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Protease activated receptor 2

Satyanarayana Achanta, Narendranath Reddy Chintagari, Marian Brackmann, Shrilatha Balakrishna, Sven-Eric Jordt
The skin is highly sensitive to the chemical warfare agent in mustard gas, sulfur mustard (SM) that initiates a delayed injury response characterized by erythema, inflammation and severe vesication (blistering). Although SM poses a continuing threat, used as recently as in the Syrian conflict, no mechanism-based antidotes against SM are available. Recent studies demonstrated that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a chemosensory cation channel in sensory nerves innervating the skin, is activated by SM and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), an SM analog, in vitro, suggesting it may promote vesicant injury...
March 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Sabine Buhner, Hannes Hahne, Kerstin Hartwig, Qin Li, Sheila Vignali, Daniela Ostertag, Chen Meng, Gabriele Hörmannsperger, Breg Braak, Christian Pehl, Thomas Frieling, Giovanni Barbara, Roberto De Giorgio, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Güralp Onur Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Guy Boeckxstaens, Dirk Haller, Bernhard Kuster, Michael Schemann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The causes of gastrointestinal complaints in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly understood. Altered nerve function has emerged as an important pathogenic factor as IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants consistently activate enteric and sensory neurons. We investigated the neurally active molecular components of such supernatants from patients with IBS and quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). METHOD: Effects of supernatants from 7 healthy controls (HC), 20 IBS and 12 UC patients on human and guinea pig submucous neurons were studied with neuroimaging techniques...
2018: PloS One
Jonaz Font, Mathilda Simeon, Christophe Simard, Stéphane Allouche, Anne-Flore Plane, Virginie Ferchaud, Marie Brionne, René Rouet, Marie Nowoczyn, Alain Manrique, Paolo Emilio Puddu, Paul Milliez, Joachim Alexandre
Whether oral anti-coagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOACs) frequently prescribed to atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, do themselves have a pro- or anti-arrhythmic effect have never been addressed. Transmembrane action potentials were recorded in an acute rabbit model of superfused pulmonary veins (PVs) sleeves preparations using standard microelectrode technique. Fluindione 10 μmol/L (n = 6) increased the AP (action potential) duration (APD), induced a significantly Vmax depression (from 95±14 to 53±5 V/s, P < 0...
March 11, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Lucio Barile, Elisabetta Cervio, Vincenzo Lionetti, Giuseppina Milano, Alessandra Ciullo, Vanessa Biemmi, Sara Bolis, Claudia Altomare, Marco Matteucci, Dario Disilvestre, Tudor Emanuel Fertig, Tiziano Torre, Stefanos Demertzis, Pierluigi Mauri, Tiziano Moccetti, Giuseppe Vassalli
Aims: Cell therapy trials using cardiac-resident progenitor cells (CPCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BMCs) in patients after myocardial infarction have provided encouraging results. Exosomes, nanosized extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, figure prominently in the bioactivities of these cells. However, a head-to-head comparison of exosomes from the two cell types has not been performed yet. Methods and Results: CPCs and BMCs were derived from cardiac atrial appendage specimens and sternal bone marrow, respectively, from patients (n=20; age, 69...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Jiamin Aw, Glen M Scholz, Noorjahan Laila Huq, Jennifer Huynh, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Eric C Reynolds
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis. Its expression of gingipain proteases (Kgp and RgpA/B) is central to the stimulation of chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells to P. gingivalis. The cells responded by upregulating the expression of the orphan chemokine CXCL14. The stimulation of CXCL14 expression was largely triggered by the gingipain proteases, and was dependent on the host protease-activated receptor PAR-3...
March 5, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Qingling Wang, Hongli Yang, Qian Zhuo, Yanyan Xu, Peng Zhang
Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) has been implicated in the carcinogenesis of diverse tumor types. This tumor-promoting effect of EPCR is associated with the upregulation of activated protein C and the activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). However, the exact role of EPCR in gastric cancer (GC) and the mechanisms underlying the regulation of EPCR remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EPCR on human GC cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms. An siRNA inference system was used to knock down the expression of EPCR in GC cells, and CCK-8, colony formation and Transwell assays were performed to determine the effects of EPCR knockdown on the proliferation and migration of the tumor cells...
February 21, 2018: Oncology Reports
Nicole M Templeman, Shijing Luo, Rachel Kaletsky, Cheng Shi, Jasmine Ashraf, William Keyes, Coleen T Murphy
A decline in female reproduction is one of the earliest hallmarks of aging in many animals, including invertebrates and mammals [1-4]. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has a conserved role in regulating longevity [5] and also controls reproductive aging [2, 6]. Although IIS transcriptional targets that regulate somatic aging have been characterized [7, 8], it was not known whether the same mechanisms influence reproductive aging. We previously showed that Caenorhabditis elegans daf-2 IIS receptor mutants extend reproductive span by maintaining oocyte quality with age [6], but IIS targets in oocytes had not been identified...
February 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Bo Wang, Aizhen Yang, Zhenzhen Zhao, Chao He, Yuanyuan Liu, Robert W Colman, Jihong Dai, Yi Wu
The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) consists of two serine proteases, prekallikrein (pKal) and factor XII (FXII), and a cofactor, high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK). Upon activation of the KKS, HK is cleaved to release bradykinin. Although the KKS is activated in humans and animals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its role in the pathogenesis of IBD has not been characterized. In the present study, we determined the role of the KKS in the pathogenesis of IBD using mice that lack proteins involved in the KKS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Usha R Pendurthi, L Vijaya Mohan Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), a transmembrane glycoprotein present on the surface of endothelial cells and other cell types, is an essential component of the protein C (PC) anticoagulant system. EPCR is also shown to play a critical role in mediating activated protein C (APC)-induced cytoprotective signaling. The purpose of this review is to outline the mechanisms of EPCR-dependent cell signaling and discuss recent findings made in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies showed that the cleavage of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 at a noncanonical site by APC-EPCR or the canonical site by thrombin when PC occupies EPCR induces β-arrestin-2-mediated biased cytoprotective signaling...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Lu Lu, Liang Yan, Jianye Yuan, Qing Ye, Jiang Lin
Background: To determine the effect of Shuganyin decoction (SGD) on the intestinal barrier function in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model induced by water-avoidance stress. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into control, water-avoidance stress (WAS) group, WAS plus Shuganyin decoction (SGD) group and WAS plus dicetel (Dicetel) group. IBS was induced in rats by subjecting them to water-avoidance stress for 7 days. On day 4 of the WAS protocol, the rats were treated for 7 consecutive days (days 4-11) with SGD, dicetel or a negative control (saline)...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Hiroaki Kataoka, Makiko Kawaguchi, Tsuyoshi Fukushima, Takeshi Shimomura
The growth, survival, and metabolic activities of multicellular organisms at the cellular level are regulated by intracellular signaling, systemic homeostasis and the pericellular microenvironment. Pericellular proteolysis has a crucial role in processing bioactive molecules in the microenvironment and thereby has profound effects on cellular functions. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) and HAI-2 are type I transmembrane serine protease inhibitors expressed by most epithelial cells...
February 12, 2018: Pathology International
Kanae Echizen, Hiroko Oshima, Mizuho Nakayama, Masanobu Oshima
Accumulating evidence has indicated that the inflammatory response is important for tumor promotion. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction of the inflammatory response in cancer tissues and how it promotes tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. We constructed several mouse models that develop inflammation-associated gastric and intestinal tumors and examined the in vivo mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Of note, the activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) pathway and Toll-like receptor (TLR)/MyD88 signaling cooperatively induced the generation of an inflammatory microenvironment, which is required for early-stage tumorigenesis...
February 5, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
Florry E van den Boogaard, Xanthe Brands, JanWillem Duitman, Sacha F de Stoppelaar, Keren S Borensztajn, Joris J T H Roelofs, Morley D Hollenberg, C Arnold Spek, Marcus J Schultz, Cornelis van 't Veer, Tom van der Poll
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is expressed by different cell types in the lungs and can mediate inflammatory responses. We sought to determine the role of PAR2 during pneumococcal pneumonia. Pneumococcal pneumonia or sepsis was induced in wild-type and PAR2 knock-out (Par2-/-) mice by infection with viable S. pneumoniae. Par2-/- mice demonstrated improved host defense, a largely preserved lung barrier integrity, and reduced mortality during pneumococcal pneumonia...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Fatma H Al-Awadhi, Valerie J Paul, Hendrik Luesch
Three new 3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone (Ahp)-containing cyclic depsipeptides named loggerpeptins A-C (1-3) along with molassamide (4) were discovered from a marine cyanobacterium, extending the structural diversity of this prevalent scaffold of cyanobacterial serine protease inhibitors. Molassamide (4), containing the 2-amino-butenoic (Abu) unit in the cyclic core, was the most potent and selective analogue against human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Given the growing evidence supporting the role of HNE in breast cancer progression and metastasis, we assessed the cellular effects of compounds 3 and 4 in the context of targeting invasive breast cancer...
February 5, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
James S Griffiths, Aiysha Thompson, Matthew Stott, Ankita Benny, Natalie A Lewis, Philip R Taylor, Julian Forton, Sarah Herrick, Selinda J Orr, Eamon P McGreal
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience chronic or recurrent bacterial and fungal lung infections. Many patients with CF cannot effectively clear Aspergillus from their lungs. This may result in IgE sensitization and the development of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive infections, such as Aspergillus bronchitis. Lung disease in patients with CF is associated with neutrophil-dominated inflammation and elevated levels of the serine protease, neutrophil elastase (NE). Various C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs), including Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, are involved in the immune response to Aspergillus...
January 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yinglong Miao, Yu-Ming Huang, Ross C Walker, J Andrew McCammon, Chia-En A Chang
It is important to determine the binding pathways and mechanisms of ligand molecules to target proteins in order to effectively design therapeutic drugs. Molecular dynamics (MD) is a promising computational tool that allows us to simulate protein-drug binding at an atomistic level. However, the gap between timescales of current simulations and those of many drug binding processes has limited the usage of conventional MD, which has been reflected in studies of the HIV protease. Here, we have applied a robust enhanced simulation method, Gaussian accelerated molecular dynamics (GaMD), to sample binding pathways of the XK263 ligand and associated protein conformational changes in the HIV protease...
February 2, 2018: Biochemistry
Mogibelrahman M S Khedr, Ahmed M Abdelmotelb, Sylvia L F Pender, Xiaoying Zhou, Andrew F Walls
BACKGROUND: Tryptase, the most abundant protease of the human mast cell, has been implicated as a key mediator of allergic inflammation that acts through activation of PAR2. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of PAR2 in the pro-inflammatory actions mediated by tryptase in a mice model. METHODS: We have injected recombinant human βII-tryptase into the peritoneum of PAR2-deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. After 6, 12 and 24 hours mice were euthanized, peritoneal lavage performed and inflammatory changes investigated...
January 31, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Peter Nadeau, Mason Henehan, Anna De Benedetto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Michael Garton, Satra Nim, Tracy A Stone, Kyle Ethan Wang, Charles M Deber, Philip M Kim
Biologics are a rapidly growing class of therapeutics with many advantages over traditional small molecule drugs. A major obstacle to their development is that proteins and peptides are easily destroyed by proteases and, thus, typically have prohibitively short half-lives in human gut, plasma, and cells. One of the most effective ways to prevent degradation is to engineer analogs from dextrorotary (D)-amino acids, with up to 105-fold improvements in potency reported. We here propose a general peptide-engineering platform that overcomes limitations of previous methods...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ken-Ichi Takayama, Takashi Suzuki, Tetsuya Fujimura, Satoru Takahashi, Satoshi Inoue
Ubiquitin-specific protease 10 (USP10) is known to deubiquitylate its target proteins, mainly to enhance their stabilities. USP10 maintains p53 protein levels and controls epigenetic changes induced by the androgen receptor (AR). GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 2 (G3BP2), an androgen-responsive gene, is known as the main component of stress granules (SGs) that interacts with USP10 in SGs. This study explores the roles of USP10 in prostate cancer progression in p53, G3BP2, and AR signaling. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequence analysis, it was found that USP10 is transcriptionally induced with AR recruitment to an intronic region...
January 29, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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