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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911008/comparison-of-neuropathology-in-parkinson-s-disease-subjects-with-and-without-deep-brain-stimulation
#1
Gian D Pal, Bichun Ouyang, Geidy Serrano, Holly A Shill, Christopher Goetz, Glenn Stebbins, Leo Verhagen Metman, Erika Driver-Dunckley, Shyamal H Mehta, John N Caviness, Marwan N Sabbagh, Charles H Adler, Thomas G Beach
BACKGROUND: The aim of this postmortem study was to compare, in Parkinson's disease subjects with and without bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), the loss of pigmented neurons within the substantia nigra and pathological alpha-synuclein density within the SN and other brain regions. METHODS: PD subjects were identified from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders database (STN-DBS = 11, non-DBS = 156). Pigmented neuron loss scores within the substantia nigra as well as alpha-synuclein density scores within the substantia nigra and 9 other brain regions were compared, the latter individually and in summary as the Lewy body brain load score...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737532/an-autopsy-case-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-clinically-diagnosed-to-have-a-behavioral-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#2
Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Masatsugu Moriwaki, Shuji Iritani, Chikako Habuchi, Youta Torii, Kentaro Umeda, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Mari Yoshida, Kiyoshi Fujita
We herein report the case of a 75-year-old male who had shown many psychiatric symptoms, but whose autopsy disclosed the presence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). When he was 70 years old, the patient had presented with stereotyped behavior, dietary changes, and a decline in social interpersonal conduct in clinical settings, and it was thought that these symptoms were consistent with a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and he lacked the core features of DLB. Nevertheless, this case was pathologically defined as the limbic type of DLB after he died at the age of 75 years...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644076/glucose-levels-during-life-and-neuropathologic-findings-at-autopsy-among-people-never-treated-for-diabetes
#3
Paul K Crane, Rod L Walker, Joshua Sonnen, Laura E Gibbons, Rebecca Melrose, Jason Hassenstab, C Dirk Keene, Nadia Postupna, Thomas J Montine, Eric B Larson
We evaluated associations between glucose and dementia-related neuropathologic findings among people without diabetes treatment history to elucidate mechanisms of glucose's potential effect on dementia. We used glucose and hemoglobin A1c values to characterize glucose exposures over 5 years before death (primary) and age bands from 55-59 through 80-84 (secondary). Autopsy evaluations included Braak stage for neurofibrillary tangles, Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease grade for neuritic plaques, macroscopic infarcts including lacunar infarcts, Lewy bodies, cerebral microinfarcts, and hippocampal sclerosis...
August 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616990/locus-ceruleus-norepinephrine-release-a-central-regulator-of-cns-spatio-temporal-activation
#4
Marco Atzori, Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Nadia Saderi, Marcela Miranda-Morales, Mario Treviño, Juan C Pineda, Humberto Salgado
Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503768/sex-hormones-modulate-neurophysiological-correlates-of-visual-temporal-attention
#5
Cornelia Kranczioch, Anja Lindig, Markus Hausmann
The functional cerebral asymmetry (FCA) in processing targets within rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams has been reported to fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, with identification of the second of two closely spaced targets being impaired when both targets occur in the left or the right hemifield stream during the luteal phase, while during the menstrual phase identification of the second target is only impaired for target pairs presented in the right hemifield stream. This fluctuation has been proposed to result from variations in estradiol levels...
August 5, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466332/catecholaminergic-neuromodulation-shapes-intrinsic-mri-functional-connectivity-in-the-human-brain
#6
Ruud L van den Brink, Thomas Pfeffer, Christopher M Warren, Peter R Murphy, Klodiana-Daphne Tona, Nic J A van der Wee, Eric Giltay, Martijn S van Noorden, Serge A R B Rombouts, Tobias H Donner, Sander Nieuwenhuis
UNLABELLED: The brain commonly exhibits spontaneous (i.e., in the absence of a task) fluctuations in neural activity that are correlated across brain regions. It has been established that the spatial structure, or topography, of these intrinsic correlations is in part determined by the fixed anatomical connectivity between regions. However, it remains unclear which factors dynamically sculpt this topography as a function of brain state. Potential candidate factors are subcortical catecholaminergic neuromodulatory systems, such as the locus ceruleus-norepinephrine system, which send diffuse projections to most parts of the forebrain...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400367/association-of-traumatic-brain-injury-with-late-life-neurodegenerative-conditions-and-neuropathologic-findings
#7
Paul K Crane, Laura E Gibbons, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Emily Trittschuh, James B Leverenz, C Dirk Keene, Joshua Sonnen, Thomas J Montine, David A Bennett, Sue Leurgans, Julie A Schneider, Eric B Larson
IMPORTANCE: The late effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are of great interest, but studies characterizing these effects are limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with an increased risk for clinical and neuropathologic findings of Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), and other dementias. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study analyzed data from the Religious Orders Study (ROS), Memory and Aging Project (MAP), and Adult Changes in Thought study (ACT)...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170128/selectivity-of-neuromodulatory-projections-from-the-basal-forebrain-and-locus-ceruleus-to-primary-sensory-cortices
#8
Jae-Hyun Kim, A-Hyun Jung, Daun Jeong, Ilsong Choi, Kwansoo Kim, Soowon Shin, Sung June Kim, Seung-Hee Lee
UNLABELLED: Acetylcholine and noradrenaline are major neuromodulators that affect sensory processing in the cortex. Modality-specific sensory information is processed in defined areas of the cortex, but it is unclear whether cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain (BF) and noradrenergic neurons in the locus ceruleus (LC) project to and modulate these areas in a sensory modality-selective manner. Here, we mapped BF and LC projections to different sensory cortices of the mouse using dual retrograde tracing...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095895/evaluation-of-enamel-damages-following-orthodontic-bracket-debonding-in-fluorosed-teeth-bonded-with-adhesion-promoter
#9
Tahreh Baherimoghadam, Sahar Akbarian, Reza Rasouli, Navid Naseri
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) of the orthodontic brackets bonded to fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth using Light Bond with and without adhesion promoters and compare their enamel damages following debonding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 30 fluorosed (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index = 4-5) and 30 nonfluorosed teeth were randomly distributed between two subgroups according to the bonding materials: Group 1, fluorosed teeth bonded with Light Bond; Group 2, fluorosed teeth bonded with adhesion promoters and Light Bond; Group 3, nonfluorosed teeth bonded with Light Bond; Group 4, nonfluorosed bonded with adhesion promoters and Light Bond...
April 2016: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613607/locus-ceruleus-neurons-in-people-with-autism-contain-no-histochemically-detectable-mercury
#10
Roger Pamphlett, Stephen Kum Jew
Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau...
February 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26388542/progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-parkinson-s-disease-overlap-a-clinicopathological-case-report
#11
Kunihiko Araki, Hiroyuki Sumikura, Takashi Matsudaira, Akira Sugiura, Masaki Takao, Shigeo Murayama, Tomokazu Obi
We describe a woman with a 13-year history of postural instability, vertical gaze palsy and dopa-responsive parkinsonism - a clinical profile that corresponds to progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The patient died at the age of 82 years. Neuropathological features included neuronal loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, thoracic intermediolateral nucleus and nucleus basalis of Meynert, in addition to the typical pathology of PSP...
April 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26374630/distribution-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-spinal-cord-and-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-an-autopsy-cohort-of-elderly-persons
#12
Hiroyuki Sumikura, Masaki Takao, Hiroyuki Hatsuta, Shinji Ito, Yuta Nakano, Akiko Uchino, Akane Nogami, Yuko Saito, Hideki Mochizuki, Shigeo Murayama
BACKGROUND: Lewy body-related α-synucleinopathy (LBAS, the abnormal accumulation of pathologic α-synuclein) is found in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and sympathetic ganglia, of Parkinson's disease patients. However, few studies have focused on the distribution of LBAS in the spinal cord, primary sensory neurons, and preganglionic sympathetic nerves. RESULTS: We analyzed 265 consecutive subjects with LBAS who underwent autopsy at a general geriatric hospital...
2015: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26332431/orexin-1-and-2-receptor-involvement-in-co2-induced-panic-associated-behavior-and-autonomic-responses
#13
Philip L Johnson, Lauren M Federici, Stephanie D Fitz, John J Renger, Brock Shireman, Christopher J Winrow, Pascal Bonaventure, Anantha Shekhar
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptides orexin A and B play a role in reward and feeding and are critical for arousal. However, it was not initially appreciated that most prepro-orexin synthesizing neurons are almost exclusively concentrated in the perifornical hypothalamus, which when stimulated elicits panic-associated behavior and cardiovascular responses in rodents and self-reported "panic attacks" and "fear of dying" in humans. More recent studies support a role for the orexin system in coordinating an integrative stress response...
September 2015: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290235/the-brain-correlates-of-laugh-and-cataplexy-in-childhood-narcolepsy
#14
Stefano Meletti, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Fabio Pizza, Andrea Ruggieri, Stefano Vandi, Alberto Teggi, Christian Franceschini, Francesca Benuzzi, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Giuseppe Plazzi
UNLABELLED: The brain suprapontine mechanisms associated with human cataplexy have not been clarified. Animal data suggest that the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex are key regions in promoting emotion-induced cataplectic attacks. Twenty-one drug-naive children/adolescent (13 males, mean age 11 years) with recent onset of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) were studied with fMRI while viewing funny videos using a "naturalistic" paradigm. fMRI data were acquired synchronously with EEG, mylohyoid muscle activity, and the video of the patient's face...
August 19, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26203134/a-role-for-the-locus-ceruleus-in-reward-processing-encoding-behavioral-energy-required-for-goal-directed-actions
#15
COMMENT
Jeremy Hofmeister, Virginie Sterpenich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25854799/identification-of-autonomic-neuronal-chains-innervating-gingiva-and-lip
#16
E Szabó, Á Csáki, Zs Boldogkői, Zs Tóth, K Köves
The major goals of this present study were 1) to further clarify which parasympathetic ganglion sends postganglionic fibers to the lower gingiva and lip that may be involved in the inflammatory processes besides the local factors; 2) to separately examine the central pathways regulating sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation; and 3) to examine the distribution of central premotor neurons on both sides. A retrogradely transported green fluorescent protein conjugated pseudorabies virus was injected into the lower gingiva and lip of intact and sympathectomized adult female rats...
July 2015: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25828776/dementia-pugilistica-a-severe-tribute-to-a-career
#17
Sébastien Lepreux, Sophie Auriacombe, Claude Vital, Bruno Dubois, Anne Vital
A 59-year-old man, ex-professional boxer, met clinical criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease. The patient agreed to be included in a clinico-pathological study with donation to the brain bank, and he died at 71. The brain was grossly atrophic, with a prominent atrophy of the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, and with pallor of the substantia nigra. Immunohistochemistry with anti-τ A4 revealed abundant and diffuse deposits in the neo-cortex, whereas amyloid angiopathy was absent. Coupled anti-τ AT8 immunohistochemistry and Congo red staining showed no neuritic plaques...
July 2015: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25814937/midbrain-catecholaminergic-neurons-co-express-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-tau-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#18
María Elena Erro Aguirre, María Victoria Zelaya, Javier Sánchez Ruiz de Gordoa, María Teresa Tuñón, José Luis Lanciego
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency and distribution of α-synuclein deposits in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). METHODS: The brains of 25 cases of pathologically confirmed PSP were evaluated with immunohistochemistry for α-synuclein and tau. Multiple immunofluorescent stains were applied to analyze the expression of tau and α-synuclein aggregates in catecholaminergic neurons. Patients' clinical symptoms were retrospectively recorded. RESULTS: Deposits α-synuclein in the form of typical Lewy bodies (LBs) were only found in two PSP cases (8%) that fulfilled the clinical subtype of PSP known as Richardson's syndrome (RS)...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25808947/the-impact-of-psychosocial-stress-on-healthy-skin
#19
REVIEW
H J A Hunter, S E Momen, C E Kleyn
Dermatologists are only too aware of the significant role psychosocial stress plays in the exacerbation of skin disease; indeed, it is often the first precipitant patients mention when they attend outpatient clinics. Of late, research has focused on understanding the 'brain-skin' axis, a complex interplay between the nervous and immune systems and the skin. In particular, there is an evolving body of literature exploring the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms by which psychosocial stress influences skin homeostasis...
July 2015: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25740528/sensitivity-of-locus-ceruleus-neurons-to-reward-value-for-goal-directed-actions
#20
Sebastien Bouret, Barry J Richmond
The noradrenergic nucleus locus ceruleus (LC) is associated classically with arousal and attention. Recent data suggest that it might also play a role in motivation. To study how LC neuronal responses are related to motivational intensity, we recorded 121 single neurons from two monkeys while reward size (one, two, or four drops) and the manner of obtaining reward (passive vs active) were both manipulated. The monkeys received reward under three conditions: (1) releasing a bar when a visual target changed color; (2) passively holding a bar; or (3) touching and releasing a bar...
March 4, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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