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leishmania diagnosis

Guadalupe Miró, Amelia Troyano, Ana Montoya, Fernando Fariñas, Ma Luisa Fermín, Luís Flores, Carlos Rojo, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Cristina Fragío, Eva Martínez-Nevado
BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laura Ordeix, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Laia Solano-Gallego
Canine leishmaniosis has a wide range of disease severity from mild (stage I), to severe (stages II-III), or very severe disease (stage IV). The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare serum antibody levels, Leishmania infantum specific IFN-γ production and TLR2 and TLR4 transcripts in non-stimulated blood from dogs with different clinical stages at the time of diagnosis as well as blood parasitemia. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISAs) were performed to determine serum antibody levels and IFN-γ production and quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( q PCRs) in order to determine blood parasite load and TLR2 and TLR4 transcripts...
March 16, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abderrahim Sadak, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Youssef Bakri, Aziza Moustachi, Fatima Zahraa Tassou, Mostapha Hida, Mohamed Lyagoubi, El Bachir Adlaoui, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Faiza Sebti
A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Cielo M León, Marina Muñoz, Juan H Tabares, Carolina Hernandez, Carolina Florez, Martha S Ayala, Juan David Ramírez
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is ideal for the detection of Leishmania DNA as it is a quick and easy-to-perform test that does not require complex or sophisticated equipment or infrastructure. However, the application of this technique in the detection of Leishmania DNA has not been comprehensively analyzed to date (analytical validation). Our objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and analytical specificity (anticipated reportable range [ARR], the limit of detection [LoD], and accuracy) of LAMP targeting the 18S rRNA gene in the diagnosis of six New World Leishmania species...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Emeline Riboldi, Flavio Carvalho, Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão, Regina Bones Barcellos, Graziele Lima Bello, Raquel Rocha Ramos, Rosemari Terezinha de Oliveira, João Pessoa Araújo Júnior, Maria Lucia Rossetti, Eliane Dallegrave
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is expanding and becoming urbanized, especially in non-endemic areas such as the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Considering that infected dogs are the main reservoir for zoonotic VL, this study evaluated the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, a new area of expansion of VL in Brazil. Serum and plasma from 405 asymptomatic dogs from the municipalities of Canoas (n=107), São Leopoldo (n=216), and Novo Hamburgo (n=82) were tested for CVL using immunochromatographic (DPP® ) and ELISA EIE® assays (2 assays officially adopted by the Brazilian government for the diagnosis of CVL) and real-time PCR to confirm the results...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Janaína de Moura Freire, Rodrigo de Paula Baptista, Elizabeth Castro Moreno, Raquel Carvalho Gontijo, Felipe Dutra Rego, Joaquim Edemilson Diniz, Maria Norma Melo, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) samples obtained from the lesions of patients with typical (n = 25, 29%), atypical (n = 60, 69%) or both (n = 2%) clinical manifestations were analysed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, hsp70 restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), hsp70 sequencing and phylogenetics methods. The hsp70 PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two different profiles whose the most samples differed from those expected for Leishmania braziliensis and the other Leishmania species tested: of 39 samples evaluated, two (5%) had a restriction profile corresponding to L...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology
Amer Al-Jawabreh, Kamal Dumaidi, Suheir Ereqat, Abdelmajeed Nasereddin, Kifaya Azmi, Hanan Al-Jawabreh, Nahed Al-Laham, Ziad Abdeen
In human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the success of positive diagnoses and species identifications depends, primarily, on how biopsies are taken and then processed and examined. The efficiency of three methods of taking skin biopsies from suspect cases of CL was compared using the classical methods of microscopy of stained smears, in vitro culture of tissue aspirate, and internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1)-polymerase chain reaction in diagnosing positive cases and identifying the species of Leishmania causing them...
March 6, 2018: Acta Tropica
Devika Iddawela, Sanura Malinda Pallegoda Vithana, Dhilma Atapattu, Lanka Wijekoon
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, a vector borne tropical/subtropical disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania is transmitted to humans by sandfly vectors Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. The principal form found in Sri Lanka is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and is caused by Leishmania donovani. A rising trend in disease prevalence has been observed recently in Sri Lanka and the island is in fact the newest endemic focus in South Asia. Determining the prevalence of smear positivity among clinically suspected CL patients, identifying risk factors and specific clinical presentations of CL in order to implement preventive and early treatment strategies were the objectives of this study...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hamida Al-Dwibe, Ahmad Amro, Aisha Gashout, Ali El-Zurghany, Said El-Zubi, Mohamed El-Hashme, Omar Hamarsheh, Mokhtar Maree
BACKGROUND: Several case reports describe diseases presenting with skin ulcerations, which resemble pyoderma gangrenosum especially in immune-compromised patients, often proven on further workup, to have an infective or malignant etiology. However, treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum by systemic steroids or other immunosuppressive agents may worsen the condition. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here, a 45 year-old Libyan woman with rheumatoid arthritis on low dose steroids with pyoderma gangrenosum-like skin lesions and positive pathergy...
March 1, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Flávio Luiz Nunes de Carvalho, Emeline de Oliveira Riboldi, Graziele Lima Bello, Raquel Rocha Ramos, Regina Bones Barcellos, Mirela Gehlen, Maria Laura Halon, Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão, Eliane Dallegrave, Maria Lucia Rosa Rossetti
Although serological assays have been widely used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), they present different performances depending on the clinical profile of the dogs. This study evaluated the accuracy of serological tests, immunochromatographic (Dual Path Platform: DPP®) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA EIE®), for CVL in relation to the detection of Leishmania DNA through real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) in samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs from a non-endemic area in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil...
February 26, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Jully Oyama, Fabiana Borges Padilha Ferreira, Carolina Cella Conter, Daniele Stéfanie Sara Lopes Lera-Nonose, Áquila Carolina Fernandes Herculano Ramos-Milaré, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini Venazzi, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni
This clinical case presents a patient with a raised and ulcerative lesion with erythematous edges in the mouth, on the lower lip that was unsuccessfully treated as herpes labialis. Clinical data and laboratory tests (Montenegro skin test, indirect immunofluorescence, direct parasite search and polymerase chain reaction) led to the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) sp. Treatment with pentavalent antimonial (Glucantime®) for 120 days was not effective and administration of amphotericin B for 30 days resulted in wound healing...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
A M Cesinaro, S Nosseir, E Mataca, M C Mengoli, C Cavatorta, W Gennari
Canine Leishmaniasis is a disease endemic in many parts of Europe, carried by insects of phlebotomous species. Humans are occasional hosts of the parasites. Cases of human leishmaniasis have been registered in Italy, particularly in the southern and coastal regions. In the period 1997-2016, we collected a series of 35 patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis, uncovered by skin biopsy and histological examination, 21 of them found in last 3 years. The patients, 28 males and 7 female, aged between 19 and 91, resided in a restricted area of Northern Italy, and none, but two, had travelled abroad...
December 2017: Pathologica
Maowia Mukhtar, Sababil S Ali, Salah A Boshara, Audrey Albertini, Séverine Monnerat, Paul Bessell, Yasuyoshi Mori, Yutaka Kubota, Joseph M Ndung'u, Israel Cruz
BACKGROUND: Confirmatory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), as well as diagnosis of relapses and test of cure, usually requires examination by microscopy of samples collected by invasive means, such as splenic, bone marrow or lymph node aspirates. This causes discomfort to patients, with risks of bleeding and iatrogenic infections, and requires technical expertise. Molecular tests have great potential for diagnosis of VL using peripheral blood, but require well-equipped facilities and trained personnel...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
R Selder, K Weber, M Bergmann, K Geisweid, K Hartmann
Canine leishmaniasis is an important infectious disease worldwide. Although commonly used, antibody tests are often falsely negative, and in such cases direct detection of the pathogen, such as PCR, is necessary. However, PCR is only performed in specialized laboratories and not available in all localities. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of an in-clinic point-of-care (ICPOC) PCR for the diagnosis of canine Leishmania spp. infection to those of a well characterized reference real-time PCR...
February 2018: Veterinary Journal
Cord Sunderkötter, Karsten Becker, Heinz Kutzner, Thomas Meyer, Norbert Blödorn-Schlicht, Udo Reischl, Pietro Nenoff, Walter Geißdörfer, Yvonne Gräser, Mathias Herrmann, Joachim Kühn, Christian Bogdan
Nucleic acid amplification techniques (NATs), such as PCR, are highly sensitive and specific methods that have become valuable supplements to culture and serology in the diagnosis of infectious disorders. However, especially when using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, these techniques are associated with both false-negative and false-positive results, a pitfall that is frequently misjudged. Representatives of the German Society of Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) and the German Society of Dermatology (DDG) therefore set out to develop a consensus - in the form of a review article - on the appropriate indications for NATs using paraffin-embedded tissue, its contraindications, and the key points to be considered in the pre- and post-analytical phase...
February 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Muhammad Mudasser Nazir, Najeeb Ullah, Aqil Zaman, Atif Akbar, Muhammad Zeeshan, Zahid Hussain, Saima Naz, Yadong Zheng, Asghar Javed, David S Lindsay
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne infection caused by flagellated parasitic protozoans in the genus Leishmania. Promastigotes are the infective stage, which are transmitted by the bite of female sand flies of the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia. Three clinical forms of Leishmania infection are recognized in humans, and they are caused by different Leishmania species. They are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML), and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Up to 2 million cases of leishmaniasis are reported annually worldwide...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Camila Tita Nogueira, Mayara Lúcia Del Cistia, Ana Carolina Urbaczek, Márcia Mg Jusi, Angela Maria Arenas Velásquez, Rosângela Zacarias Machado, Henrique Ferreira, Flávio Henrique-Silva, Hélio Langoni, Paulo Inácio da Costa, Márcia As Graminha
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if left untreated. Infected dogs are important reservoirs of the disease, and thus specific identification of infected animals is very important. Several diagnostic tests have been developed for canine VL (CVL); however, these tests show varied specificity and sensitivity. The present study describes the recombinant protein rLc36, expressed by Leishmania infantum, as potential antigen for more sensitive and specific diagnosis of CVL based on an immunoenzymatic assay. The concentration of 1...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Ericka Lima Almeida, Angela Cristina Rapela Medeiros, Roberto Pereira Werkhäuser, Joanna Lucia de Almeida Alexandre, Bruna Santos Lima Figueiredo Sá, Eduardo Henrique Gomes Rodrigues, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho
Several studies have described the use of non-invasive collection methods, mostly based on the detection of parasite DNA, for diagnosis. However, no Leishmania specimens have been isolated from saliva. Here, we report the first isolation of Leishmania braziliensis from the saliva of humans with cutaneous leishmaniasis but without lesions on their mucosa. The isolates were obtained from salivary fluid inoculated in hamsters and were tested by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Seven samples from 43 patients suspected of having the disease were identified for in vivo culture...
February 5, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Beatriz C S Salles, Thaís T O Santos, Fernanda F Ramos, Daniela P Lage, Lourena E Costa, Aquila S B Portela, Gerusa B Carvalho, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Rachel B Caligiorne, Jamil S Oliveira, Danielle F Magalhães-Soares, Eduardo S Silva, Alexsandro S Galdino, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Mariana C Duarte, Denise U Gonçalves, Eduardo A F Coelho
New candidates for serological markers against leishmaniasis are required to be identified, since the presence of high titers of anti-Leishmania antibodies remain detected in sera of treated and cured patients, when current antigens have being employed. In this study, the diagnostic performance of a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein was evaluated against a human and canine serological panel. The serological follow-up of the patients was also evaluated, using this recombinant antigen (rLiHyS) in ELISA assays...
February 3, 2018: Parasitology International
Fernanda Magalhães Freire Campos, Laura Cotta Repoles, Fernanda Fortes de Araújo, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Marcelo Antônio Pascoal Xavier, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro Proietti, Mariléia Chaves Andrade, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
A relevant issue in Chagas disease serological diagnosis regards the requirement of using several confirmatory methods to elucidate the status of non-negative results from blood bank screening. The development of a single reliable method may potentially contribute to distinguish true and false positive results. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of the multiplexed flow-cytometry anti-T. cruzi/Leishmania IgG1 serology/(FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1) with three conventional confirmatory criteria (ELISA-EIA, Immunofluorescence assay-IIF and EIA/IIF consensus criterion) to define the final status of samples with actual/previous non-negative results during anti-T...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
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