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J E Aguirre, J H Winston, S K Sarna
BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain is one of the major symptoms of inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The inflammatory mediators released by colon inflammation are known to sensitize the afferent neurons, which is one of the contributors to abdominal pain. However, not all IBD patients have abdominal pain, and some patients report abdominal pain during remission, suggesting contributions of other pathological factors to abdominal pain in IBD. Epidemiological studies found early-life gastrointestinal infections a risk factor for IBD symptoms and adult-life gastrointestinal infections may trigger the onset of IBD...
April 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Imane Moutkine, Emily Quentin, Bruno P Guiard, Luc Maroteaux, Stephane Doly
The serotonin receptor subtypes 2 comprise 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C, which are Gαq-coupled receptors and display distinct pharmacological properties. Although co-expressed in some brain regions and involved in various neurological disorders, their functional interactions have not yet been studied. We report that 5-HT2 receptors can form homo- and heterodimers when expressed alone or co-expressed in transfected cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies confirmed that 5-HT2C receptors interact with either 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Koichi Okamoto, Masakuni Amari, Toshio Fukuda, Keiji Suzuki, Masamitsu Takatama
We compared semiquantitatively AT8 immunoreactivity in the locus ceruleus (LC) and hippocampus of 154 brains from routine autopsies to investigate the initial sites of phosphorylated tau (phospho-tau) development. The numbers of AT8-positive neurons and the severity of AT8-positive neuropil threads (NTs) in the LC were strongly associated: there were no cases with AT8-positive neurons that lacked NTs and 20 cases (13%) had only NTs in the LC. Phospho-tau pathologies in the LC were almost equally on both sides, although some cases (7...
February 6, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Sayad Kocahan, Zumrut Doğan
The characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the appearance of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the intracellular environment, neuronal death and the loss of synapses, all of which contribute to cognitive decline in a progressive manner. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain AD. Abnormal tau phosphorylation may contribute to the formation of abnormal neurofibrillary structures. Many different structures are susceptible to AD, including the reticular formation, the nuclei in the brain stem (e...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Gian D Pal, Bichun Ouyang, Geidy Serrano, Holly A Shill, Christopher Goetz, Glenn Stebbins, Leo Verhagen Metman, Erika Driver-Dunckley, Shyamal H Mehta, John N Caviness, Marwan N Sabbagh, Charles H Adler, Thomas G Beach
BACKGROUND: The aim of this postmortem study was to compare, in Parkinson's disease subjects with and without bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), the loss of pigmented neurons within the substantia nigra and pathological alpha-synuclein density within the SN and other brain regions. METHODS: PD subjects were identified from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders database (STN-DBS = 11, non-DBS = 156). Pigmented neuron loss scores within the substantia nigra as well as alpha-synuclein density scores within the substantia nigra and 9 other brain regions were compared, the latter individually and in summary as the Lewy body brain load score...
February 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Masatsugu Moriwaki, Shuji Iritani, Chikako Habuchi, Youta Torii, Kentaro Umeda, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Mari Yoshida, Kiyoshi Fujita
We herein report the case of a 75-year-old male who had shown many psychiatric symptoms, but whose autopsy disclosed the presence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). When he was 70 years old, the patient had presented with stereotyped behavior, dietary changes, and a decline in social interpersonal conduct in clinical settings, and it was thought that these symptoms were consistent with a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and he lacked the core features of DLB. Nevertheless, this case was pathologically defined as the limbic type of DLB after he died at the age of 75 years...
January 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
Paul K Crane, Rod L Walker, Joshua Sonnen, Laura E Gibbons, Rebecca Melrose, Jason Hassenstab, C Dirk Keene, Nadia Postupna, Thomas J Montine, Eric B Larson
We evaluated associations between glucose and dementia-related neuropathologic findings among people without diabetes treatment history to elucidate mechanisms of glucose's potential effect on dementia. We used glucose and hemoglobin A1c values to characterize glucose exposures over 5 years before death (primary) and age bands from 55-59 through 80-84 (secondary). Autopsy evaluations included Braak stage for neurofibrillary tangles, Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease grade for neuritic plaques, macroscopic infarcts including lacunar infarcts, Lewy bodies, cerebral microinfarcts, and hippocampal sclerosis...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Marco Atzori, Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Nadia Saderi, Marcela Miranda-Morales, Mario Treviño, Juan C Pineda, Humberto Salgado
Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Cornelia Kranczioch, Anja Lindig, Markus Hausmann
The functional cerebral asymmetry (FCA) in processing targets within rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams has been reported to fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, with identification of the second of two closely spaced targets being impaired when both targets occur in the left or the right hemifield stream during the luteal phase, while during the menstrual phase identification of the second target is only impaired for target pairs presented in the right hemifield stream. This fluctuation has been proposed to result from variations in estradiol levels...
August 5, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Ruud L van den Brink, Thomas Pfeffer, Christopher M Warren, Peter R Murphy, Klodiana-Daphne Tona, Nic J A van der Wee, Eric Giltay, Martijn S van Noorden, Serge A R B Rombouts, Tobias H Donner, Sander Nieuwenhuis
UNLABELLED: The brain commonly exhibits spontaneous (i.e., in the absence of a task) fluctuations in neural activity that are correlated across brain regions. It has been established that the spatial structure, or topography, of these intrinsic correlations is in part determined by the fixed anatomical connectivity between regions. However, it remains unclear which factors dynamically sculpt this topography as a function of brain state. Potential candidate factors are subcortical catecholaminergic neuromodulatory systems, such as the locus ceruleus-norepinephrine system, which send diffuse projections to most parts of the forebrain...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Paul K Crane, Laura E Gibbons, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Emily Trittschuh, James B Leverenz, C Dirk Keene, Joshua Sonnen, Thomas J Montine, David A Bennett, Sue Leurgans, Julie A Schneider, Eric B Larson
IMPORTANCE: The late effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are of great interest, but studies characterizing these effects are limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with an increased risk for clinical and neuropathologic findings of Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), and other dementias. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study analyzed data from the Religious Orders Study (ROS), Memory and Aging Project (MAP), and Adult Changes in Thought study (ACT)...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Jae-Hyun Kim, A-Hyun Jung, Daun Jeong, Ilsong Choi, Kwansoo Kim, Soowon Shin, Sung June Kim, Seung-Hee Lee
UNLABELLED: Acetylcholine and noradrenaline are major neuromodulators that affect sensory processing in the cortex. Modality-specific sensory information is processed in defined areas of the cortex, but it is unclear whether cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain (BF) and noradrenergic neurons in the locus ceruleus (LC) project to and modulate these areas in a sensory modality-selective manner. Here, we mapped BF and LC projections to different sensory cortices of the mouse using dual retrograde tracing...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tahreh Baherimoghadam, Sahar Akbarian, Reza Rasouli, Navid Naseri
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) of the orthodontic brackets bonded to fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth using Light Bond with and without adhesion promoters and compare their enamel damages following debonding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 30 fluorosed (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index = 4-5) and 30 nonfluorosed teeth were randomly distributed between two subgroups according to the bonding materials: Group 1, fluorosed teeth bonded with Light Bond; Group 2, fluorosed teeth bonded with adhesion promoters and Light Bond; Group 3, nonfluorosed teeth bonded with Light Bond; Group 4, nonfluorosed bonded with adhesion promoters and Light Bond...
April 2016: European Journal of Dentistry
Roger Pamphlett, Stephen Kum Jew
Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau...
February 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Kunihiko Araki, Hiroyuki Sumikura, Takashi Matsudaira, Akira Sugiura, Masaki Takao, Shigeo Murayama, Tomokazu Obi
We describe a woman with a 13-year history of postural instability, vertical gaze palsy and dopa-responsive parkinsonism - a clinical profile that corresponds to progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The patient died at the age of 82 years. Neuropathological features included neuronal loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, thoracic intermediolateral nucleus and nucleus basalis of Meynert, in addition to the typical pathology of PSP...
April 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Hiroyuki Sumikura, Masaki Takao, Hiroyuki Hatsuta, Shinji Ito, Yuta Nakano, Akiko Uchino, Akane Nogami, Yuko Saito, Hideki Mochizuki, Shigeo Murayama
BACKGROUND: Lewy body-related α-synucleinopathy (LBAS, the abnormal accumulation of pathologic α-synuclein) is found in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and sympathetic ganglia, of Parkinson's disease patients. However, few studies have focused on the distribution of LBAS in the spinal cord, primary sensory neurons, and preganglionic sympathetic nerves. RESULTS: We analyzed 265 consecutive subjects with LBAS who underwent autopsy at a general geriatric hospital...
2015: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Philip L Johnson, Lauren M Federici, Stephanie D Fitz, John J Renger, Brock Shireman, Christopher J Winrow, Pascal Bonaventure, Anantha Shekhar
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptides orexin A and B play a role in reward and feeding and are critical for arousal. However, it was not initially appreciated that most prepro-orexin synthesizing neurons are almost exclusively concentrated in the perifornical hypothalamus, which when stimulated elicits panic-associated behavior and cardiovascular responses in rodents and self-reported "panic attacks" and "fear of dying" in humans. More recent studies support a role for the orexin system in coordinating an integrative stress response...
September 2015: Depression and Anxiety
Stefano Meletti, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Fabio Pizza, Andrea Ruggieri, Stefano Vandi, Alberto Teggi, Christian Franceschini, Francesca Benuzzi, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Giuseppe Plazzi
UNLABELLED: The brain suprapontine mechanisms associated with human cataplexy have not been clarified. Animal data suggest that the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex are key regions in promoting emotion-induced cataplectic attacks. Twenty-one drug-naive children/adolescent (13 males, mean age 11 years) with recent onset of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) were studied with fMRI while viewing funny videos using a "naturalistic" paradigm. fMRI data were acquired synchronously with EEG, mylohyoid muscle activity, and the video of the patient's face...
August 19, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jeremy Hofmeister, Virginie Sterpenich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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