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leishmania diagnosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303124/identification-and-characterization-of-mirnas-in-response-to-leishmania-donovani-infection-delineation-of-their-roles-in-macrophage-dysfunction
#1
Neeraj Tiwari, Vinod Kumar, Mallikarjuna Rao Gedda, Ashish K Singh, Vijay K Singh, Sreenivas Gannavaram, Surya P Singh, Rakesh K Singh
The outcome of Leishmania infection depends on parasite abilities to evade host immune response and its survival in hostile environment of host macrophages. Despite a wealth of gained crucial information, parasite strategies by which it dampens host macrophage functions remain poorly understood. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved class of endogenous 22-nucleotide small non-coding RNA gene products, described to participate in the regulation of almost every cellular process investigated so far...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301553/multiplex-pcr-as-a-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-leishmania-spp-kdna-and-the-gapdh-housekeeping-gene-of-mammal-hosts
#2
Renata de Cássia-Pires, Myllena de Fátima Alheiros Dias de Melo, Raquel da Hora Barbosa, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque
BACKGROUND: The PCR assays usually employed for Leishmania diagnosis does not simultaneously detect a constitutive gene that would certify the viability of the DNA sample. We present a multiplex PCR approach for the simultaneous diagnosis of the Leishmania sp. kDNA fragment and a catalytic domain segment of a conserved region of the mammalian gapdh gene. METHODOLOGY: The proposed multiplex protocol was designed through in silico PCR. The annealing temperature, concentration of primer pairs, number of cycles, distinct polymerase enzymes and premix kit were defined to achieve an optimal reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294400/chronic-amastigote-negative-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-a-clinical-histopathologic-and-molecular-study-of-27-cases-with-emphasis-on-atypical-and-pseudolymphomatous-presentations
#3
Carlo Tomasini, Laura Moneghini, Maria Barbui Anna
BACKGROUND: Chronic amastigote-negative cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a diagnostic challenge, as the parasite load may be low, or absent in biopsy tissue sections. METHODS: A series of consecutive biopsy specimens, taken from 130 patients with a diagnosis of granulomatous dermatitis of unknown etiology, were reviewed. PCR was carried out for Leishmania-specific DNA. RESULTS: A total of 27/130 samples were positive for Leishmania-specific DNA...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285598/diagnostic-performance-of-elisa-ifat-and-western-blot-for-the-detection-of-anti-leishmania-infantum-antibodies-in-cats-using-a-bayesian-analysis-without-a-gold-standard
#4
Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Laia Solano-Gallego, Angela Vullo, Marisa Masucci, Pierre Marty, Pascal Delaunay, Fabrizio Vitale, Maria Grazia Pennisi
BACKGROUND: Anti-Leishmania antibodies are increasingly investigated in cats for epidemiological studies or for the diagnosis of clinical feline leishmaniosis. The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB) are the serological tests more frequently used. The aim of the present study was to assess diagnostic performance of IFAT, ELISA and WB to detect anti-L. infantum antibodies in feline serum samples obtained from endemic (n = 76) and non-endemic (n = 64) areas and from cats affected by feline leishmaniosis (n = 21) by a Bayesian approach without a gold standard...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285595/evaluation-of-four-molecular-methods-to-detect-leishmania-infection-in-dogs
#5
Andreia Albuquerque, Lenea Campino, Luís Cardoso, Sofia Cortes
BACKGROUND: Canine leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum vectored by phlebotomine sand flies, is considered a relevant veterinary and public health problem in various countries, namely in the Mediterranean basin and Brazil, where dogs are considered the main reservoir hosts. Not only diseased dogs but also those subclinically infected play a relevant role in the transmission of L. infantum to vectors; therefore, early diagnosis is essential, under both a clinical and an epidemiological perspective...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285583/molecular-detection-of-vector-borne-pathogens-in-blood-and-splenic-samples-from-dogs-with-splenic-disease
#6
Rebeca Movilla, Laura Altet, Lorena Serrano, María-Dolores Tabar, Xavier Roura
BACKGROUND: The spleen is a highly perfused organ involved in the immunological control and elimination of vector-borne pathogens (VBP), which could have a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of splenic disease. This study aimed to evaluate certain VBP in samples from dogs with splenic lesions. METHODS: Seventy-seven EDTA-blood and 64 splenic tissue samples were collected from 78 dogs with splenic disease in a Mediterranean area. Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282232/an-atypical-case-of-leishmaniasis-associated-with-chronic-duodenitis-in-a-dog
#7
Ignacio Ayala, Luis Jesus Bernal, Juan Diego Garcia-Martinez, Miguel Angel Gomez, Jose Antonio Navarro, Antonio Bernabe
We describe an atypical case of duodenal leishmaniasis in a boxer dog presenting with chronic diarrhea and poor general condition. Antidiarrheic therapy was previously administered without success and inflammatory bowel disease localized to the small intestine was suspected, given the chronic clinical signs and by ruling out other known causes of gastrointestinal inflammation. Endoscopic biopsy of duodenum showed a moderate increase in lamina propria lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Basophilic bodies were seen in the cytoplasm of numerous macrophages, suggestive of Leishmania spp, confirmed by immunostaining, and a diagnosis of granulomatous duodenitis associated to Leishmania infection was made...
March 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273127/accuracy-of-chimeric-proteins-in-the-serological-diagnosis-of-chronic-chagas-disease-a-phase-ii-study
#8
Fred Luciano Neves Santos, Paola Alejandra Fiorani Celedon, Nilson Ivo Tonin Zanchin, Wayner Vieira de Souza, Edimilson Domingos da Silva, Leonardo Foti, Marco Aurélio Krieger, Yara de Miranda Gomes
BACKGROUND: The performance of current serologic tests for diagnosing chronic Chagas disease (CD) is highly variable. The search for new diagnostic markers has been a constant challenge for improving accuracy and reducing the number of inconclusive results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, four chimeric proteins (IBMP-8.1 to -8.4) comprising immunodominant regions of different Trypanosoma cruzi antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins were used to detect specific anti-T...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267216/neurological-manifestations-in-dogs-naturally-infected-by-leishmania-infantum-descriptions-of-10-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
A P Giannuzzi, M Ricciardi, A De Simone, F Gernone
In order to evaluate possible nervous system involvement in canine leishmaniasis, retrospective evaluation of all medical records of leishmaniotic dogs exhibiting neurological signs referred to our hospital over a 5-year period was performed. The records of 10 dogs were reviewed. Depending on the neuroanatomical localisation, the dogs underwent advanced diagnostic imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, electrodiagnostic testing and histopathologic evaluations. The final neurological diagnosis was: meningoencephalitis (n=2), brain haemorrhagic stroke (n=1), haemorrhagic choroiditis (n=1), meningomyelitis (n=2), ischaemic myelopathy (n=1), polymyositis (n=2) and peripheral neuropathy (n=1)...
March 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253508/clinical-presentation-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-major
#10
Latifa Remadi, Najoua Haouas, Dhekra Chaara, Darine Slama, Najla Chargui, Radhia Dabghi, Henda Jbeniani, Habib Mezhoud, Hamouda Babba
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is based on the microscopic detection of amastigote, isolation of the parasite, or the detection of Leishmania DNA. Nevertheless, since these techniques are time consuming and not usually available in many endemic countries, the diagnosis remains clinical. Consequently, such disease may be overlooked because of its similarity to other skin diseases. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical polymorphism of CL caused by Leishmaniamajor...
March 3, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247922/evolution-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-the-last-30-years-in-a-tertiary-hospital-of-the-european-mediterranean-coast
#11
Joaquim Marcoval, Rosa M Penín
BACKGROUND: Although with a lower incidence than in other geographic areas, leishmaniasis is also endemic on the European Mediterranean coast. However, there are few studies on the clinical features of cutaneous lesions of leishmaniasis in Europe. Our objective was to review the clinical features of cutaneous leishmanial lesions in our European Mediterranean population in the last 30 years and compare the clinical features of immunosuppressed and nonimmunosuppressed patients. METHODS: The clinical features of cutaneous lesions of leishmaniasis diagnosed between 1987 and 2016 at Bellvitge Hospital in Barcelona, Spain, were retrospectively analyzed...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191297/leishmania-infantum-and-epstein-barr-virus-co-infection-in-a-patient-with-hemophagocytosis
#12
Zied Gaifer, Mohamed-Rachid Boulassel
The authors describe a rare case of a 27- year old previously healthy male presenting with high grade fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, high levels of ferritin and triglyceride, suggesting a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) syndrome. Other investigations showed a positive Leishmania infantum serology and high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia. The diagnosis of a visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by bone morrow biopsy, which showed Leishman-Donovan bodies and evidence of HLH. The patient received liposomal amphotericin B and he had a complete resolution of his symptoms and clearance of EBV viremia...
December 31, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167253/is-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-parasite-load-associated-with-disease-pathogenesis
#13
Luiza de Oliveira Ramos Pereira, Regina Barbosa Moreira, Márcia Pereira de Oliveira, Soraya de Oliveira Reis, Manoel Paes de Oliveira Neto, Claude Pirmez
BACKGROUND: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main etiological agent of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Americas. Parasite molecular diversity and host immune status contribute to extensive variations in its clinical presentation within endemic areas of Brazil. Pentavalent antimonials have been used for more than 60 years as the first-line drug for all cases, despite the potential for severe side effects and refractoriness. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, most L. (V.) braziliensis infections are benign with a scarcity of parasites, although metastasis and refractory infections can arise...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163725/development-and-validation-of-a-pcr-elisa-for-the-diagnosis-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-infection-by-leishmania-leishmania-infantum
#14
Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso Medeiros, Luciana Inácia Gomes, Edward Oliveira, Carolina Senra Alves de Souza, Maria Vitória Mourão, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Letícia Helena Dos Santos Marques, Mariângela Carneiro, Ana Rabello
A kDNA PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (kDNA PCR-ELISA) for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) was developed. The detection limit of the reaction, precision measurements, and cut-off of the kDNA PCR-ELISA were defined in a proof-of-concept phase. A reference strain of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and a bank of 14 peripheral blood samples from immunocompetent patients with VL were characterized using techniques considered gold standards, and 11 blood samples obtained from healthy individuals of an endemic area were also assessed...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159546/leishmania-infections-molecular-targets-and-diagnosis
#15
REVIEW
Mohammad Akhoundi, Tim Downing, Jan Votýpka, Katrin Kuhls, Julius Lukeš, Arnaud Cannet, Christophe Ravel, Pierre Marty, Pascal Delaunay, Mohamed Kasbari, Bruno Granouillac, Luigi Gradoni, Denis Sereno
Progress in the diagnosis of leishmaniases depends on the development of effective methods and the discovery of suitable biomarkers. We propose firstly an update classification of Leishmania species and their synonymies. We demonstrate a global map highlighting the geography of known endemic Leishmania species pathogenic to humans. We summarize a complete list of techniques currently in use and discuss their advantages and limitations. The available data highlights the benefits of molecular markers in terms of their sensitivity and specificity to quantify variation from the subgeneric level to species complexes, (sub) species within complexes, and individual populations and infection foci...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124961/-investigation-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-by-active-screening-in-primary-schools-in-sanliurfa-turkey
#16
Nebiye Yentür Doni, Gülcan Gürses, Reşat Dikme, Zeynep Şimşek, Mehmet Muratoğlu, Fadile Yıldız Zeyrek, Yavuz Yeşilova
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Sanliurfa, a province located at southestern part of Turkey. The aims of this study were to determine CL cases among children aged 7-15 years attending primary schools and evaluate the demographical and clinical characteristics by active screening method. In our study, a total of 163.464 children attending to 123 primary schools have been evaluated in terms of CL prevalence between 2010 to 2012 period. Accordingly, 67.585, 72.279 and 23.600 students studying in 74, 37 and 12 primary schools were actively screened, respectively...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122496/lip-leishmaniasis-a-case-series-with-molecular-identification-and-literature-review
#17
Iraj Mohammadpour, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Farhad Handjani, Gholam Reza Hatam
BACKGROUND: Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a protozoan infectious disease, is very rare in Iran despite the endemicity of both cutaneous and visceral forms. It is transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. The lip is considered one of the extraordinary sites. Lesions usually initiate with erythematous papules, slowly enlarges and then it ulcerates. The diagnosis of MCL encompasses epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects. Usually, the combination of some of these elements is necessary for the final diagnosis...
January 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115678/elimination-of-kala-azar-from-the-southeast-asia-region
#18
Sujit K Bhattacharya, Aditya Prasad Dash
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), popularly known as kala-azar, is essentially a disease of poverty. Kala-azar is caused by a parasite, Leishmania donovani Recent review indicates that worldwide 98 countries are endemic for kala-azar. Approximately 0.2-0.4 million new VL cases occur each year worldwide. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan, and Sudan. This trend is slowly changing due to the progress in kala-azar elimination in southeast Asia, where Bangladesh has reported an average of some 600 new cases in 2014-2015...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045920/alterations-in-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions-by-the-use-of-meglumine-antimoniate-in-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-patients
#19
Débora Cristina de Oliveira Bezerra, Renata Oliveira de Barcelos, Ellen Carvalho de Castro, Claudia Cristina Jardim Duarte, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes Oliveira, Tania Salgado de Sousa Torraca, Maria Helena de Araújo-Melo, Frederico Pereira Bom Braga, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira Terceiro, Lúcia Regina do Nascimento Brahim Paes, Armando de Oliveira Schubach, Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino
INTRODUCTION: Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) is a neglected, non-contagious, infectious disease, caused by different protozoa species of the Leishmania genus that affects skin and mucous membranes. Meglumine Antimoniate (MA), the first drug of choice for TL treatment in Brazil, has already been associated with cochlear toxicity, which is defined as damages of the cochlea caused by exposure to chemical substances, resulting in reversible or irreversible hearing loss. Auditory monitoring for cochlear toxicity aims at the early detection of auditory disorders, enabling, when possible, hearing to be preserved or an early auditory rehabilitation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035115/aquaglyceroporin1-gene-expression-in-antimony-resistance-and-susceptible-leishmania-major-isolates
#20
Gilda Eslami, Morteza Vakil Zarchi, Alireza Moradi, Seyed Hossein Hejazi, Seyed Mojtaba Sohrevardi, Mahmoud Vakili, Ali Khamesipour
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The mechanism of antimony resistance in Leishmania has been studied extensively, in connection with decreased influx and/or increased eflux of the drug. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) protein has been shown to mediate the uptake of trivalent antimony. This study was aimed to find the expression level of AQP1 gene in resistant versus non-resistant clinical isolates of Leishmania major in Iranian patients. METHODS: Clinical isolates were obtained from 16 considered patients referred to Navab Safavi Clinical Center, Isfahan, Iran from October 2014 to December 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
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