-based approach to treatment. As a guide through the discussion of the available evidence, a clinical case of hyponatremia associated with CHF is presented. For this case, the severe neurological signs at presentation justified an emergency treatment with hypertonic saline plus furosemide, as indicated. Subsequently, as the neurological emergency began to subside, the reversion of the trend toward hyponatremia overcorrection was realized by continuous infusion of hypotonic solutions, and administration of desmopressin, so as to prevent the very feared risk of an osmotic demyelination syndrome...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217021/central-pontine-myelinolysis-and-localized-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake-seen-on-18-f-fdg-pet-ct
#7
Frederik Rønne, Peer Carsten Tfelt-Hansen, Lene Rørdam
Case report describing the finding of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) using combined fluorine-18 ( (18)F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The patient was a known alcoholic who, during admission was under treatment for hyponatremia, showed a significant decline in both motor and cognitive function. Combined (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed localized FDG uptake in the pons, consistent with the finding of CPM observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CPM is a demyelinating lesion of the pons, resulting in several neurological symptoms...
January 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203182/treatable-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-hypophosphatemia
#8
Masahiro Okazaki, Makito Hirano, Tomoki Iwatsu, Masaki Yamana, Hidekazu Suzuki, Takao Satou, Susumu Kusunoki
We report the first patient with pathologically proven leukoencephalopathy associated with hypophosphatemia. A 61-year-old woman had repetitive episodes of decreased consciousness with pontine and pallidal lesions and extensive leukoencephalopathy on MRI, later found to be associated with hypophosphatemia. Although hypophosphatemia has been linked to central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis (osmotic myelinolysis), lesions in the deep white matter have not been reported. Brain biopsy performed during the first diagnosis process revealed nonspecific demyelination with gliosis, a finding similar to that of chronic osmotic myelinolysis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142166/-image-findings-in-central-pontine-myelinolysis-cpm-and-extrapontine-myelinolysis%C3%A2-epm
#9
REVIEW
Anja Örgel, Till-Karsten Hauser, T Nägele, Marius Horger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131203/temporal-evolution-of-the-trident-and-piglet-signs-of-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome
#10
Shin C Beh
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a potentially-devastating complication of rapid osmolar shifts, classically attributed to overlyaggressive correction of chronic hyponatremia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed earlier diagnosis of CPM, but most importantly, it has revealed that the odds of good functional recovery are surprisingly high. A trident shaped pontine lesion is a typical finding in CPM (the trident sign). The "piglet sign" is a much less well-known radiologic finding in CPM. Due to the rarity of CPM, very little has been published on the evolution of these MRI findings...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980288/a-case-of-central-pontine-and-extrapontine-myelinolysis-after-surgery-for-a-pituitary-tumor
#11
Takanobu Ishiguro, Tomohiko Ishihara, Yuya Hatano, Takahiro Abe, Takayoshi Shimohata, Masatoyo Nishizawa
A 21-year-old woman underwent surgery for a pituitary tumor. On the 11th postoperative day, blood examination revealed severe hyponatremia, with a serum sodium level of 111 mEq/l, and two days later this increased rapidly to 137 mEq/l. On the 20th postoperative day, the patient developed dysarthria and gait disturbance. Head MRI on the 30th postoperative day demonstrated intense high-signal lesions in the pons and bilateral corpus striatum on FLAIR and DWI, and central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis was diagnosed...
December 16, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932180/liver-transplant-recipient-with-tumefactive-demyelinating-lesions-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
D-L Wan, K-W Ren, L-L Zhang, B Wang, Z L Zhai, X-Y Zhang, Y-C Yang, S-S Zheng
Tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDLs) that may resemble brain neoplasms or abscesses are uncommon but noteworthy. A solid knowledge of how to distinguish TDLs from malignancy or infection is a key step to avoid unnecessary medical or surgical interventions. Almost all the intracranial demyelination diseases after liver transplantation (LT) refer to central pontine myelinolysis or extrapontine myelinolysis; TDLs after LT have never been reported. In 2005, a 45-year-old Chinese male underwent orthotopic LT due to "acute on chronic liver failure" in our hospital...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922286/central-pontine-myelinolysis-during-pregnancy-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#13
María Luisa Sánchez-Ferrer, María Teresa Prieto-Sánchez, Rodrigo Orozco-Fernández, Francisco Machado-Linde, Anibal Nieto-Diaz
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare condition usually caused by rapid sodium correction in hyponatraemia after a severe neurological syndrome. Only few cases have been reported during pregnancy, most of which were reported in patients with hyperemesis. We describe the successful management of the first case of twin pregnancy in a patient who presented with CPM after treatment for premature labour and then review the literature on CPM in pregnancy (aetiology, diagnosis and management). Our patient required emergency delivery to achieve electrolyte and fluid balance...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882183/psychiatric-symptoms-and-limb-tremors-associated-with-central-pontine-myelinolysis-a-case-of-alcoholism-without-hyponatremia
#14
Xue-Min Feng, Teng Zhao, Chun-Kui Zhou, Jing-Yao Liu
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), also known as osmotic demyelination syndrome, is a rare demyelinating disorder characterized by the loss of myelin in the center of the basis pontis. In this case report, an alcoholic patient with CPM and acquired demyelinating lesion of the basis pontis is described. The patient is a 70 year-old woman who presented with intermittent psychiatric symptoms and limb tremors following two months of alcohol abuse. During admission, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hyperintensity on T2 weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery imaging in the central pons without contrast enhancement...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854093/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-mimicking-brainstem-infarction-a-dilemma
#15
Tsung-Han Ho, Chia-Lin Tsai, Yaw-Don Hsu, Jiunn-Tay Lee, Fu-Chi Yang, Chia-Ching Hsu, Chun-Chieh Lin
PURPOSE: We had recently reported one case at American Journal of Emergency Medicine about centralvariant posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in an 84-year-old woman with an initial misdiagnosis as central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Here, we introduce another case of centralvariant PRES in a 49-year-old man mimicking as acute brainstem infarction in the cranial computed tomography (CT) findings. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of vertigo, cognitive decline, and difficulty in walking...
June 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728543/postpartum-hypernatremic-encephalopathy-with-osmotic-extrapontine-myelinolysis
#16
Harsha Vardhan Reddy Yg, Yeshavanth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673118/poster-365-traumatic-brain-injury-resulting-from-pontine-and-extrapontine-myelinolysis-due-to-acute-onset-of-pregnancy-induced-diabetes-insipidus-a-case-report
#17
Brittany L Bickelhaupt, Jesse W Neeley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673041/poster-282-functional-gains-after-diagnosis-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis-due-to-hypophosphatemia-in-a-leukemia-patient-on-an-acute-inpatient-rehabilitation-unit-a-case-report
#18
Ekta Gupta, Jack B Fu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618323/white-matter-diseases-with-radiologic-pathologic-correlation
#19
Nicolae Sarbu, Robert Y Shih, Robert V Jones, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Laura Oleaga, James G Smirniotopoulos
White matter diseases include a wide spectrum of disorders that have in common impairment of normal myelination, either by secondary destruction of previously myelinated structures (demyelinating processes) or by primary abnormalities of myelin formation (dysmyelinating processes). The pathogenesis of many white matter diseases remains poorly understood. Demyelinating disorders are the object of this review and will be further divided into autoimmune, infectious, vascular, and toxic-metabolic processes. Autoimmune processes include multiple sclerosis and related diseases: tumefactive demyelinating lesions, Balo concentric sclerosis, Marburg and Schilder variants, neuromyelitis optica (Devic disease), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (Hurst disease)...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610136/clinical-evolution-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis-in-a-patient-with-alcohol-withdrawal-a-blurred-clinical-horizon
#20
Abdul S Mohammed, Prajwal Boddu, Dina F Yazdani
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), a potentially fatal and debilitating neurological condition, was first described in 1959 in a study on alcoholic and malnourished patients. It is a condition most frequently related to rapid correction of hyponatremia. Chronic alcoholism associated CPM tends to be benign with a favorable prognosis compared to CPM secondary to rapid correction of hyponatremia. We describe a normonatremic, alcoholic patient who presented with CPM after a rapid rise in his sodium levels. Our case illustrates the fact that CPM can manifest even in patients who are normonatremic at baseline...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
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