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leishmania diagnosis

Reza Fotouhi-Ardakani, Shahriar Dabiri, Soheila Ajdari, Mohammad Hossein Alimohammadian, Elnaz AlaeeNovin, Neda Taleshi, Parviz Parvizi
The polymorphism and genetic diversity of Leishmania genus has status under discussion depending on many items such as nuclear and/or mitochondrial genes, molecular tools, Leishmania species, geographical origin, condition of micro-environment of Leishmania parasites and isolation of Leishmania from clinical samples, reservoir host and vectors. The genetic variation of Leishmania species (L. major, L. tropica, L. tarentolae, L. mexicana, L. infantum) were analyzed and compared using mitochondrial (COII and Cyt b) and nuclear (nagt, ITS-rDNA and HSP70) genes...
October 17, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Sarfaraz Ahmad Ejazi, Pradyot Bhattacharya, Md Asjad Karim Bakhteyar, Aquil Ahmad Mumtaz, Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Mehebubar Rahaman, Rama Prosad Goswami, Nahid Ali
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a severe parasitic disease, could be fatal if diagnosis and treatment is delayed. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a skin related outcome, is a potential reservoir for the spread of VL. Diagnostic tests available for VL such as tissue aspiration are invasive and painful although they are capable of evaluating the treatment response. Serological tests although less invasive than tissue aspiration are incompetent to assess cure. Parasitological examination of slit-skin smear along with the clinical symptoms is routinely used for diagnosis of PKDL...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Fernanda A Marques, Rodrigo P Soares, Gregório G Almeida, Carolina C Souza, Maria N Melo, Sebastião A Pinto, Valeria B Quixabeira, Ledice I Pereira, Miriam L Dorta, Fatima Ribeiro-Dias, Fernando T Silveira, Sydnei M Silva, Celia M Gontijo, Wagner L Tafuri
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a neglected disease widely distributed in Latin America. In Brazil, it is caused by different Leishmania species belonging to the Subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. ATL diagnosis is routinely based on clinical, epidemiological, parasitological and immunological (delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test-DTH) evidences. The main objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of a previous immunohistochemical (IHC) method developed by our group. Seventy eight skin biopsies from patients with different ATL clinical forms and origins were evaluated...
October 8, 2016: Parasitology International
Partha Pratim Bose, Prakash Kumar
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease and may prove fatal if not diagnosed and treated early. The amastigotes of Leishmania donovani nest in the macrophage of human host and thus, determination of parasitic burden in the infected macrophages has been the most crucial step in diagnosis, dose determination and medical management of relapse cases of this fatal disease. Microscopic count following Giemsa staining and other morphological analysis are the classical ways vastly used in the resource stringent endemic areas...
October 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rômulo Pessoa-E-Silva, Lays Adrianne Mendonça Trajano-Silva, Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva, Suênia da Cunha Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Tayná Correia de Goes, Rayana Carla Silva de Morais, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Milena de Paiva-Cavalcanti
The availability of some sorts of biological samples which require noninvasive collection methods has led to an even greater interest in applying molecular biology on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) diagnosis, since these samples increase the safety and comfort of both patients and health professionals. In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the suitability of the urine as a specimen for Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA detection by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Subsequent to the reproducibility analysis, the detection limit of the qPCR assay was set at 5fg (~0...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
T N A Oliveira, P E B Guedes, G B Souza, F S Carvalho, R S Alberto Carlos, G R Albuquerque, A D Munhoz, F L Silva
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Two distinct forms are recognized: visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In the Americas, the causative agent of VL is L. infantum chagasi, whereas L. braziliensis is principally responsible for CL. Domestic dogs constitute the main source of VL in urban environments, and have also been implicated in CL epidemiology. We carried out molecular and serological surveys to detect Leishmania infection in dogs from the municipality of Ituberá in Bahia, Brazil...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ayse Sayili, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan, Henk D F H Schallig
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease widespread in the Mediterranean basin, including Cyprus. During the last decades no cases were notified from northern Cyprus, but herein three cases of VL (female: 2, male: 1, median age: 24.6 months) diagnosed during their hospital admission between January 2011 and December 2012 are reported. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings; 1 ≥ 1/64 titer positivity of immunofluorescence antibodies, Leishmania amastigotes in Giemsa-stained slides of bone marrow, as well as molecular identification confirmed that in all three the infecting pathogen was Leishmania infantum Fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly were the typical clinical findings...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Silvia Belinchón-Lorenzo, Juan Carlos Parejo, Virginia Iniesta, Javier Fernández-Cotrina, Rubén Muñoz-Madrid, Isabel Monroy, Victoria Baz, Adela Gómez-Luque, Francisco Javier Serrano-Aguilera, José Luis Barneto, Luis Carlos Gómez-Nieto
Nowadays, searching for alternative non-invasive methods for molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis is getting increasingly important. We previously described the presence of Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) in canine hair; in this case we hypothesized whether foreign DNA might be present in cerumen of dogs with leishmaniosis, and be detected by Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR). A population of 38 dogs that lived in Leishmania endemic areas was divided in two groups: A (33 dogs with confirmed leishmaniosis by serological techniques) and B (5 healthy dogs)...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Lorena Alborch, Laura Ordeix, Laia Solano-Gallego
Innate immunity, in particular, the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs), has not been extensively studied in canine L. infantum infection. The main aim of this study was to determine the transcription of TLR2 and TLR4 in the blood of dogs with natural clinical leishmaniosis at the time of diagnosis and during treatment follow-up and subsequently correlate these findings with clinical, serological and parasitological data. Forty-six Leishmania-seropositive sick dogs with a high antibody level at the time of diagnosis were studied and compared with 34 healthy seronegative dogs...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Indira Singh Chauhan, Rantidev Shukla, Shagun Krishna, Savita Sekhri, Umesh Kaushik, Sabitha Baby, Chiranjib Pal, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Shyam Sundar, Neeloo Singh
Rab proteins form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. Rab proteins are key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport and membrane trafficking. Although RabGTPases are well-recognized targets in human diseases but are under-explored therapeutically in the Leishmania parasite. Using a quantitative cytofluorimetric assay, we analyzed the composition and organization of Rab6GTPase protein which was found to be primarily localized on the parasite subpellicular membrane and flagellum due to its association with kinesin motor proteins in the cytoskeletal microtubules...
September 22, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Mansour Dabirzadeh, Mohammad Hashemi, Yahya Maroufi
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is polymorphic disease that may show various clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the determination of genetic variation within the species of Leishmania major isolates from new cases in Chabahar, a port city in Southeast Iran (situated at the Iran-Pakistan border). Migration in this region indicates that leishmaniasis is spreading gradually, and a new micro-habitat focus appears each year...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Geraldo Pedral-Sampaio, Jessé S Alves, Albert Schriefer, Andréa Magalhães, Roberto Meyer, Marshall J Glesby, Edgar M Carvalho, Lucas P Carvalho
Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies on clinical presentation, parasite isolation, histopathologic evaluation and positive Montenegro skin test. However, the low amounts of parasites in the lesion of these individuals make parasite isolation and histopatologic diagnosis unreliable, often leading to false-negative results. Also, 15% of people living in endemic areas have sub-clinical infection characterized by positive Montenegro skin test, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. Although the main Leishmania killing mechanism is through cell-mediated immune response, antibodies against Leishmania antigens are found in infected individuals...
2016: PloS One
Nazma Habib Khan, Arfan Ul Bari, Rizwan Hashim, Inamullah Khan, Akhtar Muneer, Akram Shah, Sobia Wahid, Vanessa Yardley, Brighid O'Neil, Colin J Sutherland
This study primarily aimed to identify the causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan and to distinguish any species-specific variation in clinical manifestation of CL. Diagnostic performance of different techniques for identifying CL was assessed. Isolates of Leishmania spp. were detected by in vitro culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on DNA extracted from dried filter papers and microscopic examination of direct lesion smears from patients visiting three major primary care hospitals in Peshawar...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi, Abid Ali, Umer Rashid, Tayyab-Ur-Rehman, Naeem Ali
In Pakistan leishmaniasis occurs periodically throughout the year and various out breaks are reported frequently. In continuation of our research on this neglected disease, the aim of present study is to explore: (1) the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in school boys; (2) Leishmania species identification in order to epidemiology and dynamics of the disease; (3) Identification of risk factors for Leishmaniasis especially for CL. The data was collected in August 2014 The experimental strategy involved a questionnaire for data collection and along with clinical diagnosis of 134 out of 9368 students for incidence of Leishmania spp...
September 1, 2016: Acta Tropica
Waleed Al-Salem, Jennifer R Herricks, Peter J Hotez
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused predominantly by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by both Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini, is highly endemic in East Africa where approximately 30 thousands VL cases are reported annually. The largest numbers of cases are found in Sudan - where Phlebotomus orientalis proliferate in Acacia forests especially on Sudan's eastern border with Ethiopia, followed by South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Long-standing civil war and unrest is a dominant determinant of VL in East African countries...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Eslam Shorafa, Gholamreza Poladfar, Roholla Adelian, Mahmood Shariat, Mohammad Reza Minaee, Syeed Mohammad Hashemi, Maryam Tazang
Leishmaniasis is an endemic parasitic disease in Iran. This paper reports the case of a 5-yr-old boy who presented with multiple isolated cervical lymphadenopathy for several months with no history of fever and no signs or symptoms. In an excisional lymph node biopsy, Leishmania parasites were histologically detected. Thus, leishmaniasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated lymphadenitis in immunocompetent patients, even if the K39 and IFA for kala-azar are reported as negative.
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Fernando Cobo, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Cristina Gómez-Camarasa, Antonio Sampedro, Luis Aliaga-Martínez, José María Navarro, José Gutiérrez Fernández
The clinical, microbiological, and histopathological findings of six patients with mucosal leishmaniasis are reported. Five of these patients were Spanish with no history of travel abroad, while the other was from Bolivia but had lived in Spain for more than 5 years. Two patients had no underlying disease, while the other four had several other medical conditions. Lesions were located in the nose in three patients and in the larynx in the other three. Symptoms included difficulty in swallowing, nasal obstruction, dysphonia, and polypoid lesions mimicking cancer...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
O Opota, Z Balmpouzis, C Berutto, J Kaiser-Guignard, G Greub, J-D Aubert, G Prod'hom, O Manuel, K Jaton
We report the case of a lung transplant recipient in whom the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was made by detection of parasites in a peripheral blood smear when the parasite load already reached 8.9 × 10(3) parasites/mL. We demonstrated that the VL diagnosis could have been done months before the development of symptoms by the use of Leishmania-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), suggesting the role of preemptive PCR-based diagnosis in transplant recipients at risk for VL.
October 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Siddhivinayak Hirve, Marleen Boelaert, Greg Matlashewski, Dinesh Mondal, Byron Arana, Axel Kroeger, Piero Olliaro
BACKGROUND: As Bangladesh, India and Nepal progress towards visceral leishmaniasis (VL) elimination, it is important to understand the role of asymptomatic Leishmania infection (ALI), VL treatment relapse and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in transmission. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDING: We reviewed evidence systematically on ALI, relapse and PKDL. We searched multiple databases to include studies on burden, risk factors, biomarkers, natural history, and infectiveness of ALI, PKDL and relapse...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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