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leishmania diagnosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790825/epidemiological-and-clinical-features-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-children-in-alicante-province-spain
#1
Jose M Ramos, Agustin Clavijo, Luis Moral, Cesar Gavilan, Tatiana Salvador, Javier González de Dios
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to the Mediterranean basin. In children, VL often presents with non-specific symptoms and can be life-threatening without proper treatment. Aim To describe the epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric VL in children in Alicante, Spain. Methods The study included all paediatric (<15 years) cases admitted to three hospitals in the province of Alicante from May 1992 to May 2015 with diagnosis of VL (detection was either by anti-Leishmania antibodies in serology or Leishmania in blood and/or bone marrow aspirates)...
May 23, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742167/canine-leishmaniasis-genome-wide-analysis-and-antibody-response-to-lutzomyia-longipalpis-saliva
#2
Luís F S Batista, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Thaís B F Silva, Mariana M Carneiro, Joyr S F Paiva, Rafaela B Silva, Thaíse Y Tomokane, Claudio N Rossi, Acácio D Pacheco, Rafaela B P Torrecilha, Fernando T Silveira, Mary Marcondes, Cáris M Nunes, Márcia D Laurenti
The anti-inflammatory properties of sand fly saliva favor the establishment of the Leishmania infantum infection. In contrast, an antibody response against Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva is often associated with a protective cell-mediated response against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Genetic studies may demonstrate to what extent the ability to secrete anti-saliva antibodies depends on genetic or environmental factors. However, the genetic basis of canine antibody response against sand fly saliva has not been assessed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736822/immunogenomic-screening-approach-to-identify-new-antigens-for-the-serological-diagnosis-of-chronic-chagas-disease
#3
Rutyanne Maria Tonelli Elisei, Christiane Santos Matos, Ana Maria Ravena Severino Carvalho, Ana Thereza Chaves, Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso Medeiros, Ronaldo Barbosa, Andreza Pain Marcelino, Kenia Dos Santos Emidio, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz Coelho, Mariana Costa Duarte, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha, Daniel Menezes-Souza
Serological tests are preferentially used for the diagnosis of Chagas' disease (CD) during the chronic phase because of the low parasitemia and high anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibody titers. However, the current methods showed several disadvantages, as contradictory or inconclusive results, mainly related to the characteristics of the antigens used, in general, crude or whole parasites, but also due to antigen production protocol and the experimental conditions used in serological tests. Thus, better-quality serological assays are urgently needed...
May 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717371/visceral-leishmaniasis-from-a-non-endemic-himalayan-region-of-nepal
#4
Mitesh Shrestha, Basu Dev Pandey, Jyoti Maharjan, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Prakash Nidhi Tiwari, Krishna Das Manandhar, Sher Bahadur Pun, Kishor Pandey
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to the southern plains of Nepal. Here, we report the first case of VL from a non-endemic Himalayan region of Nepal. The patient presented with a history of high-grade fever, splenomegaly, and anemia but had not traveled to a VL-endemic region. Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed following microscopic detection of the Leishmania species amastigote in a bone marrow aspirate, positive result for the rK39 test, and further validation by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
May 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716641/real-time-pcr-applications-for-diagnosis-of-leishmaniasis
#5
REVIEW
Luca Galluzzi, Marcello Ceccarelli, Aurora Diotallevi, Michele Menotta, Mauro Magnani
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by many Leishmania species, which can infect both humans and other mammals. Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infections to lesions at cutaneous sites (cutaneous leishmaniasis), mucosal sites (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) or in visceral organs (visceral leishmaniasis), depending on the species and host characteristics. Often, symptoms are inconclusive and leishmaniasis can be confused with other co-endemic diseases...
May 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712885/leishmania-in-a-patient-with-small-lymphocytic-lymphoma-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#6
Gregory Nicolas, Elliott Koury, Dani Osman, Christian Salibi, Lea Nehme, Stephanie Mitri, Julien-Sami Atef El Sayegh, Linda Rached, George Khoury
BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection spread by the bite of infected sand flies that are usually present in the Middle East, Africa, and some parts of Asia and Europe. Leishmaniasis manifests in 3 different forms: Visceral (also known as Kala Azar), which is the most serious type; cutaneous, which is the most common type; and mucocutaneous. The symptoms of this infection range from a silent infection to fever, enlargement of the liver and spleen, weight loss, and pancytopenia. CASE REPORT In this case report, we discuss a 73-year-old man known to have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), presenting with unremitting fever and who to our surprise was found to have Kala Azar...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704265/comparison-of-pcr-based-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-two-different-epidemiological-scenarios-spain-and-morocco
#7
G Merino-Espinosa, J Rodríguez-Granger, F Morillas-Márquez, J Tercedor, V Corpas-López, S Chiheb, M Alcalde-Alonso, J M Azaña-Defez, M Riyad, V Díaz-Sáez, J Martín-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring and stigmatising disease occurring in more than 70 countries across the world including Spain and Morocco. The use of sensitive tests that can differentiate Leishmania species is advised. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the epidemiological scenario on the reliability of the PCR techniques and contribute to the selection of the most efficient one for CL diagnosis. METHODS: The sensitivities of parasitological methods and four PCRs were compared in cutaneous samples from 77 patients from Spanish (PSH) and Moroccan hospitals (PMH)...
April 28, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695527/development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-lamp-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-and-visceral-leishmaniasis
#8
Emily Rebecca Adams, Gerard Schoone, Inge Versteeg, Maria Adelaida Gomez, Ermias Diro, Yasuyoshi Mori, Desiree Perlee, Tim Downing, Nancy Saravia, Ashenafi Assaye, Asrat Hailu, Audrey Albertini, Joseph Mathu Ndung'u, Henk Schallig
INTRODUCTION: A novel Pan-Leishmania LAMP assay was developed for diagnosis of Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis (CL & VL) which can be used in near-patient settings. METHODS: Primers were designed on the 18S rDNA and the conserved region of minicircle kDNA selected on the basis of high copy number. LAMP assays were evaluated for CL in a prospective cohort trial of 105 patients in South-West Colombia. Lesion swab samples from CL suspects were collected and tested using LAMP and compared to a composite reference of microscopy AND/OR culture to calculate diagnostic accuracy...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665825/evaluation-of-fluorimetry-and-direct-visualization-to-interpret-results-of-a-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-kit-to-detect-leishmania-dna
#9
Ana V Ibarra-Meneses, Israel Cruz, Carmen Chicharro, Carmen Sánchez, Sylvain Biéler, Tobias Broger, Javier Moreno, Eugenia Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have proven to be advantageous in the diagnosis of leishmaniases, allowing sensitive diagnosis of: (i) cutaneous leishmaniasis in long duration lesions and (ii) visceral leishmaniasis using a less-invasive sample like peripheral blood, in opposition to tissue aspiration required for parasite demonstration by microscopy. Despite their benefits, the implementation of NAATs for leishmaniasis diagnosis at the point-of-care has not been achieved yet, mostly due to the complexity and logistical issues associated with PCR-based methods...
April 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664382/fatal-visceral-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-infantum-lebanon
#10
Rana El Hajj, Hiba El Hajj, Ibrahim Khalifeh
Visceral leishmaniasis, a fatal disease if not treated, is caused by Leishmania parasites. This disease might be overlooked in the Middle East because of limited awareness and low incidence. We report 5 patients who died of visceral leishmaniasis in Lebanon and make recommendations to improve faster diagnosis and treatment.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656998/changes-in-the-concentration-of-anti-leishmania-antibodies-in-saliva-of-dogs-with-clinical-leishmaniosis-after-short-term-treatment
#11
Ana Cantos-Barreda, Damián Escribano, José J Cerón, Fernando Tecles, Luis J Bernal, Silvia Martínez-Subiela
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes in the concentration of anti-Leishmania antibodies in saliva samples from dogs with clinical leishmaniosis after short-term treatment. Twenty dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with canine leishmaniosis (CanL) were diagnosed and treated with a standard antimonial plus allopurinol therapy. The concentration of anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in saliva was measured at the time of diagnosis (day 0) and after treatment (day 30) by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TR-IFMAs) and results were compared with those of serum...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651411/-leishmania-antigenuria-to-predict-initial-treatment-failure-and-relapse-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-hiv-coinfected-patients-an-exploratory-study-nested-within-a-clinical-trial-in-ethiopia
#12
Johan van Griensven, Bewketu Mengesha, Tigist Mekonnen, Helina Fikre, Yegnasew Takele, Emebet Adem, Rezika Mohammed, Koert Ritmeijer, Florian Vogt, Wim Adriaensen, Ermias Diro
Background: Biomarkers predicting the risk of VL treatment failure and relapse in VL/HIV coinfected patients are needed. Nested within a two-site clinical trial in Ethiopia (2011-2015), we conducted an exploratory study to assess whether (1) levels of Leishmania antigenuria measured at VL diagnosis were associated with initial treatment failure and (2) levels of Leishmania antigenuria at the end of treatment (parasitologically-confirmed cure) were associated with subsequent relapse. Methods: Leishmania antigenuria at VL diagnosis and cure was determined using KAtex urine antigen test and graded as negative (0), weak/moderate (grade 1+/2+) or strongly-positive (3+)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642944/concomitant-visceral-and-localized-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-two-moroccan-infants
#13
Tarik Mouttaki, Hasnaa Maksouri, Jilali El Mabrouki, Gema Merino-Espinosa, Hassan Fellah, Mohamed Itri, Joaquina Martin-Sanchez, Maha Soussi-Abdallaoui, Soumiya Chiheb, Myriam Riyad
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases caused by the protozoa of the Leishmania genus. The clinical spectrum of these diseases extends from benign dermal lesions to visceral forms. In the Mediterranean region, zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is caused by L. infantum. If untreated within two years, the disease usually leads to death. In Morocco, ZVL is endemic in the north, with a hundred cases notified each year, mostly in children aged below five years. Here, we report on two clinical observations in infants presenting unusual concomitant VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Morocco...
April 12, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601790/is-visceral-leishmaniasis-the-same-in-hiv-coinfected-adults
#14
Guilherme Alves de Lima Henn, Alberto Novaes Ramos Júnior, Jeová Keny Baima Colares, Lorena Pinho Mendes, João Gabriel Colares Silveira, Anderson Alberto Façanha Lima, Bárbara Pontes Aires, Mônica Cardoso Façanha
INTRODUCTION: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worse outcomes occur among HIV-positive individuals coinfected with Leishmania. It is unclear, however, if there are significant differences on presentation between VL patients with or without HIV coinfection. METHODS: We reviewed medical records from adult patients with VL treated at a reference healthcare center in Fortaleza - Ceará, Brazil, from July 2010 to December 2013...
March 27, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582733/the-elderly-respond-to-antimony-therapy-for-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-similarly-to-young-patients-but-have-severe-adverse-reactions
#15
Alexsandro Souza do Lago, Maurício Nascimento, Augusto M Carvalho, Neuza Lago, Juliana Silva, José Roberto Queiroz, Lucas P Carvalho, Albert Schriefer, Mary Wilson, Paulo Machado, Edgar M Carvalho
There is evidence that elderly patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) have more mucosal and disseminated diseases than young patients and their cells produce less antigen-induced interferon (IFN)-γ. Herein, we compared the roles of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-15 as modulators of antigen-induced immune responses and the incidence of adverse reaction and response to therapy in young versus elderly patients with CL. Study participants included 35 senior (60-85 years) and 35 young (18-40 years) patients who had a diagnosis of CL documented by typical cutaneous lesions containing Leishmania braziliensis DNA...
March 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579858/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-report-of-2-cases
#16
F Clavijo Sánchez, T Vázquez Sánchez, M Cabello Díaz, V E Sola Moyano, C Jironada Gallego, D Hernández Marrero
Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania and is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis (sand fly). It is an endemic parasitic infection in numerous areas around the Mediterranean basin. Though immunocompetent patients may not develop the disease, in transplant recipients the use of corticoids and intensified immunosuppressants to prevent graft rejection may accelerate the disease, causing severe damage to the liver, spleen, and hematopoietic system. We report 2 cases of visceral leishmaniasis with an atypical presentation in transplant recipients...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554944/first-report-of-leishmania-infantum-infection-in-the-endangered-orangutan-pongo-pygmaeus-pygmaeus-in-madrid-spain
#17
Guadalupe Miró, Amelia Troyano, Ana Montoya, Fernando Fariñas, Ma Luisa Fermín, Luís Flores, Carlos Rojo, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Cristina Fragío, Eva Martínez-Nevado
BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547503/parasite-specific-antibody-levels-interferon-%C3%AE-and-tlr2-and-tlr4-transcripts-in-blood-from-dogs-with-different-clinical-stages-of-leishmaniosis
#18
Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laura Ordeix, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Laia Solano-Gallego
Canine leishmaniosis has a wide range of disease severity from mild (stage I), to severe (stages II-III), or very severe disease (stage IV). The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare serum antibody levels, Leishmania infantum specific IFN-γ production and TLR2 and TLR4 transcripts in non-stimulated blood from dogs with different clinical stages at the time of diagnosis as well as blood parasitemia. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISAs) were performed to determine serum antibody levels and IFN-γ production and quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( q PCRs) in order to determine blood parasite load and TLR2 and TLR4 transcripts...
March 16, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545149/comparative-evaluation-of-immunochromatographic-dipstick-test-ict-rk39-soluble-antigen-elisa-and-ifat-for-the-sero-diagnosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-morocco
#19
Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abderrahim Sadak, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Youssef Bakri, Aziza Moustachi, Fatima Zahraa Tassou, Mostapha Hida, Mohamed Lyagoubi, El Bachir Adlaoui, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Faiza Sebti
A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39...
June 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532767/analytical-performance-of-a-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-leishmania-dna-detection-in-sandflies-and-direct-smears-of-patients-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#20
Cielo M León, Marina Muñoz, Juan H Tabares, Carolina Hernandez, Carolina Florez, Martha S Ayala, Juan David Ramírez
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is ideal for the detection of Leishmania DNA as it is a quick and easy-to-perform test that does not require complex or sophisticated equipment or infrastructure. However, the application of this technique in the detection of Leishmania DNA has not been comprehensively analyzed to date (analytical validation). Our objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and analytical specificity (anticipated reportable range [ARR], the limit of detection [LoD], and accuracy) of LAMP targeting the 18S rRNA gene in the diagnosis of six New World Leishmania species...
May 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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