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plant-based diet and cancer

Russell J de Souza, Michael A Zulyniak, Dipika Desai, Mateen R Shaikh, Natalie C Campbell, Diana L Lefebvre, Milan Gupta, Julie Wilson, Gita Wahi, Stephanie A Atkinson, Koon K Teo, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. METHODS: The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Shah Md Golam Gousul Azam, Tushar C Sarker, Sabrina Naz
Arsenic (As), a class one carcinogen, reflects a disastrous environmental threat due to its presence in each and every compartment of the environment. The high toxicity of As is notably present in its inorganic forms. Irrigation with As contaminated groundwater in rice fields increases As concentration in topsoil and its bioavailability for rice crops. However, most of the As in paddy field topsoils is present as As(III) form that predominant in rice grain. According to the OECD-FAO, rice is the second most extensively cultivated cereal throughout the world...
August 31, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Jennifer Bail, Karen Meneses, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
OBJECTIVES: To discuss the relationship between weight management and diet and cancer prevention, current nutritional guidelines, and evidence-based strategies to reduce cancer risk. DATA SOURCES: Current nutritional guidelines, journal articles published between 2012 and 2015, and internet resources. CONCLUSION: Evidence indicates that attaining and/or maintaining a healthy weight and adopting a diet that is primarily plant-based, low in red and processed meats, simple sugars, and refined carbohydrates, limits alcohol, and relies on food for nutrients can aid in preventing cancer...
August 2016: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Anna Catany Ritter, Annarita Sabrina Egger, Jennifer Machacek, Rosa Aspalter
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that the incidence of cancer is low in vegan populations, and experimental studies have revealed a significant role of dietary proteins in cancer development and progression. However, little data currently exists regarding the effect of a plant-based diet on the progression of diagnosed cancer. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to determine if a reduction or total elimination of animal protein from the diet can positively influence the outcome of an existing cancer and, in addition to standard oncological therapies, increase remission rates...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
João P Monteiro, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, Branca M Silva
Methylxanthines are a group of phytochemicals derived from the purine base xanthine and obtained from plant secondary metabolism. They are unobtrusively included in daily diet in common products as coffee, tea, energetic drinks, or chocolate. Caffeine is by far the most studied methylxanthine either in animal or epidemiologic studies. Theophylline and theobromine are other relevant methylxanthines also commonly available in the aforementioned sources. There are many disseminated myths about methylxanthines but there is increased scientific knowledge to discuss all the controversy and promise shown by these intriguing phytochemicals...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Maria Pisu, Susan G Lakoski, James Shikany, Michael Goodman, Suzanne E Judd
Marked racial differences exist in dietary patterns and obesity, as well as cancer mortality. This study aims to assess whether dietary patterns are associated with cancer mortality overall and by race. We identified 22,041 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Dietary patterns were categorized into: Convenience (Chinese and Mexican foods, pasta, pizza), Plant-based (fruits, vegetables), Southern (added fats, fried foods, sugar-sweetened beverages), Sweets/Fats (sugary foods) and Alcohol/Salads (alcohol, green-leafy vegetables, salad dressing)...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Camile Castilho Fontelles, Luiza Nicolosi Guido, Mariana Papaléo Rosim, Fábia de Oliveira Andrade, Lu Jin, Jessica Inchauspe, Vanessa Cardoso Pires, Inar Alves de Castro, Leena Hilakivi-Clarke, Sonia de Assis, Thomas Prates Ong
BACKGROUND: Although males contribute half of the embryo's genome, only recently has interest begun to be directed toward the potential impact of paternal experiences on the health of offspring. While there is evidence that paternal malnutrition may increase offspring susceptibility to metabolic diseases, the influence of paternal factors on a daughter's breast cancer risk has been examined in few studies. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, before and during puberty, either a lard-based (high in saturated fats) or a corn oil-based (high in n-6 polyunsaturated fats) high-fat diet (60 % of fat-derived energy)...
2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
J Godos, F Bella, A Torrisi, S Sciacca, F Galvano, G Grosso
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that dietary patterns may play an important role in colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies exploring the association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas (a precancerous condition). METHODS: Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched to retrieve eligible studies. Only studies exploring the risk or association with colorectal adenomas for the highest versus lowest category of exposure to a posteriori dietary patterns were included in the quantitative analysis...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Lucia Morbidelli
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood-vessel, is crucial in the pathogenesis of several diseases, and thus represents a druggable target for the prevention and treatment of different disorders. It is nowadays well kwon how diet can control cancer development and progression, and how the use of certain diet components can prevent cancer development. Several studies, also from our lab, now indicate that natural plant products including nutraceuticals modulate tumor angiogenesis. In this review, it is reported how phytochemicals, comprising hydroxytyrosol, resveratrol, genistein, curcumin, and the green tea component epigallocatechin-3-gallate among the others, negatively regulate angiogenesis...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Magdalena Szejk, Joanna Kołodziejczyk-Czepas, Halina Małgorzata Żbikowska
Radiotherapy, in addition to chemotherapy, is currently the primary method of cancer treatment based on destruction of malignant cells by ionizing radiation. Unfortunately, it also affects normal cells, which is associated with negative consequences for a patient. Radioprotectors are compounds used to prevent/protect the non-tumor cells from the harmful effects of radiation. To play their role these compounds should meet several criteria; among others, they should significantly protect normal cells from radiation without changing the tumor cell radiosensitivity...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Jean H Freeland-Graves, Tamara Y Mousa, Sangyoung Kim
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that is critical for human health and development. At the turn of the century when diets were based on whole grains, cereals and other traditional foods, Mn intakes (8-9mg/d) were much greater than that prevalent today (2mg/d). As societies have developed, diets have shifted as part of a nutrition transition, to those that are high in processed foods, fat, and sugar. These foods are virtually devoid of Mn. Thus, dietary Mn has declined substantially throughout the world, as confirmed by several wide-scale, total diet studies...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Rebeca García-Varela, Oscar Raúl Fajardo Ramírez, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Julio Altamirano, Guy A Cardineau
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional or folk medicine has led to the discovery of important bioactive substances used in several health-related areas. Phytochemicals in Rhoeo discolor (R. discolor) extracts have proven to have important cancer cell specific cytotoxic activity. In the present research, we determined the cytotoxic effect of extracts of R. discolor, a plant commonly used in Mexico for both medicinal and ornamental purposes. AIM OF THE STUDY: We evaluated the cytotoxic effects against three representative human cancer cell lines: HT-29 colon cancer, Hep-G2 liver cancer and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, as well as a control fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Antigone Kouris-Blazos, Regina Belski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The 68th United Nations General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of Pulses. Therefore it is timely to review the current evidence of the benefits of legumes for human health with a focus on Australian sweet lupins. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library were searched to identify cross-sectional/epidemiological studies, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. RESULTS: The strongest evidence appears to be for links between eating legumes and reduced risk of colorectal cancer as well as eating soy foods and reduced LDL cholesterol...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
David Achaintre, Audrey Buleté, Cécile Cren-Olivé, Liang Li, Sabina Rinaldi, Augustin Scalbert
A large number of polyphenols are consumed with the diet and may contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases. More comprehensive methods are needed to measure exposure to this complex family of bioactive plant compounds in epidemiological studies. We report here a novel method enabling the simultaneous measurement in urine of 38 polyphenols representative of the main classes and subclasses found in the diet. This method is based on differential (12)C-/(13)C-isotope labeling of polyphenols through derivatization with isotopic dansyl chloride reagents and on the analysis of the labeled polyphenols by tandem mass spectrometry...
March 1, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Holly R Harris, Leif Bergkvist, Alicja Wolk
The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort...
June 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Restricted dietary intakes of protein or essential amino acids tend to slow aging and boost lifespan in rodents, presumably because they downregulate IGF-I/Akt/mTORC1 signaling that acts as a pacesetter for aging and promotes cancer induction. A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort has revealed that relatively low protein intakes in mid-life (under 10 % of calories) are indeed associated with decreased subsequent risk for mortality. However, in those over 65 at baseline, such low protein intakes were associated with increased risk for mortality...
October 2015: Age (2005-)
Justin Yang, Andrea Farioli, Maria Korre, Stefanos N Kales
BACKGROUND: Considerable cardiovascular disease and cancer risk among firefighters are attributable to excess adiposity. Robust evidence confirms strong relationships between dietary patterns and the risk of chronic disease. Dietary modification is more likely to be effective when the strategy is appealing and addresses knowledge gaps. OBJECTIVE: To assess career firefighters' diet practices and information needs, compare the relative appeal of proposed diet plans, and examine how these vary in association with body composition...
July 2015: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Jairam Vanamala
New cancer cases are expected to surge 57% worldwide in the next two decades. The greatest burden will be in low- and middle-income countries that are ill equipped to face this epidemic. Similarly, in the US, low-income populations are at greater risk for cancer. As most cancers contain over 50 genetic alterations, and as these alterations define dysregulation of over ten different critical cellular signaling pathways, a "silver bullet" treatment is not effective against most cancers. Instead, the latest World Cancer Report (2012) suggests a research shift toward developing prevention strategies for cancer...
July 20, 2015: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Joan Sabaté, Michelle Wien
The vegetarian dietary pattern is traditionally a plant-based diet that includes fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetable oils, soya, and possibly dairy products and/or eggs. Vegetarians and other populations who follow a plant-based dietary pattern enjoy longevity. Specifically, vegetarian dietary patterns have been associated with a lower risk for developing IHD, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, specific cancers, lower all-cause mortality and reduction in cause-specific mortality. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the USA is approximately 20 % and is currently increasing in developing countries in line with the obesity epidemic...
April 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Yukiko Morimoto, Fanchon Beckford, Robert V Cooney, Adrian A Franke, Gertraud Maskarinec
For cancer prevention, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) emphasise recommendations to improve individual behaviour, including avoidance of tobacco products, maintaining a lean body mass, participating in physical activity, consuming a plant-based diet, and minimising the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as sodas, red and processed meats and alcohol. In the present study of 275 healthy premenopausal women, we explored the association of adherence scores with levels of three biomarkers of antioxidant and inflammation status: serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum γ-tocopherol and urinary F2-isoprostane...
July 14, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
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