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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526145/alpha-2-agonists
#1
REVIEW
Viet Nguyen, Dawn Tiemann, Edward Park, Ali Salehi
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are spread throughout the central and peripheral nervous system, specifically in the pontine locus coeruleus, medullospinal tracts, rostral ventrolateral medulla, and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Alpha-2 agonist agents cause neuromodulation in these centers, leading to sedation, analgesia, vasodilatation, and bradycardia with little effect on the respiratory drive, which accounts for their good safety profile. The 2 major drugs in this group are clonidine and dexmedetomidine...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511793/two-sources-of-dopamine-for-the-hippocampus
#2
Colin G McNamara, David Dupret
Dopaminergic signalling is established as playing an important role in novelty related modulation of hippocampal memory. Two recent studies have identified the noradrenergic fibres originating in the locus coeruleus as an additional source of neurotransmitter acting on dopaminergic receptors in the hippocampus.
May 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510270/mouse-fgf8-cre-lacz-lineage-analysis-defines-the-territory-of-the-postnatal-mammalian-isthmus
#3
Charles Watson, Tomomi Shimogori, Luis Puelles
The isthmus is recognized as the most rostral segment of the hindbrain in non-mammalian vertebrates . In mammalian embryos, transient Fgf8 expression defines the developing isthmic region, lying between the midbrain and the first rhombomere, but there has been uncertainty about the existence of a distinct isthmic segment in postnatal mammals. We attempted to find if the region of early embryonic Fgf8 expression (which is considered to involve the entire extent of the prospective isthmus initially) might help to identify the boundaries of the isthmus in postnatal animals...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507504/effects-of-%C3%AE-2a-adrenoceptors-on-norepinephrine-secretion-from-the-locus-coeruleus-during-chronic-stress-induced-depression
#4
Bin Wang, Ying Wang, Qiong Wu, Hong-Ping Huang, Shao Li
Chronic stressors can often lead to the development of psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a stress sensitive brain region located in the pons, with noradrenergic neurons that project to the hypothalamus, especially the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. The purpose of this paper is to better understand how alpha 2A-adrenoceptors (α2A-ARs) and LC-hypothalamus noradrenergic system participate in the pathophysiological mechanism of depression. In vivo norepinephrine (NE) release in the PVN triggered by electrical stimulation in the LC was detected with carbon fiber electrodes in depression model of rats induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501494/focused-microwave-irradiation-assisted-immunohistochemistry-to-study-effects-of-ketamine-on-perk-expression-in-the-mouse-brain
#5
Alda Fernandes, Yu-Wen Li
Ketamine produces rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in depressive patients. Preclinical studies demonstrate that ketamine stimulates AMPA receptor transmission and activates BDNF/TrkB-Akt/ERK-mTOR signaling cascades, leading to a sustained increase in synaptic protein synthesis and strengthening of synaptic plasticity, a potential mechanism underlying the antidepressant effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to map the distribution of ERK phosphorylation in the mouse brain in response to systemic ketamine treatment...
May 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497359/the-pattern-of-thalamocortical-and-brain-stem-projections-to-the-vibrissae-related-sensory-and-motor-cortices-in-de-whiskered-congenital-hypothyroid-rats
#6
Mohammad Reza Afarinesh, Gila Behzadi
The present study is designed to investigate the plastic organization of the thalamo-cortical (TC) and brain stem afferents of whisker primary sensory (wS1) and motor (wM1) cortical areas in congenital hypothyroid (CH) pups following whisker deprivation (WD) from neonatal to adolescence period. Maternal hypothyroidism was induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU) to the drinking water from early embryonic day 16 to postnatal day (PND) 60. Pregnant rats were divided into intact and CH groups (n = 8). In each group, the total whiskers of pups (4 of 8) were trimmed continuously from PND 1 to PND 60...
May 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489327/new-directions-for-the-treatment-of-depression-targeting-the-photic-regulation-of-arousal-and-mood-pram-pathway
#7
REVIEW
Hannah E Bowrey, Morgan H James, Gary Aston-Jones
Both preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that depression is strongly associated with reduced light availability, which in turn contributes to decreased function of brain regions that control mood. Here, we review findings that support a critical pathway for the control of mood that depends upon ambient light. We put forward a novel hypothesis, functionally linking retina to locus coeruleus (LC) in depression, and discuss the role of norepinephrine in affective disease. Finally, we discuss how utilizing the chemogenetic tool Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to precisely control this retina-LC circuit may be used as a novel therapeutic to treat depression...
May 10, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460588/neuromelanin-in-parkinsonian-disorders-an-update
#8
Antonio Martin-Bastida, Sara Pietracupa, Paola Piccini
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment that accumulates linearly with ageing in Substantia Nigra (SN) and Locus Coeruleus (LC). Dual protective and toxic role of NM has been hypothesized according to its intra or extraneuronal deposition. Melanised dopaminergic neurons in SN and LC seem to have special vulnerability to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Paramagnetic properties of NM due to its association to metals like iron induce T1 prolongation; hence measurement of SN-sensitive contrast could be a useful diagnostic biomarker in neurodegenerative disease like PD and other atypical parkinsonisms...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457819/mechanisms-underlying-alterations-in-norepinephrine-levels-in-the-locus-coeruleus-of-ovariectomized-rats-modulation-by-estradiol-valerate-and-black-cohosh
#9
Jing Zhang, Wenpei Bai, Wenjuan Wang, Hai Jiang, Biao Jin, Yao Liu, Shuya Liu, Ke Wang, Jing Jia, Lihua Qin
Hot flushes are common in menopause. Norepinephrine (NE), primarily synthesized in the locus coeruleus (LC), plays a major role in central thermoregulation. Furthermore, we previously observed decreased dopamine beta hydroxylase (DβH), a key enzyme in NE synthesis, in LC neurons following ovariectomy. In this study, we explore the mechanisms underlying decreased NE levels in the LC (LC-NE) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and the modulating effects of estradiol valerate (E2) and black cohosh (ICR). We used high-performance liquid chromatography to detect LC-NE in SHAM, OVX, OVX-E2, and OVX-ICR groups...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445519/the-effect-of-atomoxetine-on-random-and-directed-exploration-in-humans
#10
Christopher M Warren, Robert C Wilson, Nic J van der Wee, Eric J Giltay, Martijn S van Noorden, Jonathan D Cohen, Sander Nieuwenhuis
The adaptive regulation of the trade-off between pursuing a known reward (exploitation) and sampling lesser-known options in search of something better (exploration) is critical for optimal performance. Theory and recent empirical work suggest that humans use at least two strategies for solving this dilemma: a directed strategy in which choices are explicitly biased toward information seeking, and a random strategy in which decision noise leads to exploration by chance. Here we examined the hypothesis that random exploration is governed by the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431876/role-of-the-locus-coeruleus-catecholaminergic-neurons-in-the-chemosensory-control-of-breathing-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-model
#11
Luiz M Oliveira, Marina Tuppy, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura
A previous study has demonstrated that in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-model of Parkinson's disease (PD) there is a reduction in the number of Phox2b neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) and a decrease in the respiratory response to hypercapnia 40days after PD-induction. The functional deficiency is restored 60days after 6-OHDA injection and here we tested the hypothesis that the locus coeruleus (LC) could be a candidate to restore the breathing deficiency. Minute Ventilation (VE) in response to hypercapnia (7% CO2) was assessed one day before, and then 40 and 60days after bilateral 6-OHDA (24μg/μL) or vehicle injections into the LC in control or PD-induced male Wistar rats...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430979/effect-of-physical-exercise-and-acute-escitalopram-on-the-excitability-of-brain-monoamine-neurons-in-vivo-electrophysiological-study-in-rats
#12
Eliyahu Dremencov, Kristína Csatlósová, Barbora Durišová, Lucia Lapínová, Lubica Lacinová, Daniela Ježová
Background: The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Material and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427932/reciprocal-changes-in-noradrenaline-and-gaba-levels-in-discrete-brain-regions-upon-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-deprivation-in-rats
#13
Rachna Mehta, Sudhuman Singh, Mudasir Ahmad Khanday, Birendra Nath Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) plays important role in maintenance of normal brain functions. Neurons containing various neurotransmitters in different brain regions interact to regulate this complex phenomenon in health and diseases. The number of neuronal projections, their firing rates and neurotransmitter levels vary in different brain regions under various conditions leading to normal or altered patho-physio-behavioral states. In this study using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) we quantified noradrenaline (NA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in locus coeruleus (LC), dorsal raphe (DR), pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), frontal lobe (FL), cortex and hippocampus (Hippo) in control and after 96 h REMS deprivation (REMSD) rats...
April 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401046/functional-neuroanatomy-in-panic-disorder-status-quo-of-the-research
#14
Thomas Sobanski, Gerd Wagner
AIM: To provide an overview of the current research in the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder. METHODS: Panic disorder (PD) is a frequent psychiatric disease. Gorman et al (1989; 2000) proposed a comprehensive neuroanatomical model of PD, which suggested that fear- and anxiety-related responses are mediated by a so-called "fear network" which is centered in the amygdala and includes the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray region, locus coeruleus and other brainstem sites...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392428/modulation-of-experimental-arthritis-by-vagal-sensory-and-central-brain-stimulation
#15
Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Daniel Penteado Martins Dias, Marcelo Franchin, Jhimmy Talbot, Daniel Gustavo Reis, Gustavo Batista Menezes, Jaci Airton Castania, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes Resstel, Helio Cesar Salgado, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Luis Ulloa, Alexandre Kanashiro
Articular inflammation is a major clinical burden in multiple inflammatory diseases, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Biological anti-rheumatic drug therapies are expensive and increase the risk of systemic immunosuppression, infections, and malignancies. Here, we report that vagus nerve stimulation controls arthritic joint inflammation by inducing local regulation of innate immune response. Most of the previous studies of neuromodulation focused on vagal regulation of inflammation via the efferent peripheral pathway toward the viscera...
April 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385341/enhancement-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-desensitization-by-orexin-a-in-rat-locus-coeruleus-neurons
#16
S Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, Hossein Azizi, Narges Pachenari, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Saeed Semnanian
Opioids have always been used in clinical practice for pain management. However, development of tolerance to their effects following long term administration, seriously restricts further clinical use of these drugs. In this regard, μ-opioid receptor (MOR) desensitization, as an initial step in development of opioid tolerance, is of particular significance. Previous studies support the involvement of orexinergic system in development of opioid tolerance. Locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus has been shown to modulate pain and development of tolerance...
March 23, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383797/the-role-of-nmda-receptor-dependent-activity-of-noradrenergic-neurons-in-attention-impulsivity-and-exploratory-behaviors
#17
Przemysław Eligiusz Cieślak, Nerea Llamosas, Tomasz Kos, Luisa Ugedo, Kamila Jastrzębska, Maria Torrecilla, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna
Activity of the brain's noradrenergic (NA) neurons plays a major role in cognitive processes, including the ability to adapt behavior to changing environmental circumstances. Here, we used the NR1(DbhCre) transgenic mouse strain to test how NMDA receptor-dependent activity of NA neurons influenced performance in tasks requiring sustained attention, attentional shifting and a trade-off between exploration and exploitation. We found that the loss of NMDA receptors caused irregularity in activity of noradrenergic cells in the locus coeruleus (LC) and increased the number of neurons with spontaneous burst firing...
April 6, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383284/dynamic-modulation-of-decision-biases-by-brainstem-arousal-systems
#18
Jan Willem de Gee, Olympia Colizoli, Niels A Kloosterman, Tomas Knapen, Sander Nieuwenhuis, Tobias H Donner
Decision-makers often arrive at different choices when faced with repeated presentations of the same evidence. Variability of behavior is commonly attributed to noise in the brain's decision-making machinery. We hypothesized that phasic responses of brainstem arousal systems are a significant source of this variability. We tracked pupil responses (a proxy of phasic arousal) during sensory-motor decisions in humans, across different sensory modalities and task protocols. Large pupil responses generally predicted a reduction in decision bias...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382577/morphological-correlates-of-sex-differences-in-acoustic-startle-response-and-prepulse-inhibition-through-projections-from-locus-coeruleus-to-cochlear-root-neurons
#19
Sebastian Hormigo, Ricardo Gómez-Nieto, Consuelo Sancho, Javier Herrero-Turrión, Juan Carro, Dolores E López, José de Anchieta de Castro E Horta-Júnior
The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) plays an important role in the promotion and maintenance of arousal and alertness. Our group recently described coerulean projections to cochlear root neurons (CRNs), the first relay of the primary acoustic startle reflex (ASR) circuit. However, the role of the LC in the ASR and its modulation, prepulse inhibition (PPI), is not clear. In this study, we damaged LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then assessed ASR and PPI in male and female rats...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360327/breathing-control-center-neurons-that-promote-arousal-in-mice
#20
Kevin Yackle, Lindsay A Schwarz, Kaiwen Kam, Jordan M Sorokin, John R Huguenard, Jack L Feldman, Liqun Luo, Mark A Krasnow
Slow, controlled breathing has been used for centuries to promote mental calming, and it is used clinically to suppress excessive arousal such as panic attacks. However, the physiological and neural basis of the relationship between breathing and higher-order brain activity is unknown. We found a neuronal subpopulation in the mouse preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the primary breathing rhythm generator, which regulates the balance between calm and arousal behaviors. Conditional, bilateral genetic ablation of the ~175 Cdh9/Dbx1 double-positive preBötC neurons in adult mice left breathing intact but increased calm behaviors and decreased time in aroused states...
March 31, 2017: Science
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