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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#1
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760180/the-affective-and-neural-correlates-of-heroin-vs-cocaine-use-in-addiction-are-influenced-by-environmental-setting-but-in-opposite-directions
#2
Silvana De Pirro, Gaspare Galati, Luigi Pizzamiglio, Aldo Badiani
Previous studies have shown that individuals with heroin and cocaine addiction prefer to use these drugs in distinct settings: mostly at home in the case of heroin and mostly outside the home in the case of cocaine. Here we investigated whether the context would modulate the affective and neural responses to these drugs in a similar way. First, we used a novel emotional task to assess the affective state produced by heroin or cocaine in different settings, based on the recollections of male and female drug users...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757600/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-morphine
#3
Andrea L Devereaux, Susan L Mercer, Christopher W Cunningham
As the major psychoactive agent in opium and direct precursor for heroin, morphine is a historically critical molecule in chemical neuroscience. A structurally complex phenanthrene alkaloid produced by Papaver somniferum, morphine has fascinated chemists seeking to disentangle pharmacologically beneficial analgesic effects from addiction, tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In this review, we will detail the history of morphine, from the first extraction and isolation by Sertürner in 1804 to the illicit use of morphine and proliferation of opioid use and abuse disorders currently ravaging the United States...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739133/increased-neutrophil-lymphocyte-and-platelet-lymphocyte-ratios-in-male-heroin-addicts-a-prospective-controlled-study
#4
Erdinc Cıcek, Başak Demırel, Ismet Esra Cıcek, Aslı Seda Kıraç, Ibrahim Eren
Objective: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are markers that can determine the presence of systemic inflammatory response. In this study, we examined the NLR and PLR levels in patients with heroin dependence compared to healthy controls. Methods: The study sample included 90 male patients with heroin dependence aged 18 to 45 years and 60 healthy subjects who had similar socio-demographic characteristics as the patient group...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728088/opioid-substitution-treatment-and-heroin-dependent-adolescents-reductions-in-heroin-use-and-treatment-retention-over-twelve-months
#5
Bobby P Smyth, Khalifa Elmusharaf, Walter Cullen
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a major health concern across the world and does also occur in adolescents. While opioid substitution treatment (OST) has been thoroughly evaluated in adult populations, very few studies have examined its use in adolescents. There are concerns that OST is underutilised in adolescents with heroin dependence. We sought to measure changes in drug use among adolescents receiving OST and also to examine treatment attrition during the first 12 months of this treatment...
May 4, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726093/effects-of-heroin-on-rat-prosocial-behavior
#6
Seven E Tomek, Gabriela M Stegmann, M Foster Olive
Opioid use disorders are characterized in part by impairments in social functioning. Previous research indicates that laboratory rats, which are frequently used as animal models of addiction-related behaviors, are capable of prosocial behavior. For example, under normal conditions, when a 'free' rat is placed in the vicinity of rat trapped in a plastic restrainer, the rat will release or 'rescue' the other rat from confinement. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of heroin on prosocial behavior in rats...
May 4, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719345/status-investigation-of-outpatients-receiving-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-in-shanghai-from-2005-to-2016
#7
Jiayi Bao, Lei Zhang, Zhen Ning, Jie Fu, Min Zhao, Jiang DU
Background: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an effective measure to control drug abuse, prevent AIDS, and improve family and social functions among those with heroin addiction. Relevant surveys in recent years show that the number of outpatients receiving MMT has a downward trend. Aims: To understand variation in maintenance treatment rates and causes of withdrawal for outpatients receiving MMT in Shanghai since initiation of this program. Method: This study was a retrospective investigation, with data from the AIDS Comprehensive Prevention and Control Data Information Management System of the China AIDS Prevention and Control Center...
December 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708863/addressing-the-growing-opioid-and-heroin-abuse-epidemic-a-call-for-medical-school-curricula
#8
Madison C Ratycz, Thomas J Papadimos, Allison A Vanderbilt
Substance abuse is a growing public health concern in the USA (US), especially now that the US faces a national drug overdose epidemic. Over the past decade, the number of drug overdose deaths has rapidly grown, largely driven by increases in prescription opioid-related overdoses. In recent years, increased heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl overdoses have substantially contributed to the rise of overdose deaths. Given the role of physicians in interacting with patients who are at risk for or currently abusing opioids and heroin, it is essential that physicians are aware of this issue and know how to respond...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704851/republic-of-georgia-estimates-for-prevalence-of-drug-use-randomized-response-techniques-suggest-under-estimation
#9
Irma Kirtadze, David Otiashvili, Mzia Tabatadze, Irina Vardanashvili, Lela Sturua, Tomas Zabransky, James C Anthony
BACKGROUND: Validity of responses in surveys is an important research concern, especially in emerging market economies where surveys in the general population are a novelty, and the level of social control is traditionally higher. The Randomized Response Technique (RRT) can be used as a check on response validity when the study aim is to estimate population prevalence of drug experiences and other socially sensitive and/or illegal behaviors. AIM: To apply RRT and to study potential under-reporting of drug use in a nation-scale, population-based general population survey of alcohol and other drug use...
April 18, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700845/re-racialization-of-addiction-and-the-redistribution-of-blame-in-the-white-opioid-epidemic
#10
Sonia Mendoza, Allyssa Stephanie Rivera, Helena Bjerring Hansen
New York City has the largest number of opioid dependent people of U.S. cities, and within New York, Whites have the highest rate of prescription opioid and heroin overdose deaths. The rise of opioid abuse among Whites has resulted in popular narratives of victimization by prescribers, framing of addiction as a biological disease, and the promise of pharmaceutical treatments that differ from the criminalizing narratives that have historically described urban Latino and black narcotic use. Through an analysis of popular media press and interviews with opioid prescribers and community pharmacists in Staten Island-the epicenter of opioid overdose in New York City and the most suburban and white of its boroughs-we found that narratives of white opioid users disrupted notions of the addict as "other," producing alternative logics of blame that focus on prescribers and the encroachment of dealers from outside of white neighborhoods...
April 27, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680730/orexin-a-in-men-with-heroin-use-disorder-undergoing-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#11
Meng-Chang Tsai, Tiao-Lai Huang
Orexins have played a role in reward-seeking and addiction-related behavior. There are few reports in the literature on serum levels of orexins in patients with heroin use disorder (HUD) undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of orexin A in HUD patients undergoing MMT. Fifty male HUD patients undergoing MMT and 25 healthy males were enrolled for this study. Serum orexin A were measured with assay kits. Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with body mass index (BMI) adjustments, the serum levels of orexin A in HUD men undergoing MMT were found to be significantly higher than in healthy controls...
April 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675893/characteristics-of-opioid-maintained-clients-smoking-fentanyl-patches-the-importance-of-confirmatory-drug-analysis-illustrated-by-a-case-series-and-mini-review
#12
Andreas Kimergård, Jacklyn Dunne, Anette Bøgen, Peter Hindersson, Torben Breindahl
The increase in opioid prescribing in many European countries over the last decade has raised concerns about associated diversion, overdose, and mortality. Fentanyl is one of these synthetic opioids that is typically prescribed as a transdermal patch for pain that requires continuous pain relief and has been the focus of investigation due to reports of overdose and death. We report a case series of 14 drug addiction treatment entrants, who entered treatment in a service located in the region of Southern Denmark from August 2015 to December 2015 for smoking fentanyl patches...
April 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674090/oscillatory-local-field-potentials-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-in-heroin-addicts
#13
Shunnan Ge, Xinyi Geng, Xuelian Wang, Nan Li, Lei Chen, Xinjing Zhang, Yongzhi Huang, Yang Li, Yukun Chen, Shouyan Wang, Guodong Gao
OBJECTIVES: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to regulate the motivation and underlie addictive behaviors, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is involved in several psychiatric disorders. Our study aimed to explore the functions of NAc and ALIC electrophysiologically. METHODS: The local field potentials (LFPs) of the NAc and ALIC were recorded from 7 heroin addicts treated with deep brain stimulation. Correlation analysis was made between LFP powers in various frequency bands and the subjects' neuropsychological test scores; coherence was calculated for the LFPs in NAc and ALIC...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671504/buprenorphine-therapy-for-opioid-use-disorder
#14
Roger Zoorob, Alicia Kowalchuk, Maria Mejia de Grubb
Opioid misuse, including the use of heroin and the overprescribing, misuse, and diversion of opioid pain medications, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in opioid use disorder and associated overdoses and deaths. Addiction is a chronic brain disease with a genetic component that affects motivation, inhibition, and cognition. Patient characteristics associated with successful buprenorphine maintenance treatment include stable or controlled medical or psychiatric comorbidities and a safe, substance-free environment...
March 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670549/educational-and-behavioral-counseling-in-a-methadone-maintenance-treatment-program-in-china-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Pulin Liu, Ranran Song, Yao Zhang, Cheng Liu, Bingxi Cai, Xuebing Liu, Jiaoyuan Li, Xueqin Chen, Juntao Ke, Jiao Lou, Wei Chen, Beibei Zhu, Li Zou, Yang Yang, Ying Zhu, Yajie Gong, Rong Zhong, Xiaoping Miao
Introduction: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs have been rapidly scaled up nationwide in China in recent years, and psychosocial intervention measures, including counseling, were recommended for improving the outcomes of MMT. However, the effectiveness of counseling in MMT programs remains controversial. This study investigated the efficacy of educational and behavioral counseling (EBC) mode in an MMT program in China. Methods: A total of 125 eligible participants were randomized to EBC or a control group...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669599/mindfulness-based-treatment-of-addiction-current-state-of-the-field-and-envisioning-the-next-wave-of-research
#16
REVIEW
Eric L Garland, Matthew O Howard
Contemporary advances in addiction neuroscience have paralleled increasing interest in the ancient mental training practice of mindfulness meditation as a potential therapy for addiction. In the past decade, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been studied as a treatment for an array addictive behaviors, including drinking, smoking, opioid misuse, and use of illicit substances like cocaine and heroin. This article reviews current research evaluating MBIs as a treatment for addiction, with a focus on findings pertaining to clinical outcomes and biobehavioral mechanisms...
April 18, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623562/decline-in-buprenorphine-naloxone-prescriptions-in-a-state-medicaid-population-following-formulary-conversion-from-suboxone-to-bunavail
#17
Richard Soper, Sireesh Appajosyula, Christina Deximo
INTRODUCTION: A large, statewide, fee-for-service Medicaid plan recently (October 2015) executed a complete switch from sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone [(SLBN), Suboxone® ] to buccal buprenorphine-naloxone [(BBN), Bunavail® ] on its preferred drug formulary. This complete formulary switch provided an opportunity to assess dynamic changes in prescribing patterns, patient/physician acceptance, and indices of potential misuse/diversion. METHODS: For the period January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2016, two datasets were analyzed: prescriptions and associated costs for buprenorphine-naloxone (BN) products and urine toxicology test results for patients in the Medicaid plan...
April 6, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619568/global-supply-and-demand-of-opioids-for-pain-management
#18
REVIEW
Sreekumar Kunnumpurath, Natasha Julien, Gopal Kodumudi, Anamika Kunnumpurath, Vijay Kodumudi, Nalini Vadivelu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to evaluate the global supply and demand of opioids used for pain management and discuss how it relates to the utilization of opioids around the world. The purpose of the review is also to determine the factors that contribute to inappropriate pain management. RECENT FINDINGS: The total global production of opium for opioid manufacturing is enough to supply the growing global demands. However, licit opioids are only consumed by 20% of the world population...
April 4, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616150/methadone-treatment-of-opiate-addiction-a-systematic-review-of-comparative-studies
#19
REVIEW
Shahid Ali, Barira Tahir, Shagufta Jabeen, Madeeha Malik
Opiate misuse is a chronic relapsing disease that has become an epidemic in the United States. Methadone is the mainstay of treatment for opiate addiction and has been researched widely. Recently, new avenues of treatment have been researched and developed. The objective of this review is to study methadone in comparison to other pharmacological options available or being considered for opiate addiction treatment through a methodical search and review of evidence provided by recent clinical trials conducted in this regard...
July 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615715/blocking-interleukin-4-enhances-efficacy-of-vaccines-for-treatment-of-opioid-abuse-and-prevention-of-opioid-overdose
#20
Megan Laudenbach, Federico Baruffaldi, Christine Robinson, Philipp Carter, Davis Seelig, Carly Baehr, Marco Pravetoni
Vaccines offer an option to treat heroin and prescription opioid abuse and prevent fatal overdoses. Opioid vaccines elicit antibodies that block opioid distribution to the brain and reduce opioid-induced behavioral effects and toxicity. The major limitation to the translation of addiction vaccines is that efficacy is observed only in subjects achieving optimal drug-specific serum antibody levels. This study tested whether efficacy of a vaccine against oxycodone is increased by immunomodulators targeting key cytokine signaling pathways involved in B and T cell lymphocyte activation...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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