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Ceruleus delirium

Soo-Bong Yu
Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a highly selective α(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist, is the newest agent introduced for sedation in intensive care unit (ICU). The sedation strategy for critically ill patients has stressed light sedation with daily awakening and assessment for neurologic, cognitive, and respiratory functions, since Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) guidelines were presented in 2002. The traditional GABAergic agents, including benzodiazepines and propofol, have some limitations for safe sedatives in this setting, due to an unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile and to detrimental adverse effects (such as lorazepam associated propylene glycol intoxication and propofol infusion syndrome)...
May 2012: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Y Fukutani, K Katsukawa, R Matsubara, K Kobayashi, I Nakamura, N Yamaguchi
Three Japanese patients with Joseph disease from different families developed sleep disturbance, followed by delirium at the middle to end stage. Brain CT scans of the three patients showed brainstem tegmental atrophy. EEG revealed slowing of background activity. Two necropsy cases showed degeneration of the reticular formation, raphe nuclei and locus ceruleus in the brainstem tegmentum in addition to the common pathological findings of Joseph disease. The clinicopathological correlation between the delirium and the brainstem tegmental atrophy in Joseph disease is discussed...
November 1993: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
H Takahashi, S Takeda, F Ikuta, Y Homma
An autopsied case of a 65-year-old woman with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) characterized by dementia, hallucination and delirium is described. On neuropathologic examination, widespread neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) associated with neuronal cell loss and gliosis were observed in the basal ganglia, subthalamic nucleus and various brain stem nuclei, corresponding to the well-established pathology of PSP. In addition, a large number of NFTs with neuronal cell loss were shown in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdaloid nucleus, subcallosal area, anterior perforated substance, cingulate gyrus and anterior olfactory nucleus...
November 1987: Clinical Neuropathology
P Cushman
Clonidine attenuates opiate withdrawal syndrome, via reduction in catecholamine activity in the brain, most probably at the locus ceruleus. Clonidine and locus ceruleus lesions, in animals with alcohol dependency as with the opiates, modify alcohol withdrawal. Both alcohol loading and withdrawal from steady alcohol use alter catecholamines in man and animals. Clonidine's potential to treat alcoholics in withdrawal is reviewed. Several double blind studies showed clonidine, or similar analogues, to be somewhat superior to placebo in acute alcohol withdrawal...
1987: Advances in Alcohol & Substance Abuse
K Wakabayashi, H Takahashi, F Ikuta, Y Homma
An 80-year-old retired teacher developed impairment of memory and suffered from delusions of theft. Four years later, she became disoriented as to person, time and situation, restless, began mutter to herself, and displayed night delirium and insomnia. She was subsequently diagnosed as having senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). She died of bronchopneumonia and multiple metastases from breast cancer at the age of 85 years. Family history was non-contributory. The brain weighed 1,020 g and showed diffuse atrophy...
September 1989: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
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