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Locus coeruleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943414/in-vivo-mri-assessment-of-the-human-locus-coeruleus-along-its-rostrocaudal-extent-in-young-and-older-adults
#1
Matthew J Betts, Arturo Cardenas-Blanco, Martin Kanowski, Frank Jessen, Emrah Düzel
The locus coeruleus (LC), a major origin of noradrenergic projections in the central nervous system (CNS), may serve a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). As such, there is considerable interest to develop magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to assess the integrity of the LC in vivo. The high neuromelanin content of the LC serves as an endogenous contrast for MRI but existing protocols suffer from low spatial resolution along the rostrocaudal axis of the LC rendering it difficult to differentiate its integrity in caudal and rostral portions...
September 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920933/modular-organization-of-the-brainstem-noradrenaline-system-coordinates-opposing-learning-states
#2
Akira Uematsu, Bao Zhen Tan, Edgar A Ycu, Jessica Sulkes Cuevas, Jenny Koivumaa, Felix Junyent, Eric J Kremer, Ilana B Witten, Karl Deisseroth, Joshua P Johansen
Noradrenaline modulates global brain states and diverse behaviors through what is traditionally believed to be a homogeneous cell population in the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC). However, it is unclear how LC coordinates disparate behavioral functions. We report a modular LC organization in rats, endowed with distinct neural projection patterns and coding properties for flexible specification of opposing behavioral learning states. LC projection mapping revealed functionally distinct cell modules with specific anatomical connectivity...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918943/vagus-nerve-stimulation-improves-locomotion-and-neuronal-populations-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Ariana Q Farrand, Kristi L Helke, Rebecca A Gregory, Monika Gooz, Vanessa K Hinson, Heather A Boger
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying therapies, and symptomatic treatments are often limited by debilitating side effects. In PD, locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) neurons degenerate prior to substantia nigra dopaminergic (SN-DA) neurons. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) activates LC neurons, and decreases pro-inflammatory markers, allowing improvement of LC targets, making it a potential PD therapeutic. OBJECTIVE: To assess therapeutic potential of VNS in a PD model...
August 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900892/increased-locus-coeruleus-tonic-activity-causes-disengagement-from-a-patch-foraging-task
#4
Gary A Kane, Elena M Vazey, Robert C Wilson, Amitai Shenhav, Nathaniel D Daw, Gary Aston-Jones, Jonathan D Cohen
High levels of locus coeruleus (LC) tonic activity are associated with distraction and poor performance within a task. Adaptive gain theory (AGT; Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005) suggests that this may reflect an adaptive function of the LC, encouraging search for more remunerative opportunities in times of low utility. Here, we examine whether stimulating LC tonic activity using designer receptors (DREADDs) promotes searching for better opportunities in a patch-foraging task as the value of a patch diminishes. The task required rats to decide repeatedly whether to exploit an immediate but depleting reward within a patch or to incur the cost of a time delay to travel to a new, fuller patch...
September 12, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890130/effects-of-perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-the-volume-of-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-of-juvenile-rats-a-clarity-bpa-consortium-study
#5
Sheryl E Arambula, Joelle Fuchs, Jinyan Cao, Heather B Patisaul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume endocrine disrupting chemical found in a wide variety of products including plastics and epoxy resins. Human exposure is nearly ubiquitous, and higher in children than adults. Because BPA has been reported to interfere with sex steroid hormone signaling, there is concern that developmental exposure, even at levels below the current FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, can disrupt brain sexual differentiation. The current studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and tested the hypothesis that perinatal BPA exposure would induce morphological changes in hormone sensitive, sexually dimorphic brain regions...
September 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889197/changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-locus-coeruleus-amygdala-circuitry-in-inhibitory-avoidance-ptsd-model
#6
Esther L Sabban, Lidia I Serova, Elizabeth Newman, Nurit Aisenberg, Irit Akirav
The locus coeruleus (LC)-amygdala circuit is implicated in playing a key role in responses to emotionally arousing stimuli and in the manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined changes in gene expression of a number of important mediators of the LC-amygdala circuitry in the inhibition avoidance model of PTSD. After testing for basal acoustic startle response (ASR), rats were exposed to a severe footshock (1.5 mA for 10 s) in the inhibitory avoidance apparatus. They were given contextual situational reminders every 5 day for 25 days...
September 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888954/central-antagonism-of-orexin-type-1-receptors-attenuates-the-development-of-morphine-dependence-in-rat-locus-coeruleus-neurons
#7
Mojgan Fakhari, Hossein Azizi, Saeed Semnanian
Prolonged use/abuse of opioid agonists leads to development of severe dependence to these drugs. Orexin-A has a crucial role in development of morphine dependence. The locus coeruleus (LC) is implicated in the expression of morphine withdrawal signs. Hyperactivity of LC neurons as well as increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level temporally corresponds to the expression of opioid withdrawal behaviors. In this study the effect of central OX1R blockade on neuronal activity and cAMP content of LC neurons was investigated following naloxone administration in morphine-dependent rats...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888155/pupil-response-and-attention-skills-in-down-syndrome
#8
Armando Quetzalcóatl Angulo-Chavira, Octavio García, Natalia Arias-Trejo
Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by attentional problems. Little is known about the neural correlates of attention problems in DS due to difficulties in evaluation. Pupil dilation, associated with an increase in cognitive load and locus coeruleus-noradrenaline system activity in humans, is a neurophysiological measurement that may help to characterize such problems. The aim of this research was to investigate the link between a phasic pupil dilation response and target detection in people with DS, as compared with a control group with typical development (TD) matched by mental age...
September 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887196/enhanced-expression-of-heme-oxygenase-1-in-the-locus-coeruleus-can-be-associated-with-anxiolytic-like-effects
#9
Rafael Alves Cazuza, Olga Pol, Christie Ramos Andrade Leite-Panissi
Some researchers have shown that carbon monoxide (CO) plays a role in emotional behavior modulation through intracellular 3'-5'-guanosine monophosphate mechanisms in the locus coeruleus (LC). In fact, the LC region has a high expression of the heme-oxygenase (HO) enzymes, which are responsible for the production of CO. However, the physiological mechanism by which the HO-CO pathway participates in the modulation of emotional responses in the LC still needs clarification. This study evaluates whether a systemic intraperitoneal treatment is able to alter behavioral responses (in the elevated plus-maze and the light-dark box test) and the expression of the HO-1 and HO-2 enzymes in the LC...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877402/effects-of-s-38093-an-antagonist-inverse-agonist-of-histamine-h3-receptors-in-models-of-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#10
T Chaumette, E Chapuy, E Berrocoso, M Llorca-Torralba, L Bravo, J A Mico, M Chalus, A Eschalier, D Ardid, F Marchand, A Sors
BACKGROUND: Histamine H3 receptors are mainly expressed on CNS neurons, particularly along the nociceptive pathways. The potential involvement of these receptors in pain processing has been suggested using H3 receptor inverse agonists. METHODS: The antinociceptive effect of S 38093, a novel inverse agonist of H3 receptors, has been evaluated in several neuropathic pain models in rat and compared with those of gabapentin and pregabalin. RESULTS: While S 38093 did not change vocalization thresholds to paw pressure in healthy rats, it exhibited a significant antihyperalgesic effect in the Streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ) neuropathy model after acute and chronic administration and, in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model only after chronic administration, submitted to the paw-pressure test...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871468/microrna-expression-in-the-locus-coeruleus-entorhinal-cortex-and-hippocampus-at-early-and-middle-stages-of-braak-neurofibrillary-tangle-pathology
#11
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Pol Andrés-Benito, Waqas Tahir, Belén Ansoleaga, Karina Hernández-Ortega, Eulàlia Martí, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer
The present study analyzes by RT-qPCR the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-27a-3p, miRNA-124-3p, miRNA-132-3p, and miRNA-143-3p in the locus coeruleus (LC), entorhinal cortex (EC), CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1), and dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged (MA) individuals with no brain lesions and of cases at Braak and Braak stages I-II and II-IV of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology. The most affected region is the LC in which miRNA-27a-3p, miRNA-124-3p, and miRNA-143-3p show a trend to increase at stages I-II and are significantly up-regulated at stages III-IV when compared with MA...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842924/distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-receptor-binding-in-the-mouse-brain-using-a-new-high-affinity-radioligand-125-i-pd-sauvagine
#12
Laura A Tan, Joan M Vaughan, Marilyn H Perrin, Jean E Rivier, Paul E Sawchenko
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides includes CRF and three urocortins, which signal through two distinct G-protein coupled receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 . Although the cellular distribution of CRF receptor expression has been well characterized at the mRNA level, the localization of receptor protein, and, by inference, of functional receptors, has been limited by a lack of reliable immunohistochemical evidence. Recently, a CRF-related peptide, termed PD-sauvagine, was isolated from the skin of the frog, Pachymedusa dacnicolor, and validated as a high-affinity ligand for CRF receptor studies...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826827/role-of-orexin-type-1-receptors-in-paragiganto-coerulear-modulation-of-opioid-withdrawal-and-tolerance-a-site-specific-focus
#13
REVIEW
S Mohammad Ahmadi-Soleimani, Hossein Azizi, Heinrich S Gompf, Saeed Semnanian
Orexin-A and -B neuropeptides are exclusively synthesized in hypothalamic neurons. These have been implicated to play critical roles in the expression of various behavioral manifestations such as feeding, arousal, wakefulness, drug dependence and tolerance. Orexin ligands activate orexin type-1 and orexin type-2 receptors each displaying a distinct selectivity and distribution profile. Orexinergic neurons innervate various brain structures among which the locus coeruleus (LC) and the lateral paragigantocellularis (LPGi) nuclei are well established as the two key mediators of opiate dependence and tolerance...
August 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819132/treatment-associated-changes-of-functional-connectivity-of-midbrain-brainstem-nuclei-in-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Gerd Wagner, Feliberto de la Cruz, Stefanie Köhler, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally coordinated network functioning in Major Depression Disorder (MDD) during rest. The main monoamine-producing nuclei within midbrain/brainstem are functionally integrated within these specific networks. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of these nuclei in 45 MDD patients and differences between patients receiving two different classes of antidepressant drugs. Patients showed reduced RSFC from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and stronger RSFC to the left amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818835/src-dependent-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-at-tyr-336-modulates-opiate-withdrawal
#15
Lei Zhang, Cherkaouia Kibaly, Yu-Jun Wang, Chi Xu, Kyu Young Song, Patrick W McGarrah, Horace H Loh, Jing-Gen Liu, Ping-Yee Law
Opiate withdrawal/negative reinforcement has been implicated as one of the mechanisms for the progression from impulsive to compulsive drug use. Increase in the intracellular cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA) activities within the neurocircuitry of addiction has been a leading hypothesis for opiate addiction. This increase requires the phosphorylation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) at Tyr(336) by Src after prolonged opiate treatment in vitro Here, we report that the Src-mediated MOR phosphorylation at Tyr(336) is a prerequisite for opiate withdrawal in mice...
August 17, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813307/the-innate-alarm-system-in-ptsd-conscious-and-subconscious-processing-of-threat
#16
REVIEW
Ruth A Lanius, Daniela Rabellino, Jenna E Boyd, Sherain Harricharan, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon
The innate alarm system (IAS), comprised of functionally connected brain regions including the brainstem, amygdala, pulvinar, and frontotemporal cortex, is a fast subcortical brain network facilitating rapid responses to threat. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) features subconscious and conscious threat detection, together contributing to hyperarousal symptoms. Emerging literature identifies aberrant threat-related neurocircuitry involved in subconscious and conscious threat processing in PTSD. We review this literature, focusing on subconscious threat processing and its relation to the IAS...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808590/genesis-and-maintenance-of-attentional-biases-the-role-of-the-locus-coeruleus-noradrenaline-system
#17
REVIEW
Mana R Ehlers, Rebecca M Todd
Emotionally arousing events are typically better remembered than mundane ones, in part because emotionally relevant aspects of our environment are prioritized in attention. Such biased attentional tuning is itself the result of associative processes through which we learn affective and motivational relevance of cues. We propose that the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA) system plays an important role in the genesis of attentional biases through associative learning processes as well as their maintenance...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807787/trigeminal-nerve-stimulation-induces-fos-immunoreactivity-in-selected-brain-regions-increases-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-and-reduces-seizure-severity-in-rats
#18
Beniamina Mercante, Paolo Enrico, Gabriele Floris, Marina Quartu, Marianna Boi, Maria Pina Serra, Paolo Follesa, Franca Deriu
Sites and mechanisms by which trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) exerts beneficial effects on symptoms of drug-resistant epilepsy and depression are still unknown. Effects of short-term TNS on brain regions involved in the physiopathology of these disorders were investigated in this study. Forty male rats were assigned to three groups: TNS (undergoing electrical stimulation of the left infraorbitary nerve via surgically implanted cuff electrodes); Sham (undergoing surgical procedure but without a stimulation); Naïve rats...
August 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807028/connectivity-not-region-intrinsic-properties-predicts-regional-vulnerability-to-progressive-tau-pathology-in-mouse-models-of-disease
#19
Chris Mezias, Eve LoCastro, Chuying Xia, Ashish Raj
Spatiotemporal tau pathology progression is regarded as highly stereotyped within each type of degenerative condition. For instance, AD has a progression of tau pathology consistently beginning in the entorhinal cortex, the locus coeruleus, and other nearby noradrenergic brainstem nuclei, before spreading to the rest of the limbic system as well as the cingulate and retrosplenial cortices. Proposed explanations for the consistent spatial patterns of tau pathology progression, as well as for why certain regions are selectively vulnerable to exhibiting pathology over the course of disease generally focus on transsynaptic spread proceeding via the brain's anatomic connectivity network in a cell-independent manner or on cell-intrinsic properties that might render some cell populations or regions uniquely vulnerable...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798153/characterization-of-the-central-neural-projections-to-brown-white-and-beige-adipose-tissue
#20
Nicole M Wiedmann, Aneta Stefanidis, Brian J Oldfield
The functional recruitment of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible brown-like or beige fat is, to a large extent, dependent on intact sympathetic neural input. Whereas the central neural circuits directed specifically to BAT or white adipose tissue (WAT) are well established, there is only a developing insight into the nature of neural inputs common to both fat types. Moreover, there is no clear view of the specific central and peripheral innervation of the browned component of WAT: beige fat. The objective of the present study is to examine the neural input to both BAT and WAT in the same animal and, by exposing different cohorts of rats to either thermoneutral or cold conditions, define changes in central neural organization that will ensure that beige fat is appropriately recruited and modulated after browning of inguinal WAT (iWAT)...
August 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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