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Uremic pruritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088389/nalfurafine-is-a-g-protein-biased-agonist-having-significantly-greater-bias-at-the-human-than-rodent-form-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor
#1
Selena S Schattauer, Jamie R Kuhar, Allisa Song, Charles Chavkin
Nalfurafine is a moderately selective kappa opioid receptor (KOR) analgesic with low incidence of dysphoric side effects in clinical development for the treatment of uremic pruritis. The basis for its reduced dysphoric effect compared to other KOR agonists is not clear, but prior studies suggest that the aversive properties of KOR agonists require p38α MAPK activation through an arrestin-dependent mechanism. To determine whether nalfurafine is a functionally selective KOR agonist, we measured its potency to activate the G protein-dependent early phase of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and the arrestin-dependent late phase of p38 MAPK signaling...
January 11, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24291743/uremic-toxin-indoxyl-3-sulfate-regulates-the-differentiation-of-th2-but-not-of-th1-cells-to-lessen-allergic-asthma
#2
You-Jung Hwang, Mi-Ok Yun, Kyu-Tae Jeong, Joo-Hung Park
Immune system dysfunctions including the increased Th1/Th2 ratio are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and a wide variety of skin diseases including Th1-mediated uremic pruritis are associated with CKD. Although there are more than 90 uremic toxins reported, it is yet to be known which uremic solute is associated with the unbalanced Th1/Th2 ratio and how it works. Indoxyl 3-sulfate (I3S), one of uremic toxins and a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, accumulates in blood and tissues, increasing up to 81...
February 10, 2014: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22556282/gabapentin-for-pruritus-in-palliative-care
#3
REVIEW
Sheeba Anand
Itch/pruritus can be very distressing in palliative care population and often is difficult to treat. Conventional antihistamines lack efficacy. Cutaneous and central pathogenesis of itch is extremely complex and unclear, making its treatment challenging. Neuronal mechanisms have been identified in the pathophysiology of itch hence providing a myriad of therapeutic options. It has been established that pruritus and pain neuronal pathway interact with each other, hence neuropathic analgesics like gabapentin has shown to be efficacious antipruritic therapeutic option...
March 2013: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
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