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Locus coeruleus

Ruud L van den Brink, Peter R Murphy, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small...
2016: PloS One
Hanne Schevernels, Marlies E van Bochove, Leen De Taeye, Klaas Bombeke, Kristl Vonck, Dirk Van Roost, Veerle De Herdt, Patrick Santens, Robrecht Raedt, C Nico Boehler
In the current study, we explored whether vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in patients with epilepsy, which is believed to increase norepinephrine (NE) levels via activation of the locus coeruleus, would positively affect response inhibition. Moreover, we tried to identify the dynamics of the underlying neural processes by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs) and pupil size. Patients performed a stop-signal task once when stimulation was switched on and once when it was switched off. We found a correlational pattern suggesting that patients who clinically benefit more from VNS treatment also show a larger behavioral advantage, in terms of faster response inhibition, when the vagus nerve is being stimulated...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Callum Hicks, Linnet Ramos, Bruno Dampney, Sarah J Baracz, Iain S McGregor, Glenn E Hunt
Peripherally administered oxytocin induces a wide range of behavioural and physiological effects that are thought to be mediated by the oxytocin receptor (OTR). However, oxytocin also has considerable affinity for the vasopressin 1A receptor (V1AR), such that various oxytocinergic effects may in fact be mediated by the V1AR rather than the OTR. Here we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to determine the extent to which the regional pattern of neuronal activation produced by peripheral oxytocin involves the V1AR...
October 8, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Moritz Mückschel, Krutika Gohil, Tjalf Ziemssen, Christian Beste
The ability to execute several actions in a specific temporal order to achieve an overarching goal, a process often termed action cascading or multi-component behavior, is essential for everyday life requirements. We are only at the beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms important for these cognitive processes. However, it is likely that the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system may be of importance. In the current study we examine the relevance of the LC-NE system for action cascading processes using a system neurophysiological approach combining high-density EEG recordings and source localization to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) with recordings of pupil diameter as a proximate of LC-NE system activity...
October 5, 2016: NeuroImage
Aimee Chan, SiHan Li, Ahn R Lee, Joseph Leung, Alissa Yip, Jaimie Bird, Kyle E Godden, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels C Rattenborg, Evan Balaban, Maria Pompeiano
Coordinated activity in different sets of widely-projecting neurochemical systems characterize waking (W) and sleep (S). How and when this coordination is achieved during development is not known. We used embryos and newborns of a precocial bird species (chickens) to assess developmental activation in different neurochemical systems using cFos expression, which has been extensively employed to examine cellular activation during S and W in adult mammals. Similarly to adult mammals, newborn awake chicks showed significantly higher cFos expression in W-active hypocretin/orexin (H/O), serotonergic Dorsal Raphe, noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus and cholinergic Laterodorsal and Pedunculopontine Tegmental (Ch-LDT/PT) neurons when compared to sleeping chicks...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Michael F Almeida, Carolliny M Silva, Aline M D'Unhao, Merari F R Ferrari
Cell physiology is impaired before protein aggregation and this may be more relevant than inclusions themselves for neurodegeneration. The present study aimed to characterize an animal model to enable the analysis of the cell biology before and after protein aggregation. Ten-month-old Lewis rats were exposed either to 1 or 2 mg/kg/day of rotenone, delivered subcutaneously through mini-pumps, for one month. Hyperphosphorylated TAU, alpha-synuclein, amyloid-beta peptide and protein carbonylation (indicative of oxidative stress) were evaluated in the hippocampus, substantia nigra and locus coeruleus through immunohistochemistry or western blot...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Sameer Saproo, Victor Shih, David C Jangraw, Paul Sajda
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the neural correlates of workload buildup in a fine visuomotor task called the boundary avoidance task (BAT). The BAT has been known to induce naturally occurring failures of human-machine coupling in high performance aircraft that can potentially lead to a crash-these failures are termed pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). APPROACH: We recorded EEG and pupillometry data from human subjects engaged in a flight BAT simulated within a virtual 3D environment...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Kelly A Mills, Zoltan Mari, Catherine Bakker, Vanessa Johnson, Gregory M Pontone, Alexander Pantelyat, Juan C Troncoso, Olga Pletnikova, Ted M Dawson, Liana S Rosenthal
INTRODUCTION: Gait impairment in Parkinson's Disease (PD) is often severely disabling, yet frequently remains refractory to treatment. The locus coeruleus (LC) has diffuse noradrenergic projections that are thought to play a role in gait function. Enhancement of norepinephrine transmission may improve gait in some PD patients. We hypothesized that the severity of PD pathology, and more specifically, Lewy bodies and neuronal loss in the LC, would correlate with the severity of gait dysfunction in PD...
September 25, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Jason Langley, Daniel E Huddleston, Christine J Liu, Xiaoping Hu
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and locus coeruleus (LC) delineation and measurement with neuromelanin-sensitive MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven subjects underwent two neuromelanin-sensitive MRI scans. SNpc and LC volumes were extracted for each scan. Reproducibility of volume and magnetization transfer contrast measurements in SNpc and LC was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and dice similarity coefficients (DSC)...
September 29, 2016: Magma
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Se-Jin Jeong, Chang-Jin Jeon
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the superior colliculus (SC) of the microbat has the same neurochemical makeup as that of other mammals. We examined the organization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers/cells using standard immunohistochemistry with antibodies against ChAT and TH. ChAT-IR fibers observed in the superficial layers were denser than those in the deeper layers, and these fibers were classified into two types: small varicose fibers and large varicose fibers...
September 29, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Toshiyasu Matsui, Takahiro Nakata, Yasushi Kobayashi
Organic cation transporters (OCTs) are low-affinity, high-capacity carriers that mediate sodium-independent transport for biogenic cations, including catecholamine, serotonin, histamine, and choline/acetylcholine. Among them, OCT2 is expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. Although previous studies show OCT2 expression in several populations of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons, the regional distribution of OCT2 in the brain remains largely unknown. Here we performed immunohistochemical analyses to reveal the distribution of OCT2 throughout the mouse forebrain...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Marino Coradazzi, Rosario Gulino, Francesco Fieramosca, Lucia Verga Falzacappa, Margherita Riggi, Giampiero Leanza
Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus play a role in learning and memory, and their loss is an early event in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Moreover, noradrenaline may sustain hippocampal neurogenesis; however, whether are these events related is still unknown. Four to five weeks following the selective immunotoxic ablation of locus coeruleus neurons, young adult rats underwent reference and working memory tests, followed by postmortem quantitative morphological analyses to assess the extent of the lesion, as well as the effects on proliferation and/or survival of neural progenitors in the hippocampus...
August 24, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Laura E Ramos-Languren, Gabriela García-Díaz, Angélica González-Maciel, Laura E Rosas-López, Antonio Bueno-Nava, Alberto Avila-Luna, Hayde Ramírez-Anguiano, Rigoberto González-Piña
Nowadays, a consensus has been reached that designates the functional and structural reorganization of synapses as the primary mechanisms underlying the process of recovery from brain injury. We have reported that pontine noradrenaline (NA) is increased in animals after cortical ablation (CA). The aim of the present study was to explore the noradrenergic and morphological response after sensorimotor intervention (SMI) in rats injured in the motor cortex. We used male Wistar adult rats allocated in four conditions: sham-operated, injured by cortical ablation, sham-operated with SMI and injured by cortical ablation with SMI...
September 17, 2016: Neurochemical Research
C D Balaban
Neuronal networks that are linked to the peripheral vestibular system contribute to gravitoinertial sensation, balance control, eye movement control, and autonomic function. Ascending connections to the limbic system and cerebral cortex are also important for motion perception and threat recognition, and play a role in comorbid balance and anxiety disorders. The vestibular system also shows remarkable plasticity, termed vestibular compensation. Activity in these networks is regulated by an interaction between: (1) intrinsic neurotransmitters of the inner ear, vestibular nerve, and vestibular nuclei; (2) neurotransmitters associated with thalamocortical and limbic pathways that receive projections originating in the vestibular nuclei; and (3) locus coeruleus and raphe (serotonergic and nonserotonergic) projections that influence the latter components...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A Iatrou, G Kenis, B P F Rutten, K Lunnon, D L A van den Hove
Even though the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown, it is suggested that an interplay among genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors is involved. An increasing body of evidence pinpoints that dysregulation in the epigenetic machinery plays a role in AD. Recent developments in genomic technologies have allowed for high throughput interrogation of the epigenome, and epigenome-wide association studies have already identified unique epigenetic signatures for AD in the cortex. Considerable evidence suggests that early dysregulation in the brainstem, more specifically in the raphe nuclei and the locus coeruleus, accounts for the most incipient, non-cognitive symptomatology, indicating a potential causal relationship with the pathogenesis of AD...
September 14, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Fu-Wen Zhou, Hong-Wei Dong, Matthew Ennis
The main olfactory bulb (MOB) receives a rich noradrenergic innervation from the nucleus locus coeruleus. Despite the well documented role of norepinephrine and beta (β) adrenergic receptors in neonatal odor preference learning, identified cellular physiological actions of β receptors in the MOB have remained elusive. β receptors are expressed at relatively high levels in the MOB glomeruli, the location of external tufted (ET) cells that exert an excitatory drive on mitral and other cell types. The present study investigated the effects of β receptor activation on the excitability of ET cells using patch clamp electrophysiology in mature mouse MOB slices...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Megan E Fox, Elizabeth S Bucher, Justin A Johnson, R Mark Wightman
Central norepinephrine signaling influences a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes, and the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST) receives some of the densest norepinephrine innervation in the brain. Previous work describes norepinephrine neurons as projecting primarily unilaterally; however, recent evidence for cross-hemispheric catecholamine signaling challenges this idea. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and retrograde tracing to characterize cross-hemispheric norepinephrine signaling in the vBNST...
September 27, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Marco Atzori, Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Nadia Saderi, Marcela Miranda-Morales, Mario Treviño, Juan C Pineda, Humberto Salgado
Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
A Bresch, M Rullmann, J Luthardt, G A Becker, G Reissig, M Patt, Y-S Ding, A Hilbert, O Sabri, S Hesse
OBJECTIVE: Emotional eating (EE) has been linked to norepinephrine dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between EE and norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability. METHOD: Ten severely obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 42.4 ± 3.7 kg/m(2) ) and ten non-obese, healthy controls (BMI 23.9 ± 2.5 kg/m(2) ) matched for age and sex were studied using (S,S)-[(11) C]-O-methylreboxetine ([(11) C]MRB) positron emission tomography (PET)...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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