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Locus coeruleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341898/induction-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-rat-and-non-human-primate-results-in-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-and-transient-cns-pathology
#1
Fredric P Manfredsson, Kelvin C Luk, Matthew J Benskey, Aysegul Guezer, Joanna Garcia, Nathan C Kuhn, Ivette M Sandoval, Joseph R Patterson, Alana O'Mara, Reid Yonkers, Jeffrey H Kordower
Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) is by far the most highly vetted pathogenic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Aggregated α-syn is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The enteric division of the PNS is of particular interest because 1) gastric dysfunction is a key clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease, and 2) Lewy pathology in myenteric and submucosal neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been referred to as stage zero in the Braak pathological staging of Parkinson's disease...
January 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341884/acute-stress-persistently-alters-locus-coeruleus-function-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#2
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D Flamini, Daniel J Chandler
Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated with prior stress are characterized by chronically altered noradrenergic signaling, yet the long-term impact of an acute stressor on LC function is not clear...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328415/role-of-catalpol-in-ameliorating-the-pathogenesis-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-increasing-the-level-of-noradrenaline-in-the-locus-coeruleus
#3
Qian Li, Tao Yang, An-Chen Guo, Yong-Ping Fan
The endogenous neurotransmitter, noradrenaline, exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. Reduced noradrenaline levels results in increased inflammation and neuronal damage. The primary source of noradrenaline in the central nervous system is tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)‑positive neurons, located in the locus coeruleus (LC). TH is the rate‑limiting enzyme for noradrenaline synthesis; therefore, regulation of TH protein expression and intrinsic enzyme activity represents the central means for controlling the synthesis of noradrenaline...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304218/selective-vulnerability-of-brainstem-nuclei-in-distinct-tauopathies-a-postmortem-study
#4
Rana A Eser, Alexander J Ehrenberg, Cathrine Petersen, Sara Dunlop, Maria B Mejia, Claudia K Suemoto, Christine M Walsh, Hima Rajana, Jun Oh, Panos Theofilas, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Thomas C Neylan, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg
The brainstem nuclei of the reticular formation (RF) are critical for regulating homeostasis, behavior, and cognition. RF degenerates in tauopathies including Alzheimer disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Although the burden of phopho-tau inclusion is high across these diseases, suggesting a similar vulnerability pattern, a distinct RF-associated clinical phenotype in these diseases indicates the opposite. To compare patterns of RF selective vulnerability to tauopathies, we analyzed 5 RF nuclei in tissue from 14 AD, 14 CBD, 10 PSP, and 3 control cases...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301874/locus-coeruleus-activity-strengthens-prioritized-memories-under-arousal
#5
David Clewett, Ringo Huang, Rico Velasco, Tae-Ho Lee, Mara Mather
Recent models posit that bursts of locus coeruleus (LC) activity amplify neural gain, such that limited attention and encoding resources focus even more on prioritized mental representations under arousal. Here, we tested this hypothesis in human males and females using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neuromelanin MRI, and pupil dilation, a biomarker of arousal and LC activity. During scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive encoding task in which threat of punishment motivated participants to prioritize encoding of scene images over superimposed objects...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279390/locus-coeruleus-input-to-hippocampal-ca3-drives-single-trial-learning-of-a-novel-context
#6
Akiko Wagatsuma, Teruhiro Okuyama, Chen Sun, Lillian M Smith, Kuniya Abe, Susumu Tonegawa
The memory for a new episode is formed immediately upon experience and can last up to a lifetime. It has been shown that the hippocampal network plays a fundamental role in the rapid acquisition of a memory of a one-time experience, in which the novelty component of the experience promotes the prompt formation of the memory. However, it remains unclear which neural circuits convey the novelty signal to the hippocampus for the single-trial learning. Here, we show that during encoding neuromodulatory input from locus coeruleus (LC) to CA3, but not CA1 or to the dentate gyrus, is necessary to facilitate novel contextual learning...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277190/locus-coeruleus-hyperactivity-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-answers-and-questions
#7
John H Krystal, Chadi G Abdallah, Robert H Pietrzak, Lynnette A Averill, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Ifat Levy, Benjamin Kelmendi, Steven M Southwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274883/the-locus-coeruleus-neuroprotective-drug-vindeburnol-normalizes-behavior-in-the-5xfad-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
David Braun, Douglas L Feinstein
Damage to noradrenergic neurons in the Locus coeruleus (LC) occurs contributes to neuropathology and behavioral deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD); methods to reduce LC damage may therefore be of benefit. We previously showed that vindeburnol, a derivative of the plant alkaloid vincamine, reduced neuroinflammation, amyloid burden, and LC damage in a mouse model of AD; however, effects on behavior were not tested. We now tested the effects of vindeburnol on anxiety-like behavior in 5xFAD mice which develop robust amyloid burden at early ages...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274876/roles-of-tau-pathology-in-the-locus-coeruleus-lc-in-age-associated-pathophysiology-and-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis-potential-strategies-to-protect-the-lc-against-aging
#9
Akiko Satoh, Koichi M Iijima
The locus coeruleus (LC) is the noradrenaline (norepinephrine, NE)-containing nucleus in the brainstem and innervates into widespread brain regions. This LC-NE system plays a critical role in a variety of brain functions, including attention, arousal, emotion, cognition, and the sleep-wake cycle. The LC is one of the brain regions vulnerable to the occurrence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which is associated with "primary age-related tauopathy (PART)" that describes the pathology commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273501/selective-%C3%AE-synuclein-knockdown-in-monoamine-neurons-by-intranasal-oligonucleotide-delivery-potential-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Diana Alarcón-Arís, Ariadna Recasens, Mireia Galofré, Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Nicolás Zacchi, Esther Ruiz-Bronchal, Rubén Pavia-Collado, Rosario Chica, Albert Ferrés-Coy, Marina Santos, Raquel Revilla, Andrés Montefeltro, Isabel Fariñas, Francesc Artigas, Miquel Vila, Analia Bortolozzi
Progressive neuronal death in brainstem nuclei and widespread accumulation of α-synuclein are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduction of α-synuclein levels is therefore a potential therapy for PD. However, because α-synuclein is essential for neuronal development and function, α-synuclein elimination would dramatically impact brain function. We previously developed conjugated small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences that selectively target serotonin (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) neurons after intranasal administration...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261743/a-noradrenergic-lesion-aggravates-the-effects-of-systemic-inflammation-on-the-hippocampus-of-aged-rats
#11
Krishna L Bharani, Rebecca Derex, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Aurélie Ledreux
Neuroinflammation is potentiated by early degeneration of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic pathway (LC-NE) commonly seen in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In animal models, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces strong peripheral immune responses that can cause cognitive changes secondary to neuroinflammation. The influence of the peripheral immune response on cognition might be exacerbated by LC-NE degeneration, but this has not been well characterized previously...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247487/the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system-as-pacemaker-of-attention-a-developmental-mechanism-of-derailed-attentional-function-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Nico Bast, Luise Poustka, Christine M Freitag
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit diminished visual engagement to environmental stimuli. Aberrant attentional function provides an explanation by reduced phasic alerting and orienting to exogenous stimuli. We review aberrant attentional function (alerting, orienting, and attentional control) in children with ASD as studied by neurocognitive and neurophysiological tasks as well as magnetic resonance imaging studies. The locus coeruleus - norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is outlined as a pacemaker of attentional function...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234450/the-modulatory-effect-of-acupuncture-on-the-activity-of-locus-coeruleus-neuronal-cells-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Gihyun Lee, Woojin Kim
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a small collection of noradrenergic neurons located in the pons. In the brain, noradrenaline (NE) is primarily produced by noradrenergic cell groups in the LC, which is the largest group of noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. Acupuncture, including the electroacupuncture which is a modified acupuncture method, is known to be effective in various kinds of diseases, and the involvement of noradrenergic system in the central nervous system has been reported by previous studies...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231507/-effect-of-acupuncture-treatment-on-gene-expression-of-neurotransmitters-of-brain-tissue-in-rats-with-post-stroke-depression
#14
Wei Xiao, Xianbao Zhang, Zhen Wang, Yan Wang, Xiaoli Guo, Ling He, Fajun Liang, Huixing Hu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture on mRNA of the neurotransmitter serotonin transporter (5-HTT), 5-HT1Areceptor (5-HT1AR), norepinephrineα2 receptor (NEα2R) in brain tissue in rats with post-stroke depression. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a medication group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each one. The model of post-stroke depression was established by occlusion of middle cerebral artery and chronic unpredictable mild stress method...
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230190/daith-piercing-in-a-case-of-chronic-migraine-a-possible-vagal-modulation
#15
Angelo Cascio Rizzo, Matteo Paolucci, Riccardo Altavilla, Nicoletta Brunelli, Federica Assenza, Claudia Altamura, Fabrizio Vernieri
Daith piercing is an ear piercing located at the crus of the helix, bilaterally. It is getting great consent on social media as alternative treatment in chronic migraine. No data about its efficacy and action are available in scientific literature so far. We present the case of a 54-year-old male patient suffering from refractory chronic migraine with medication-overuse, who substantially improved after bilateral ear daith piercing. His migraine was refractory to symptomatic as well as prophylactic therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209170/noradrenaline-modulates-the-membrane-potential-and-holding-current-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons-via-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-and-hcn-channels
#16
Katarzyna Grzelka, Przemysław Kurowski, Maciej Gawlak, Paweł Szulczyk
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) receives dense noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus. Adrenergic innervation of mPFC pyramidal neurons plays an essential role in both physiology (control of memory formation, attention, working memory, and cognitive behavior) and pathophysiology (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, cognitive deterioration after traumatic brain injury, behavioral changes related to addiction, Alzheimer's disease and depression). The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for adrenergic receptor-mediated control of the resting membrane potential in layer V mPFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199948/brainstem-network-dynamics-underlying-the-encoding-of-bladder-information
#17
Anitha Manohar, Andre L Curtis, Stephen A Zderic, Rita J Valentino
Urodynamic status must interact with arousal and attentional processes so that voiding occurs under appropriate conditions. To elucidate the central encoding of this visceral demand, multisite recordings were made within a putative pontine-cortical micturition circuit from the pontine micturition center (PMC), locus coeruleus (LC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during cystometry in unanesthetized rats. PMC neurons had homogeneous firing patterns, characterized by tonic activity and phasic bursts that were temporally associated with distinct phases of the micturition cycle...
December 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195839/the-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-plays-an-important-role-in-anxiolytic-like-effect-of-neuropeptide-s
#18
Jin Hong Jiang, Ya Li Peng, Pei Jiang Zhang, Hong Xiang Xue, Zhen He, Xue Ya Liang, M Chang
Neuropeptide S (NPS), the endogenous neuropeptide ligand of NPSR, has been reported to regulate anxiety-related behavior involved in multiple brain regions, including amygdale, locus coeruleus and Barrington's nucleus. However, little research has been conducted on the anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS on the hypothalamus, which was an important area in defensive behavior. Here, we investigated a role of hypothalamus in anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS. We found that NPSR protein of mouse distributed mainly in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182617/in-vivo-stimulation-of-locus-coeruleus-effects-on-amygdala-subnuclei
#19
Elisa Rodríguez-Ortega, Fernando Cañadas, Francisca Carvajal, Diana Cardona
The locus coeruleus (LC) is the major noradrenergic nucleus and sends projections to almost all brain areas. A marked increase in norepinephrine release has been demonstrated in several brain areas in response to exposure to acute stressful stimuli, especially those innervated by LC projections. One of the brain areas innervated by LC neurons is the amygdala, a structure highly involved in emotional processes and memory formation. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge of the functional connectivity between the LC and the amygdala subnuclei...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181695/memri-reveals-altered-activity-in-brain-regions-associated-with-anxiety-locomotion-and-cardiovascular-reactivity-on-the-elevated-plus-maze-in-the-wky-vs-shr-rats
#20
Jasenka Zubcevic, Jacqueline Watkins, Pablo D Perez, Luis M Colon-Perez, Maureen T Long, Marcelo Febo, Linda Hayward
Individuals with anxiety/depression often have exaggerated cardiovascular responses to stressful stimuli and a comorbidity with hypertension. Alternatively, individuals with hypertension can be more anxious. In the present study cardiovascular changes were evaluated during behavioral testing of anxious behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a rodent model of neurogenic hypertension, and compared to the response of the more anxious, but normotensive, Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY)...
November 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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