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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944090/rapid-identification-of-buprenorphine-in-patient-saliva
#1
Stuart Farquharson, Kathryn Dana, Chetan Shende, Zachary Gladding, Jenelle Newcomb, Jessica Dascher, Ismene L Petrakis, Albert J Arias
Buprenorphine is becoming the medication of choice to help patients withdraw from opioid addiction. However, treatment is compromised by the inability of physicians to assess patient usage during scheduled examinations. Here we describe the development of a point-of-care (POC) analyzer that can rapidly measure both illicit and treatment drugs in patient saliva, ideally in the physician's office, and with a degree of accuracy similar to chromatography. The analyzer employs a relatively simple supported liquid extraction to isolate the drugs from the saliva and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect the drugs...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#2
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#3
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, J Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903322/evaluation-of-a-community-based-integrated-heroin-addiction-treatment-model-in-chinese-patients
#4
Hong-He Zhang, Lin-Xiang Tan, Wei Hao, Qi-Jian Deng
In this study, we analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of a community-based integrated heroin addiction treatment model in Chinese patients. The 210 heroin addicts belonging to six Chinese communities received an integrated biopsychosocial intervention that included pharmacological treatment, counseling and social assistance. High proportions of study participants were retained at the 12-month (91.9%; 193/210) and 24-month (88.1%; 185/210) follow-up visits. The number of morphine-positive subjects declined from 61...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901830/-why-am-i-the-way-i-am-narrative-work-in-the-context-of-stigmatized-identities
#5
Jake Rance, Rebecca Gray, Max Hopwood
There are particular complexities faced by people attempting to tell their stories in the context of social stigma, such as the hostility which often surrounds injecting drug use. In this article, we identify some of the distinct advantages of taking a narrative approach to understanding these complexities by exploring a single case study, across two life-history interviews, with "Jimmy," a young man with a history of social disadvantage, incarceration, and heroin dependence. Drawing on Miranda Fricker's notion of "hermeneutical injustice," we consider the effects of stigmatization on the sociocultural practice of storytelling...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888944/the-novel-dopamine-d3-receptor-antagonists-partial-agonists-cab2-015-and-bak4-54-inhibit-oxycodone-taking-and-oxycodone-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#6
Zhi-Bing You, Jun-Tao Gao, Guo-Hua Bi, Yi He, Comfort Boateng, Jianjing Cao, Eliot L Gardner, Amy Hauck Newman, Zheng-Xiong Xi
The use of prescription opioid analgesics, particularly oxycodone, has dramatically increased, and parallels escalated opioid abuse and drug-related deaths worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of opioid dependence and expanding treatment options to counter prescription opioid abuse has become a critical public health matter. In the present study, we first evaluated the reinforcing effects of oxycodone in a rat model of self-administration and then explored the potential utility of two novel high affinity dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) antagonists/partial agonists, CAB2-015 and BAK4-54, for treatment of prescription opioid abuse and dependence...
September 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885516/treating-acute-pain-in-the-opiate-dependent-patient
#7
Coleen Dever
Opioid drugs, including prescription as well as heroin, have come to the national spotlight due to the unprecedented rate of overdose and addiction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has termed this problem as an "epidemic" that has reached record numbers of deaths in 2014. Approximately half of these deaths are the result from prescribed opioids. Also on the rise are the numbers of individuals who are diagnosed with chronic pain and are treated with opioids, methadone and buprenorphine. Individuals currently taking opioids for chronic pain confound the treatment of acute pain after traumatic injury...
September 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867701/a-metabolic-study-on-the-biochemical-effects-of-chiral-illegal-drugs-in-rats-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#8
Kiyoshi Fukuhara, Akiko Ohno, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri
 Considering the pharmacological effects of chiral drugs, enantiopure drugs may differ from their racemic mixture formulation in efficacy, potency, or adverse effects. Levomethorphan (LVM) and Dextromethorphan (DXM) act on the central nervous system and exhibit different pharmacological features. LVM, the l-stereoisomer of methorphan, shows many similarities to opiates such as heroin, morphine and codeine, including the potential for addiction, while the d-stereoisomer, DXM, does not have the same opioid effect...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867353/cessation-of-injecting-and-preceding-drug-use-patterns-among-a-prospective-cohort-of-street-involved-youth
#9
Scott E Hadland, Evan Wood, Ekaterina Nosova, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
PURPOSE: Injection drug use is prevalent among street-involved youth, but patterns of cessation are poorly described. We identified drug use patterns preceding injection cessation among street-involved youth. METHODS: From September 2005 to May 2015, we collected data from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada, and limited the sample to actively injecting youth. The primary outcome was cessation of injecting self-reported at semiannual follow-up visits...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846059/mortality-trends-among-cocaine-users-treated-between-1989-and-2013-in-northern-italy-results-of-a-longitudinal-study
#10
Raimondo Maria Pavarin, Angelo Fioritti
A total of 852 participants attending 11 centers for addiction treatment in north Italy following problems due to cocaine abuse between 1989 and 2013 were recruited. Two typologies were created: cocaine users (never heroin) (CU) and heroin and cocaine users (HCU). During the 38-year follow-up period, 4.8% of the whole cohort died. Over the whole period, tumors were the main causes of death; starting in 2010, suicide deaths became the first cause of death. Among CUs, most deaths were due to road accidents and suicide; among HCUs, most of the deaths were from opiate overdose and from cardio-circulatory system diseases...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825670/further-evidence-of-a-specific-psychopathology-of-addiction-differentiation-from-other-psychiatric-psychopathological-dimensions-such-as-obesity
#11
Angelo G I Maremmani, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Silvia Bacciardi, Luca Rovai, Alessandro Pallucchini, Vincenza Spera, Giulio Perugi, Icro Maremmani
Introduction: In this study, we used a symptomatology checklist (SCL-90) to substantiate the hypothesis that Substance Use Disorder (SUD) has its own five-dimensional psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to test whether this psychopathology can be differentiated from other psychiatric psychopathological dimensions (such as obesity). Methods: The severity and frequency of each of the five dimensions were investigated, at univariate and multivariate levels, by comparing 972 Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) patients (83...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809667/nonlinear-dynamic-complexity-and-sources-of-resting-state-eeg-in-abstinent-heroin-addicts
#12
Qinglin Zhao, Hua Jiang, Bin Hu, Yonghui Li, Ning Zhong, Mi Li, Wenhua Lin, Quanying Liu
It has been reported that chronic heroin intake induces both structural and functional changes in human brain; however, few studies have investigated the carry-over adverse effects on brain after heroin withdrawal. In this paper, we examined the neurophysiological differences between the abstinent heroin addicts (AHAs) and healthy controls (HCs) using nonlinear dynamic analysis and source localization analysis in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) data; 5 min resting EEG data from 20 AHAs and twenty age-, education-, and gender-matched HCs were recorded using 64 electrodes...
July 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807162/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-drug-addiction
#13
Weili Zhu, Yinan Zhang, Yingjie Huang, Lin Lu
This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801372/multi-variant-genetic-panel-for-genetic-risk-of-opioid-addiction
#14
Keri Donaldson, Laurence Demers, Kirk Taylor, Joe Lopez, Sherman Chang
Over 116 million people worldwide have chronic pain and prescription dependence. In the US, opioids account for the majority of overdose deaths, and in 2014, almost 2 million Americans abused or were dependent on prescription opioids. Genetic factors may play a key role in opioid prescription addiction. Herein, we describe genetic variations between opioid addicted and non-addicted populations and derive a predictive model determining risk of opioid addiction. This case cohort study compares the frequency of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in the brain reward pathways in patients with and without opioid addiction...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799996/tobacco-illicit-drugs-use-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-living-with-hiv
#15
Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín, Emad Abu-Assi, Andrés Iñiguez-Romo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a strong link between HIV, smoking and illicit drugs. This association could be clinically relevant as it may potentiate the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The purpose of this review is to bring readers up-to-date on issues concerning the cardiovascular risk associated with tobacco and illicit drugs in patients living with HIV (PLHIV), examinating the studies related to this topic published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a strong association between smoking and atherosclerotic disease in PLHIV, reducing life expectancy secondary to CVD by up to 6 years...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799847/the-willingness-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-boston-to-use-a-supervised-injection-facility
#16
Casey León, Lena Cardoso, Sarah Mackin, Barry Bock, Jessie M Gaeta
BACKGROUND: In Massachusetts, the number of opioid-related deaths has increased 350% since 2000. In the setting of increasing overdose deaths, one potential intervention is supervised injection facilities (SIFs). This study explores willingness of people who inject drugs in Boston to use a SIF and examines factors associated with willingness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 237 people who inject drugs and utilize Boston's needle exchange program (NEP)...
August 11, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792293/the-opioid-epidemic-challenges-of-sustained-remission
#17
Nitin Chopra, Lauren H Marasa
Opioid use disorder is a growing epidemic, with an alarming number of associated deaths. In 2014, in the United States, 18,893 lethal overdoses were related to prescription opioids and 10,574 due to heroin. Despite the growing number of treatment options for substance use disorders, which are chronic, relapsing-remitting conditions, relapse rates remain as high as 91%. In the United States, 7.5 million children reside with at least one patient who abuses drugs or alcohol. Mothers are twice as likely to lose custody of their children...
March 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777966/long-term-heroin-use-was-associated-with-the-downregulation-of-systemic-platelets-bdnf-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-it-contributed-to-the-disruption-of-executive-function-in-taiwanese-han-chinese
#18
Ru-Band Lu, Sheng-Yu Lee, Tzu-Yun Wang, Yun-Hsuan Chang, Po-See Chen, Yen-Kuang Yang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Shiou-Lan Chen
BACKGROUND: Long-term heroin addicts have low plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. However, the mechanisms and effects of systemic disturbances of BDNF caused by heroin remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Blood platelet might be a source of neurotrophic factors like BDNF and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Thus, we investigated the effects of heroin on platelets, BDNF and TGF-β1, the association between blood platelets, BDNF, TGF-β1, and executive function in long-term heroin addicts...
July 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765178/stercoral-perforation-of-the-colon-in-a-heroin-addict
#19
Cameron Douglas Brown, Fraser Maxwell, Paul French, Gary Nicholson
A 27-year-old female heroin addict presented with a peritonitic and distended abdomen. Her medical history included depression and a 3-year history of heroin abuse with attendant constipation. CT scan showed free intraperitoneal gas, massive faecal distension of the rectum and sigmoid colon and likely bowel necrosis. She underwent an emergency Hartmann's procedure for perforation of the sigmoid colon. Pathology identified two areas of stercoral ulceration, one of them being the area of perforation. Postoperatively, the patient developed a deep vein thrombosis and is now on anticoagulant therapy...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762460/successful-endoscopic-treatment-of-an-unusual-foreign-body-in-the-stomach-a-package-of-heroin
#20
Mehmet Asıl, Ramazan Dertli
Drug addiction is an important medical and social problem. "Body packing" is frequently used for concealed transportation of illegal drugs. The drug is packed in small plastic packages and swallowed or placed into body cavities, such as the rectum or the vagina. Another aspect is "body stuffing," in which the drug package is usually hastily swallowed in order to avoid arrest. Presently described is case of a body stuffer who ingested a package of heroin and was successfully treated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy...
July 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
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