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Melatonin coeruleus

Vitaly Ryu, Eleen Zarebidaki, H Elliott Albers, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
Changes in photoperiod length are transduced into neuroendocrine signals by melatonin (MEL) secreted by the pineal gland triggering seasonally adaptive responses in many animal species. Siberian hamsters, transferred from a long-day 'summer-like' photoperiod (LD) to a short-day 'winter-like' photoperiod (SD), exhibit a naturally-occurring reversal in obesity. Photoperiod-induced changes in adiposity are mediated by the duration of MEL secretion and can be mimicked by exogenously administered MEL into animals housed in LD...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Bojana Stefanovic, Natasa Spasojevic, Predrag Jovanovic, Nebojsa Jasnic, Jelena Djordjevic, Sladjana Dronjak
The hippocampus is sensitive to stress which activates norepinephrine terminals deriving from the locus coeruleus. Melatonin exerts positive effects on the hippocampal neurogenic process and on depressive-like behaviour. Thus, in the present study, an examination was made of the effect of chronic melatonin treatment on norepinephrine content, synthesis, uptake, vesicular transport and degradation in the hippocampus of rats exposed to CUMS. This entailed quantifying the norephinephrine, mRNA and protein levels of DBH, NET, VMAT 2, MAO-A and COMT...
October 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Patricia Pablos, Aitziber Mendiguren, Joseba Pineda
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in desensitization of μ-opioid receptors (MOR). We used extracellular recordings in vitro to unmask the NO-dependent pathways involved in MOR desensitization in the rat locus coeruleus (LC). Perfusion with ME (3 and 10 μM) concentration-dependently reduced subsequent ME effect, indicative of MOR desensitization. ME (3 μM)-induced desensitization was enhanced by a NO donor (DEA/NO 100 μM), two soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activators (A 350619 30 μM and BAY 418543 1 μM) or a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activator (8-pCPT-cGMP 30 μM)...
December 2015: Neuropharmacology
Stefano Comai, Rafael Ochoa-Sanchez, Sergio Dominguez-Lopez, Francis Rodriguez Bambico, Gabriella Gobbi
BACKGROUND: Melancholic depression, described also as endogenous depression, is a mood disorder with distinctive specific psychopathological features and biological homogeneity, including anhedonia, circadian variation of mood, psychomotor activation, weight loss, diurnal cortisol changes, and sleep disturbances. Although several hypotheses have been proposed, the etiology of this disorder is still unknown. METHODS: Behavioral, electrophysiological and biochemical approaches were used to characterize the emotional phenotype, serotonergic and noradrenergic electrical activity, and corticosterone in melatonin MT1 receptor knockout mice and their wild type counterparts, during both light and dark phases...
February 2015: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Franck Chenu, Stacey Shim, Mostafa El Mansari, Pierre Blier
Melatonin has been widely used for the management of insomnia, but is devoid of antidepressant effect in the clinic. In contrast, agomelatine which is a potent melatonin receptor agonist is an effective antidepressant. It is, however, a potent serotonin 2B (5-HT(2B)) and serotonin 2C (5-HT(2C)) receptor antagonist as well. The present study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effects of repeated administration of melatonin (40 mg/kg/day), the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg/day), the selective 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonist LY 266097 (0...
February 2014: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Martijn Arns, J Leon Kenemans
In this review article an overview of the history and current status of neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD and insomnia is provided. Recent insights suggest a central role of circadian phase delay, resulting in sleep onset insomnia (SOI) in a sub-group of ADHD patients. Chronobiological treatments, such as melatonin and early morning bright light, affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This nucleus has been shown to project to the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) thereby explaining the vigilance stabilizing effects of such treatments in ADHD...
July 2014: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Franck Chenu, Mostafa El Mansari, Pierre Blier
Agomelatine is a melatonergic MT1/MT2 agonist and a serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT(2C) antagonist. The effects of 2-day and 14-day administration of agomelatine were investigated on the activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA), locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE), and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons using in vivo electrophysiology in rats. The 5-HT(1A) transmission was assessed at hippocampus CA3 pyramidal neurons. After a 2-day regimen of agomelatine (40 mg/kg/day, i.p.), an increase in the number of spontaneously active VTA-DA neurons (p<0...
January 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
J Llorente, M T Santamarta, G Henderson, J Pineda
It has previously been shown that nitric oxide (NO) synthase is involved in the development of opioid tolerance. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of NO on μ-opioid receptor (MOR) desensitization. Furthermore, we explored the possible role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this effect. Single-unit extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on locus coeruleus (LC) neurons from rat brain slices. Perfusion with high concentrations of Met(5)-enkephalin (ME) caused a concentration-related reduction of opioid effect, reflecting the induction of homologous MOR desensitization...
August 2012: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Christina Schmidt, Fabienne Collette, Yves Leclercq, Virginie Sterpenich, Gilles Vandewalle, Pierre Berthomier, Christian Berthomier, Christophe Phillips, Gilberte Tinguely, Annabelle Darsaud, Steffen Gais, Manuel Schabus, Martin Desseilles, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Eric Salmon, Evelyne Balteau, Christian Degueldre, André Luxen, Pierre Maquet, Christian Cajochen, Philippe Peigneux
Throughout the day, cognitive performance is under the combined influence of circadian processes and homeostatic sleep pressure. Some people perform best in the morning, whereas others are more alert in the evening. These chronotypes provide a unique way to study the effects of sleep-wake regulation on the cerebral mechanisms supporting cognition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in extreme chronotypes, we found that maintaining attention in the evening was associated with higher activity in evening than morning chronotypes in a region of the locus coeruleus and in a suprachiasmatic area (SCA) including the circadian master clock...
April 24, 2009: Science
Chun-Hung Lin, Jui-Yen Huang, Cheng-Hsin Ching, Jih-Ing Chuang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder resulting from nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The impairment of mitochondrial function and dopamine synaptic transmission are involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Two mitochondrial inhibitors, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+)) and rotenone, have been used to induce dopaminergic neuronal death both in in vitro and in vivo models of PD. Because the uptake of MPP(+) is mediated by the dopamine transporter (DAT), we used a cell-permeable rotenone-induced PD model to investigate the role of DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) on dopaminergic neuronal loss...
March 2008: Journal of Pineal Research
Elemer Szabadi
The past decade has witnessed an explosion of knowledge about the neural mechanisms that control sleep and arousal, triggered by two discoveries relating to the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of orexin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus, and a novel nonstimulant wakefulness-promoting drug, modafinil, alleviates excessive day-time sleepiness associated with the disorder. The level of arousal is controlled by an intricate interplay between distinct wakefulness- and sleep-promoting nuclei situated in the hypothalamus and brainstem and the interconnections between the nuclei and the neurotransmitters involved have been mapped...
June 2006: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Kuen-Bor Chen, Anya Maan-Yuh Lin, Tsai-Hsien Chiu
Neurodegeneration in the locus coeruleus (LC) has been documented in several central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, iron-induced oxidative injury in the LC was investigated in chloral-hydrate anesthetized rats. Three days after bilateral infusion of iron in the LC, both vertical and horizontal locomotor activities were decreased. Seven days after unilateral infusion of iron, lipid peroxidation was elevated in the infused LC, and the norepinephrine content was depleted in the ipsilateral hippocampus of the brain...
September 2003: Journal of Pineal Research
M J Millan, A Gobert, F Lejeune, A Dekeyne, A Newman-Tancredi, V Pasteau, J-M Rivet, D Cussac
Agomelatine (S20098) displayed pKi values of 6.4 and 6.2 at native (porcine) and cloned, human (h)5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2C receptors, respectively. It also interacted with h5-HT2B receptors (6.6), whereas it showed low affinity at native (rat)/cloned, human 5-HT2A (<5.0/5.3) and 5-HT1A (<5.0/5.2) receptors, and negligible (<5.0) affinity for other 5-HT receptors. In antibody capture/scintillation proximity assays, agomelatine concentration dependently and competitively abolished h5-HT2C receptor-mediated activation of Gq/11 and Gi3 (pA2 values of 6...
September 2003: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
O Pompeiano, D Manzoni, F Miele
Experimental and clinical evidences indicate that endocrine mechanisms, particularly involving the pineal gland, exert a role in the development of postural deficits leading to the occurrence of idiopatic scoliosis (IS). In particular, experiments performed in bipedal animals have shown that removal of the pineal gland, which secretes melatonin (M), induced a scoliosis, and that in such preparations, administration of this hormone prevented the development of this deformity (cf. 131). It appears also that adolescents with IS showed a reduced level of serum M with respect to age-related control subjects...
April 2002: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
J A Ascher, J O Cole, J N Colin, J P Feighner, R M Ferris, H C Fibiger, R N Golden, P Martin, W Z Potter, E Richelson
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of action of the novel antidepressant bupropion remains unclear after many years of study. A review of the relevant biochemical, in vivo brain microdialysis, electrophysiologic, behavioral, and clinical data clarifies what is known about this unique compound and suggests possible modes of action. METHOD: A panel of 11 experts was convened for a conference to discuss bupropion's mechanism of antidepressant activity. Four of the panelists presented current research findings, followed by a discussion...
September 1995: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
D K Ingram, E D London, M A Reynolds
This literature review of research on age-related differences in sleep and rhythmic phenomena in laboratory animals covers three general areas: (1) age-related differences in biorhythms in general; (2) age-related differences in sleep patterns as assessed by psychophysiological measures; and (3) neurobiological correlates of biorhythms and sleep, including consideration of possible morphological, chemical, and endocrine bases of age-related defects in animal models. It is concluded that systematic research bridging these areas is lacking although several promising areas have been explored...
1982: Neurobiology of Aging
M Sallanon, B Claustrat, M Touret
Microdissected samples of juvenile cat brain tissue were assayed for melatonin content using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Immunoreactive melatonin was consistently detected, albeit in variable amounts, in pineal, habenula, the region of the nucleus gracilis, gigantocellular reticular formation of the pons and medulla oblongata. Among the negative areas were raphe nuclei, substantia nigra and locus caeruleus. These findings suggest that melatonin may play a role in some structures of the central nervous system outside the pineal-hypothalamo-pituitary axis...
October 1982: Acta Endocrinologica
C P Maurizi
A suggested cause of mania is asynchrony of two biologic clocks that are involved with the sleep-waking mechanism. Increased norepinephrine in the synaptic clefts of the locus ceruleus could quicken the pace of one clock. That same increase in norepinephrine is a possible inducer of euphoria and hyperactivity in mania. The action of melatonin and/or vasotocin on the dorsal raphe nucleus may induce the hallucinatory behavior in mania. Lithium corrects the psychosis by inhibiting adenylate cyclase and slowing the circadian rhythm...
December 1984: Southern Medical Journal
O Pulido, G Brown, L J Grota
Antisera to N-acetylserotonin (NAS) were raised in rabbits by coupling NAS to bovine serum albumin (BSA) through a p-carboxybenzyl (PCB) bridge at the indole N. The specificity and applicability of these antisera in immunohistochemistry is reported. The anti-NAS antiserum and a fluorescein-labeled immunoglobulin were employed to investigate the topographic distribution of immunoreactive NAS (INAS) in the hindbrain (mesencephalon, cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata). Positive identification of INAS was confirmed in the granular layer of the cerebellum, the tractus spinalis nervi trigemini and the reticular formation...
December 1983: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
S Banerjee, V Kerrr, M Winston, J K Kelleher, L Margulis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1972: Journal of Protozoology
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