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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801372/multi-variant-genetic-panel-for-genetic-risk-of-opioid-addiction
#1
Keri Donaldson, Laurence Demers, Kirk Taylor, Joe Lopez, Sherman Chang
Over 116 million people worldwide have chronic pain and prescription dependence. In the US, opioids account for the majority of overdose deaths, and in 2014, almost 2 million Americans abused or were dependent on prescription opioids. Genetic factors may play a key role in opioid prescription addiction. Herein, we describe genetic variations between opioid addicted and non-addicted populations and derive a predictive model determining risk of opioid addiction. This case cohort study compares the frequency of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in the brain reward pathways in patients with and without opioid addiction...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799996/tobacco-illicit-drugs-use-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-living-with-hiv
#2
Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín, Emad Abu-Assi, Andrés Iñiguez-Romo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a strong link between HIV, smoking and illicit drugs. This association could be clinically relevant as it may potentiate the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The purpose of this review is to bring readers up-to-date on issues concerning the cardiovascular risk associated with tobacco and illicit drugs in patients living with HIV (PLHIV), examinating the studies related to this topic published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a strong association between smoking and atherosclerotic disease in PLHIV, reducing life expectancy secondary to CVD by up to 6 years...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799847/the-willingness-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-boston-to-use-a-supervised-injection-facility
#3
Casey León, Lena Cardoso, Sarah Mackin, Barry Bock, Jessie M Gaeta
BACKGROUND: In Massachusetts, the number of opioid-related deaths has increased 350% since 2000. In the setting of increasing overdose deaths, one potential intervention is Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs). This study explores willingness of people who inject drugs in Boston to use a SIF and examines factors associated with willingness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 237 people who inject drugs and utilize Boston's needle exchange program (NEP)...
August 11, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792293/the-opioid-epidemic-challenges-of-sustained-remission
#4
Nitin Chopra, Lauren H Marasa
Opioid use disorder is a growing epidemic, with an alarming number of associated deaths. In 2014, in the United States, 18,893 lethal overdoses were related to prescription opioids and 10,574 due to heroin. Despite the growing number of treatment options for substance use disorders, which are chronic, relapsing-remitting conditions, relapse rates remain as high as 91%. In the United States, 7.5 million children reside with at least one patient who abuses drugs or alcohol. Mothers are twice as likely to lose custody of their children...
March 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777966/long-term-heroin-use-was-associated-with-the-downregulation-of-systemic-platelets-bdnf-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-it-contributed-to-the-disruption-of-executive-function-in-taiwanese-han-chinese
#5
Ru-Band Lu, Sheng-Yu Lee, Tzu-Yun Wang, Yun-Hsuan Chang, Po-See Chen, Yen-Kuang Yang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Shiou-Lan Chen
BACKGROUND: Long-term heroin addicts have low plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. However, the mechanisms and effects of systemic disturbances of BDNF caused by heroin remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Blood platelet might be a source of neurotrophic factors like BDNF and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Thus, we investigated the effects of heroin on platelets, BDNF and TGF-β1, the association between blood platelets, BDNF, TGF-β1, and executive function in long-term heroin addicts...
July 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765178/stercoral-perforation-of-the-colon-in-a-heroin-addict
#6
Cameron Douglas Brown, Fraser Maxwell, Paul French, Gary Nicholson
A 27-year-old female heroin addict presented with a peritonitic and distended abdomen. Her medical history included depression and a 3-year history of heroin abuse with attendant constipation. CT scan showed free intraperitoneal gas, massive faecal distension of the rectum and sigmoid colon and likely bowel necrosis. She underwent an emergency Hartmann's procedure for perforation of the sigmoid colon. Pathology identified two areas of stercoral ulceration, one of them being the area of perforation. Postoperatively, the patient developed a deep vein thrombosis and is now on anticoagulant therapy...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762460/successful-endoscopic-treatment-of-an-unusual-foreign-body-in-the-stomach-a-package-of-heroin
#7
Mehmet Asıl, Ramazan Dertli
Drug addiction is an important medical and social problem. "Body packing" is frequently used for concealed transportation of illegal drugs. The drug is packed in small plastic packages and swallowed or placed into body cavities, such as the rectum or the vagina. Another aspect is "body stuffing," in which the drug package is usually hastily swallowed in order to avoid arrest. Presently described is case of a body stuffer who ingested a package of heroin and was successfully treated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy...
July 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741741/addiction-related-interactions-of-pregabalin-with-morphine-in-mice-and-humans-reinforcing-and-inhibiting-effects
#8
Elena Vashchinkina, Ossi Piippo, Olga Vekovischeva, Evgeny Krupitsky, Ruslan Ilyuk, Nikholay Neznanov, Kirill Kazankov, Igor Zaplatkin, Esa R Korpi
The gabapentinoid pregabalin is a rapid-acting anxiolytic and analgesic, possibly suitable in supervised opioid detoxification. However, clinicians have been cautious in using it because of its unknown addictive risk and rising number of mortalities after pregabalin self-medication in opioid abusers. Here, we studied interactions of pregabalin and morphine on reward functions of the dopamine system in mice and the efficacy of pregabalin on withdrawal in opioid addicts. After the treatment of mice with pregabalin and morphine, we used electrophysiology to study neuroplasticity in midbrain slices, self-administration and conditioned place preference tests to investigate the rewarding potential of pregabalin and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal to evaluate opioid withdrawal symptoms...
July 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740128/updating-the-list-of-known-opioids-through-identification-and-characterization-of-the-new-opioid-derivative-3-4-dichloro-n-2-diethylamino-cyclohexyl-n-methylbenzamide-u-49900
#9
D Fabregat-Safont, X Carbón, M Ventura, I Fornís, E Guillamón, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
New psychoactive substances have been rapidly growing in popularity in the drug market as non-illegal drugs. In the last few years, an increment has been reported on the use of synthetic alternatives to heroin, the synthetic opioids. Based on the information provided by the European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction, these synthetic opioids have been related to overdoses and deaths in Europe and North America. One of these opioids is the U-47700. A few months ago, U-47700 was scheduled in the U...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734637/-asthma-and-heroin-use
#10
Michel Underner, Jean Perriot, Gérard Peiffer, Nematollah Jaafari
INTRODUCTION: Heroin use can be responsible for many respiratory complications including asthma. OBJECTIVES: Systematic literature review of data on asthma in heroin users. DOCUMENTARY SOURCES: Medline(®), on the period 1980-2017 with the following keywords: keywords: "asthma" or "bronchospasm" and "heroin" or "opiate" or "opiates", limits "title/abstract"; the selected languages were English or French. Among 97 articles, 67 abstracts have given use to a dual reading to select 23 studies...
July 19, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732503/opium-trade-and-the-spread-of-hiv-in-the-golden-crescent
#11
REVIEW
Syeda Ayesha Farooq, Mohammad Hafiz Rasooly, Syed Hani Abidi, Kayvon Modjarrad, Syed Ali
The Golden Crescent region of South Asia-comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan-is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. Protracted conflict has exacerbated already dire socio-economic conditions and political strife within the region and contributed to a consequent rise in opiate trafficking and addiction among the region's inhabitants. The worsening epidemic of injection drug use has paralleled the rising incidence of HIV and other blood-borne infections in the region and drawn attention to the broader implications of the growing opiate trade in the Golden Crescent...
July 21, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732367/significantly-more-intense-pain-in-methadone-maintained-patients-who-are-addicted-to-nicotine
#12
Lian-Zhong Liu, Lin-Xiang Tan, Yan-Min Xu, Xue-Bing Liu, Wen-Cai Chen, Jun-Hong Zhu, Jin Lu, Bao-Liang Zhong
Pain and cigarette smoking are very common in heroin-dependent patients (HDPs) receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and both have substantial negative effects on HDPs' physical and mental health. Nevertheless, very few studies have assessed the relationship between the two in HDPs. This study examined the association between pain intensity and smoking in Chinese methadone-maintained HDPs. A total of 603 HDPs were consecutively recruited from three MMT clinics in Wuhan, China, and administered with a socio-demographic and drug use questionnaire, a smoking questionnaire concerning average number of cigarettes smoked daily and Heaviness of Smoking Index, and Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale...
July 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719091/multimodal-analgesia-as-an-alternative-to-the-risks-of-opioid-monotherapy-in-surgical-pain-management
#13
John J Savarese, Norman G Tabler
Clinicians have long been aware of the danger of overreliance on opioids to manage acute pain, such as the pain accompanying surgery. The risk of adverse drug events is higher with opioids than with any other common class of drugs. Overreliance on opioids increases length of stay and hospital costs, while decreasing patient satisfaction. Opioids can lead to problems that continue well after discharge, including chronic pain, abuse and addiction, and even death. Increasingly, prescribed opioids have proved to lead to heroin addiction...
July 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708940/the-street-like-synthesis-of-krokodil-results-in-the-formation-of-an-enlarged-cluster-of-known-and-new-morphinans-with-therapeutic-potential
#14
José Soares, Emanuele Alves, André Silva, Natália Figueiredo, João F Neves, Sara Cravo, Maria Rangel, Annibal Netto, Félix Carvalho, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carlos Afonso
"Krokodil" is the street name for a homemade injectable drug that has been used as a cheap substitute for heroin. Codeine is the opioid starting material for krokodil synthesis and desomorphine is the opioid claimed to be the main component of krokodil and the main responsible for its addictive and psychoactive characteristics. However, due to its peculiar manufacture, using cheap raw materials, krokodil is composed by a large and complex mixture of different substances. In order to shed some light upon the chemical complexity of krokodil, its profiling was conducted by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) and by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-Orbitrap-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703355/neuronal-representation-of-individual-heroin-choices-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#15
Karine Guillem, Viridiana Brenot, Audrey Durand, Serge H Ahmed
Drug addiction is a harmful preference for drug use over and at the expense of other non-drug-related activities. We previously identified in the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) a mechanism that influences individual preferences between cocaine use and an alternative action rewarded by a non-drug reward (i.e. sweet water). Here, we sought to test the generality of this mechanism to a different addictive drug, heroin. OFC neuronal activity was recorded while rats responded for heroin or the alternative non-drug reward separately or while they chose between the two...
July 13, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683227/supervised-injectable-heroin-a-clinical-perspective
#16
James Bell, Rob van der Waal, John Strang
BACKGROUND: Six recent randomised control trials (RCTs) have suggested that supervised injectable heroin (SIH) can be effective in patients who persist in street heroin use during methadone treatment. However, short-term randomised control trials have limitations in assessing the effectiveness of treatments for addictive disorders, which are chronic and relapsing disorders of motivation. These RCTs particularly fail to capture the process of the SIH treatment and the diversity of influence and change over time...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666251/evaluation-of-a-community-based-integrated-heroin-addiction-treatment-model-in-chinese-patients
#17
Hong-He Zhang, Lin-Xiang Tan, Wei Hao, Qi-Jian Deng
In this study, we analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of a community-based integrated heroin addiction treatment model in Chinese patients. The 210 heroin addicts belonging to six Chinese communities received an integrated biopsychosocial intervention that included pharmacological treatment, counseling and social assistance. High proportions of study participants were retained at the 12-month (91.9%; 193/210) and 24-month (88.1%; 185/210) follow-up visits. The number of morphine-positive subjects declined from 61...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663492/a-vaccine-for-heroin-addiction
#18
Priscilla N Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654734/can-a-rapid-measure-of-self-exposure-to-drugs-of-abuse-provide-dimensional-information-on-depression-comorbidity
#19
Eduardo Roque Butelman, Silvia Bacciardi, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Maya Darst-Campbell, Joel Correa da Rosa, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Addictions to heroin or to cocaine are associated with substantial psychiatric comorbidity, including depression. Poly-drug self-exposure (eg, to heroin, cocaine, cannabis, or alcohol) is also common, and may further affect depression comorbidity. METHODS: This case-control study examined the relationship of exposure to the above drugs and depression comorbidity. Participants were recruited from methadone maintenance clinics, and from the community...
June 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649663/addictive-neurons
#20
Sodikdjon A Kodirov
Since the reward center is considered to be the area tegmentalis ventralis of the hypothalamus, logically its neurons could mainly be responsible for addiction. However, the literature asserts that almost any neurons of CNS can respond to one or another addictive compound. Obviously not only addictive nicotine, but also alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, heroin and morphine may influence dopaminergic cells alone in VTA. Moreover, paradoxically some of these drugs ameliorate symptoms, counterbalance syndromes, cure diseases and improve health, not only those related to the CNS and in adults, but also almost all other organs and in children, e...
2017: Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases
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