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Locus coeruleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431876/role-of-the-locus-coeruleus-catecholaminergic-neurons-in-the-chemosensory-control-of-breathing-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-model
#1
Luiz M Oliveira, Marina Tuppy, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura
A previous study has demonstrated that in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-model of Parkinson's disease (PD) there is a reduction in the number of Phox2b neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) and a decrease in the respiratory response to hypercapnia 40days after PD-induction. The functional deficiency is restored 60days after 6-OHDA injection and here we tested the hypothesis that the locus coeruleus (LC) could be a candidate to restore the breathing deficiency. Minute Ventilation (VE) in response to hypercapnia (7% CO2) was assessed one day before, and then 40 and 60days after bilateral 6-OHDA (24μg/μL) or vehicle injections into the LC in control or PD-induced male Wistar rats...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430979/effect-of-physical-exercise-and-acute-escitalopram-on-the-excitability-of-brain-monoamine-neurons-in-vivo-electrophysiological-study-in-rats
#2
Eliyahu Dremencov, Kristína Csatlósová, Barbora Durišová, Lucia Lapínová, Lubica Lacinová, Daniela Ježová
Background: The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Material and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427932/reciprocal-changes-in-noradrenaline-and-gaba-levels-in-discrete-brain-regions-upon-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-deprivation-in-rats
#3
Rachna Mehta, Sudhuman Singh, Mudasir Ahmad Khanday, Birendra Nath Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) plays important role in maintenance of normal brain functions. Neurons containing various neurotransmitters in different brain regions interact to regulate this complex phenomenon in health and diseases. The number of neuronal projections, their firing rates and neurotransmitter levels vary in different brain regions under various conditions leading to normal or altered patho-physio-behavioral states. In this study using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) we quantified noradrenaline (NA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in locus coeruleus (LC), dorsal raphe (DR), pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), frontal lobe (FL), cortex and hippocampus (Hippo) in control and after 96h REMS deprivation (REMSD) rats...
April 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401046/functional-neuroanatomy-in-panic-disorder-status-quo-of-the-research
#4
Thomas Sobanski, Gerd Wagner
AIM: To provide an overview of the current research in the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder. METHODS: Panic disorder (PD) is a frequent psychiatric disease. Gorman et al (1989; 2000) proposed a comprehensive neuroanatomical model of PD, which suggested that fear- and anxiety-related responses are mediated by a so-called "fear network" which is centered in the amygdala and includes the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray region, locus coeruleus and other brainstem sites...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392428/modulation-of-experimental-arthritis-by-vagal-sensory-and-central-brain-stimulation
#5
Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Daniel Penteado Martins Dias, Marcelo Franchin, Jhimmy Talbot, Daniel Gustavo Reis, Gustavo Batista Menezes, Jaci Airton Castania, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes Resstel, Helio Cesar Salgado, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Luis Ulloa, Alexandre Kanashiro
Articular inflammation is a major clinical burden in multiple inflammatory diseases, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Biological anti-rheumatic drug therapies are expensive and increase the risk of systemic immunosuppression, infections, and malignancies. Here, we report that vagus nerve stimulation controls arthritic joint inflammation by inducing local regulation of innate immune response. Most of the previous studies of neuromodulation focused on vagal regulation of inflammation via the efferent peripheral pathway toward the viscera...
April 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385341/enhancement-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-desensitization-by-orexin-a-in-rat-locus-coeruleus-neurons
#6
S Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, Hossein Azizi, Narges Pachenari, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Saeed Semnanian
Opioids have always been used in clinical practice for pain management. However, development of tolerance to their effects following long term administration, seriously restricts further clinical use of these drugs. In this regard, μ-opioid receptor (MOR) desensitization, as an initial step in development of opioid tolerance, is of particular significance. Previous studies support the involvement of orexinergic system in development of opioid tolerance. Locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus has been shown to modulate pain and development of tolerance...
March 23, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383797/the-role-of-nmda-receptor-dependent-activity-of-noradrenergic-neurons-in-attention-impulsivity-and-exploratory-behaviors
#7
Przemysław Eligiusz Cieślak, Nerea Llamosas, Tomasz Kos, Luisa Ugedo, Kamila Jastrzębska, Maria Torrecilla, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna
Activity of the brain's noradrenergic (NA) neurons plays a major role in cognitive processes, including the ability to adapt behavior to changing environmental circumstances. Here, we used the NR1(DbhCre) transgenic mouse strain to test how NMDA receptor-dependent activity of NA neurons influenced performance in tasks requiring sustained attention, attentional shifting and a trade-off between exploration and exploitation. We found that the loss of NMDA receptors caused irregularity in activity of noradrenergic cells in the locus coeruleus (LC) and increased the number of neurons with spontaneous burst firing...
April 6, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383284/dynamic-modulation-of-decision-biases-by-brainstem-arousal-systems
#8
Jan Willem de Gee, Olympia Colizoli, Niels A Kloosterman, Tomas Knapen, Sander Nieuwenhuis, Tobias H Donner
Decision-makers often arrive at different choices when faced with repeated presentations of the same evidence. Variability of behavior is commonly attributed to noise in the brain's decision-making machinery. We hypothesized that phasic responses of brainstem arousal systems are a significant source of this variability. We tracked pupil responses (a proxy of phasic arousal) during sensory-motor decisions in humans, across different sensory modalities and task protocols. Large pupil responses generally predicted a reduction in decision bias...
April 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382577/morphological-correlates-of-sex-differences-in-acoustic-startle-response-and-prepulse-inhibition-through-projections-from-locus-coeruleus-to-cochlear-root-neurons
#9
Sebastian Hormigo, Ricardo Gómez-Nieto, Consuelo Sancho, Javier Herrero-Turrión, Juan Carro, Dolores E López, José de Anchieta de Castro E Horta-Júnior
The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) plays an important role in the promotion and maintenance of arousal and alertness. Our group recently described coerulean projections to cochlear root neurons (CRNs), the first relay of the primary acoustic startle reflex (ASR) circuit. However, the role of the LC in the ASR and its modulation, prepulse inhibition (PPI), is not clear. In this study, we damaged LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then assessed ASR and PPI in male and female rats...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360327/breathing-control-center-neurons-that-promote-arousal-in-mice
#10
Kevin Yackle, Lindsay A Schwarz, Kaiwen Kam, Jordan M Sorokin, John R Huguenard, Jack L Feldman, Liqun Luo, Mark A Krasnow
Slow, controlled breathing has been used for centuries to promote mental calming, and it is used clinically to suppress excessive arousal such as panic attacks. However, the physiological and neural basis of the relationship between breathing and higher-order brain activity is unknown. We found a neuronal subpopulation in the mouse preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the primary breathing rhythm generator, which regulates the balance between calm and arousal behaviors. Conditional, bilateral genetic ablation of the ~175 Cdh9/Dbx1 double-positive preBötC neurons in adult mice left breathing intact but increased calm behaviors and decreased time in aroused states...
March 31, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341460/cortical-adrenoceptor-expression-function-and-adaptation-under-conditions-of-cannabinoid-receptor-deletion
#11
B A S Reyes, A F Carvalho, P Szot, D J Kalamarides, Q Wang, L G Kirby, E J Van Bockstaele
A neurochemical target at which cannabinoids interact to have global effects on behavior is brain noradrenergic circuitry. Acute and repeated administration of a cannabinoid receptor synthetic agonist is capable of increasing multiple indices of noradrenergic activity. This includes cannabinoid-induced 1) increases in norepinephrine (NE) release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); 2) desensitization of cortical α2-adrenoceptor-mediated effects; 3) activation of c-Fos in brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons; and 4) increases in anxiety-like behaviors...
March 21, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340519/barrington-s-nucleus-neuroanatomic-landscape-of-the-mouse-pontine-micturition-center
#12
Anne M J Verstegen, Veronique Vanderhorst, Paul A Gray, Mark L Zeidel, Joel C Geerling
Barrington's nucleus (Bar) is thought to contain neurons that trigger voiding and thereby function as the "pontine micturition center." Lacking detailed information on this region in mice, we examined gene and protein markers to characterize Bar and the neurons surrounding it. Like rats and cats, mice have an ovoid core of medium-sized Bar neurons located medial to the locus coeruleus (LC). Bar neurons express a GFP reporter for Vglut2, develop from a Math1/Atoh1 lineage, and exhibit immunoreactivity for NeuN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337130/the-brainstem-in-emotion-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Anand Venkatraman, Brian L Edlow, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Emotions depend upon the integrated activity of neural networks that modulate arousal, autonomic function, motor control, and somatosensation. Brainstem nodes play critical roles in each of these networks, but prior studies of the neuroanatomic basis of emotion, particularly in the human neuropsychological literature, have mostly focused on the contributions of cortical rather than subcortical structures. Given the size and complexity of brainstem circuits, elucidating their structural and functional properties involves technical challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326936/a-role-for-the-locus-coeruleus-in-the-analgesic-efficacy-of-n-acetylaspartylglutamate-peptidase-gcpii-inhibitors-zj43-and-2-pmpa
#14
Takahiro Nonaka, Toshihiko Yamada, Tatsuhiro Ishimura, Daiying Zuo, John R Moffett, Joseph H Neale, Tatsuo Yamamoto
N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is the third most prevalent and widely distributed neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. NAAG activates a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR3) and is inactivated by an extracellular enzyme, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) in vivo. Inhibitors of this enzyme are analgesic in animal models of inflammatory, neuropathic and bone cancer pain. NAAG and GCPII are present in the locus coeruleus, a center for the descending noradrenergic inhibitory pain system...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284896/progesterone-increased-%C3%AE-endorphin-innervation-of-the-locus-coeruleus-but-ovarian-steroids-had-no-effect-on-noradrenergic-neurodegeneration
#15
Fernanda B Lima, Cristiane M Leite, Cynthia L Bethea, Janete A Anselmo-Franci
With the decline of ovarian steroids levels at menopause, many women experience an increase in anxiety and stress sensitivity. The locus coeruleus (LC), a central source of noradrenaline (NE), is activated by stress and is inhibited by β-endorphin. Moreover, increased NE has been implicated in pathological anxiety syndromes. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopause appears to decrease anxiety and vulnerability to stress. Therefore, we questioned the effect of HRT on the inhibitory β-endorphin innervation of the LC...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282810/neuropathological-staging-of-brain-pathology-in-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-separating-the-wheat-from-the-chaff
#16
Heiko Braak, Kelly Del Tredici
A relatively small number of especially susceptible nerve cell types within multiple neurotransmitter systems of the human central, peripheral, and enteric nervous systems (CNS, PNS, ENS) become involved in the degenerative process underlying sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD). The six-stage model we proposed for brain pathology related to sPD (Neurobiol Aging 2003) was a retrospective study of incidental and clinically diagnosed cases performed on unconventionally thick tissue sections (100 μm) from a large number of brain regions...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279754/estrogen-receptors-er%C3%AE-and-er%C3%AE-participation-in-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-by-hemorrhagic-stress
#17
Luana Maria Silva-Alves, Procópio Cleber Gama de Barcelos Filho, Celso Rodrigues Franci
The sympato-adrenal-system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are anatomically and functionally connected with participation of several brain areas that express estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). We assessed the neuronal activity of these areas for FOS expression and the action of PPT (ERα agonist) or DPN (ERβ agonist) in HPA axis activity during hemorrhagic stress. Ovariectomized Wistar rats treated with vehicle (DMSO) or ER agonists were catheterized for blood collection. Animals received (control) or not (hemorrhagic) immediate reposition with the same volume of saline...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272728/-regulation-of-the-phases-of-the-sleep-wakefulness-cycle-with-histamine
#18
REVIEW
A Diez-Garcia, M Garzon
Distributed neural networks in the brain sustain generation of wakefulness and two sleep states: non-REM sleep and REM sleep. These three behavioral states are jointly ingrained in a rhythmic sequence that constitutes the sleep-wakefulness cycle. This paper reviews and updates knowledge about the involvement of the histaminergic system in sleep-wakefulness cycle organization. Histaminergic neurons are exclusively located in the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus, but are the source of a widespread projection system to many brain regions...
March 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271441/modulation-of-locus-coeruleus-activity-by-novel-oddball-stimuli
#19
Ruth M Krebs, Haeme R P Park, Klaas Bombeke, Carsten N Boehler
It has long been known from animal literature that the locus coeruleus (LC), the source region of noradrenergic neurons in the brain, is sensitive to unexpected, novel, and other salient events. In humans, however, direct assessment of LC activity has proven to be challenging due to its small size and difficult localization, which is why noradrenergic activity has often been assessed using more indirect measures such as electroencephalography (EEG) and pupil recordings. Here, we combined high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a special anatomical sequence to assess neural activity in the LC in response to different types of salient stimuli in an oddball paradigm (novel neutral oddballs, novel emotional oddballs, and familiar target oddballs)...
March 7, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266222/conditional-depletion-of-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-exacerbates-neuropathology-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
David J Braun, Sergey Kalinin, Douglas L Feinstein
Damage occurring to noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) contributes to the evolution of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in a variety of conditions and diseases. One cause of LC damage may be loss of neurotrophic support from LC target regions. We tested this hypothesis by conditional unilateral knockout of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adult mice. To evaluate the consequences of BDNF loss in the context of neurodegeneration, the mice harbored familial mutations for human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1...
March 2017: ASN Neuro
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