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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135117/what-is-the-connection-between-serum-phosphorus-cancer-and-heroin-a-medical-hypothesis-based-on-observational-studies
#1
Vassilis Kouloulias, Christos-David Papaloucas, Aristofanis Papaloucas
Considering the results of a previous study in which 2321 regular heroin addicts who died without having stopped taking the drug since they had started - from various causes but none from cancer, may mean something. Our first thought was: Can't we hypothesize, reinforcing our previous view that heroin is a "barrier" against cancer and as the user gets in the methadone program he/she lacks the "barrier" and therefore is liable to develop cancer? We have already reported that the amount of blood phosphorus in heroin addicted is significantly lower than in healthy ones...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108376/pain-of-methadone-maintained-heroin-addicts-lonelier-individuals-feel-more-intense-pain
#2
Fu Li, Yan-Min Xu, Jun-Hong Zhu, Jin Lu, Bao-Liang Zhong
Managing pain in patients with heroin addiction is challenging, because most pain medications are addictive. A promising way to relieve pain of heroin addicts is to identify and address modifiable psychosocial factors associated with pain. This study examined the association between loneliness and pain intensity in Chinese heroin addicts receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). A consecutive sample of 603 heroin addicts were recruited from three MMT clinics in Wuhan, China. Loneliness was assessed with a single question, and socio-demographic and clinical data were collected with a standardized questionnaire...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105663/exacerbated-craving-in-the-presence-of-stress-and-drug-cues-in-drug-dependent-patients
#3
Kenzie L Preston, William J Kowalczyk, Karran A Phillips, Michelle L Jobes, Massoud Vahabzadeh, Jia-Ling Lin, Mustapha Mezghanni, David H Epstein
In addiction, risk factors for craving and use include stress and drug-related cues. Stress and cues have additive or more-than-additive effects on drug seeking in laboratory animals, but, surprisingly, seem to compete with one another (ie, exert less-than-additive effects) in human laboratory studies of craving. We sought heretofore elusive evidence that human drug users could show additive (or more-than-additive) effects of stress and cues on craving, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Outpatients (N=182) maintained on daily buprenorphine or methadone provided self-reports of stress, craving, mood, and behavior on electronic diaries for up to 16 weeks...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096661/willingness-to-receive-intravenous-buprenorphine-treatment-in-opioid-dependent-people-refractory-to-oral-opioid-maintenance-treatment-results-from-a-community-based-survey-in-france
#4
Perrine Roux, Daniela Rojas Castro, Khadim Ndiaye, Laélia Briand Madrid, Virginie Laporte, Marion Mora, Gwenaelle Maradan, Stéphane Morel, Bruno Spire, Patrizia Carrieri
BACKGROUND: Injectable opioids are an interesting option for people who inject drugs (PWID) that do not respond to oral Opioid Maintenance Treatment (OMT). To date, intravenous (IV) buprenorphine - a safer drug than full-opioid agonists in terms of overdose risk - has never been tested in a clinical trial on opioid dependence. We designed a survey to better understand the profile of PWID eligible for IV buprenorphine, and their willingness to receive it. METHODS: This cross-sectional community-based national survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews (in low-threshold and addiction care services) and online questionnaires (on https://psychoactif...
November 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076627/forensic-toxicology-perspectives-of-methadone-associated-deaths-in-tehran-iran-a-seven-year-overview
#5
Maryam Akhgari, Noushin Amini-Shirazi, Fariba Sardari Iravani
Methadone has a long history of pain relief and successful substitute for maintenance treatment in heroin and narcotic addiction. The aim of the study was to assess the trends of methadone-associated deaths in Tehran, Iran, in 2009-2015, from a forensic toxicology point of view. All methadone-associated deaths during this 7-year study period were evaluated according to demographic parameters and forensic toxicology analysis results. Results showed that 1274 cases of methadone-associated deaths were investigated during the study period...
October 27, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057665/medications-for-substance-use-disorders-sud-emerging-approaches
#6
Eduardo R Butelman, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Substance use disorders are a group of chronic relapsing disorders of the brain, which have massive public health and societal impact. In some disorders (e.g., heroin/prescription opioid addictions) approved medications have a major long-term benefit. For other substances (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis) there are no approved medications, and for alcohol there are approved treatments, which are not in wide usage. Approved treatments for tobacco use disorders are available, and novel medications are also under study...
October 30, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049469/the-effectiveness-of-injectable-extended-release-naltrexone-vs-daily-buprenorphine-naloxone-for-opioid-dependence-a-randomized-clinical-noninferiority-trial
#7
Lars Tanum, Kristin Klemmetsby Solli, Zill-E-Huma Latif, Jurate Šaltyte Benth, Arild Opheim, Kamni Sharma-Haase, Peter Krajci, Nikolaj Kunøe
Importance: To date, extended-release naltrexone hydrochloride has not previously been compared directly with opioid medication treatment (OMT), currently the most commonly prescribed treatment for opioid dependence. Objective: To determine whether treatment with extended-release naltrexone will be as effective as daily buprenorphine hydrochloride with naloxone hydrochloride in maintaining abstinence from heroin and other illicit substances in newly detoxified individuals...
October 18, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028564/assessing-police-officers-attitudes-and-legal-knowledge-on-behaviors-that-impact-hiv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#8
Javier A Cepeda, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jaime Arredondo, Maria L Mittal, Teresita Rocha, Mario Morales, Erika Clairgue, Eliane Bustamante, Daniela Abramovitz, Irina Artamonova, Arnulfo Bañuelos, Thomas Kerr, Carlos L Magis-Rodriguez, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Policing practices such as syringe confiscation and arrest can act as important social-structural drivers of HIV risk among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, police referral to treatment and other services may improve the health of PWID. Little is known about the role of modifiable attitudinal and knowledge factors in shaping officer behavior. Using baseline findings from a police education program (PEP), we assessed relationships between drug policy knowledge and attitudes towards public health interventions with self-reported syringe confiscation, drug arrest, and service referral among street-level police in Tijuana, Mexico...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994253/addiction-medicine-ethics-relapse-no-lapse-and-the-struggle-to-treat-addicts-like-everyone-else
#9
Charles Douglas
Two case studies are presented as a focus for discussion of ethics in addiction medicine. The first is that of the alcohol-dependent patient who receives a liver transplant. The second is that of a heroin-dependent patient who continues to inject himself while in a general medical ward. I make some comments about the obligations of doctors to treat those who cause harm to themselves as they would treat those who are 'not responsible'.
October 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985362/combatting-the-opioid-epidemic-baltimore-s-experience-and-lessons-learned
#10
Leana S Wen, Katherine E Warren
In the midst of a national opioid crisis, Baltimore City witnessed 393 deaths from drug and alcohol overdose in 2015. With an estimated 25 000 residents who are addicted to heroin or other opioids, Baltimore has been profoundly affected by the opioid epidemic. Other resources have commented on federal, state-based, and provider responses to the opioid crisis. This article examines what may be done at the city level based on the experiences of the Baltimore City Health Department. Local jurisdictions must play a critical role in addressing the U...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956316/anesthetic-implications-of-recreational-drug-use
#11
Pierre Beaulieu
PURPOSE: As the use of recreational drugs increases, the likelihood of an anesthesiologist perioperatively encountering patients using or addicted to these drugs will also increase. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Addicted patients may present for anesthetic care in a variety of circumstances in everyday elective surgeries or in acute or life-saving situations, such as emergency Cesarean delivery or trauma surgery. Therefore, it is important for anesthesiologists to know about the most common illicit drugs being used, their clinical presentation and side effects, and the anesthetic options that are beneficial or detrimental to these patients...
September 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953780/association-of-the-five-factor-model-personality-traits-and-opioid-addiction-treatment-outcome
#12
Mirjana Delić, Karmen Kajdiž, Peter Pregelj
Many patients with opioid addiction continue to use opioids during and after treatment, and their career of drug taking is usually punctuated by repeated treatment admissions and relapses. Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals' traits. The most widely used system of traits is called the Five-Factor Model (FFM). Studies have shown that persons who use heroin are consistently depicted as high on Neuroticism and higher Extroversion, also they are described as more impulsive and less sociable...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952839/the-curious-dis-connection-between-the-opioid-epidemic-and-crime
#13
Maia Szalavitz, Khary K Rigg
Drug epidemics often bring with them an accompanying rise in crime. The heroin wave of the 1970's and crack crisis of the 1980's were each accompanied by major gun violence, including large numbers of murders and violent property crimes. The current United States opioid epidemic, however, has not been associated with either a rise in homicide or in property crime. In fact, crime rates have been declining for decades, and are now less than half their 1991 peak, despite an unprecedented spike of opioid overdose deaths that began in the late 1990's...
September 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949288/disrupted-coupling-of-large-scale-networks-is-associated-with-relapse-behaviour-in-heroin-dependent-men
#14
Qiang Li, Jierong Liu, Wei Wang, Yarong Wang, Wei Li, Jiajie Chen, Jia Zhu, Xuejiao Yan, Yongbin Li, Zhe Li, Jianjun Ye, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether impaired coupling among 3 core large-scale brain networks (salience [SN], default mode [DMN] and executive control networks [ECN]) is associated with relapse behaviour in treated heroin-dependent patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective resting-state functional MRI study comparing the functional connectivity strength among healthy controls and heroin-dependent men who had either relapsed or were in early remission. Men were considered to be either relapsed or in early remission based on urine drug screens during a 3-month follow-up period...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947995/significantly-more-intense-pain-in-methadone-maintained-patients-who-are-addicted-to-nicotine
#15
Lian-Zhong Liu, Lin-Xiang Tan, Yan-Min Xu, Xue-Bing Liu, Wen-Cai Chen, Jun-Hong Zhu, Jin Lu, Bao-Liang Zhong
Pain and cigarette smoking are very common in heroin-dependent patients (HDPs) receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and both have substantial negative effects on HDPs' physical and mental health. Nevertheless, very few studies have assessed the relationship between the two in HDPs. This study examined the association between pain intensity and smoking in Chinese methadone-maintained HDPs. A total of 603 HDPs were consecutively recruited from three MMT clinics in Wuhan, China, and administered with a socio-demographic and drug use questionnaire, a smoking questionnaire concerning average number of cigarettes smoked daily and Heaviness of Smoking Index, and Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944090/rapid-identification-of-buprenorphine-in-patient-saliva
#16
Stuart Farquharson, Kathryn Dana, Chetan Shende, Zachary Gladding, Jenelle Newcomb, Jessica Dascher, Ismene L Petrakis, Albert J Arias
Buprenorphine is becoming the medication of choice to help patients withdraw from opioid addiction. However, treatment is compromised by the inability of physicians to assess patient usage during scheduled examinations. Here we describe the development of a point-of-care (POC) analyzer that can rapidly measure both illicit and treatment drugs in patient saliva, ideally in the physician's office, and with a degree of accuracy similar to chromatography. The analyzer employs a relatively simple supported liquid extraction to isolate the drugs from the saliva and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect the drugs...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#17
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#18
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903322/evaluation-of-a-community-based-integrated-heroin-addiction-treatment-model-in-chinese-patients
#19
Hong-He Zhang, Lin-Xiang Tan, Wei Hao, Qi-Jian Deng
In this study, we analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of a community-based integrated heroin addiction treatment model in Chinese patients. The 210 heroin addicts belonging to six Chinese communities received an integrated biopsychosocial intervention that included pharmacological treatment, counseling and social assistance. High proportions of study participants were retained at the 12-month (91.9%; 193/210) and 24-month (88.1%; 185/210) follow-up visits. The number of morphine-positive subjects declined from 61...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901830/-why-am-i-the-way-i-am-narrative-work-in-the-context-of-stigmatized-identities
#20
Jake Rance, Rebecca Gray, Max Hopwood
There are particular complexities faced by people attempting to tell their stories in the context of social stigma, such as the hostility which often surrounds injecting drug use. In this article, we identify some of the distinct advantages of taking a narrative approach to understanding these complexities by exploring a single case study, across two life-history interviews, with "Jimmy," a young man with a history of social disadvantage, incarceration, and heroin dependence. Drawing on Miranda Fricker's notion of "hermeneutical injustice," we consider the effects of stigmatization on the sociocultural practice of storytelling...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
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