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Vladimir Vuksan, Zenith Zheng Xu, Elena Jovanovski, Alexandra L Jenkins, Uljana Beljan-Zdravkovic, John L Sievenpiper, P Mark Stavro, Andreea Zurbau, Lea Duvnjak, Michael Z C Li
PURPOSE: Despite the lack of evidence, a growing number of people are using herbal medicine to attenuate the burden of diabetes. There is an urgent need to investigate the clinical potential of herbs. Preliminary observations suggest that American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius [AG]) may reduce postprandial glycemia. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AG as an add-on therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) controlled by conventional treatment. METHODS: 24 individuals living with T2DM completed the study (F:M = 11:13; age = 64 ± 7 year; BMI = 27...
February 24, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Y Luo, S Kim, A Li, D Sievenpiper
In this paper, we provide a theoretical analysis and discussion of the fundamental principles of nonlinear surface wave absorbers, in which ideal diodes are used to rectify surface currents to produce nonlinear harmonic terms including DC, and higher order modes (2f0, and 4f0, …). Interestingly, we find rectification converts most of the power to DC that can be completely absorbed by resistance in the surface, leading to advantages of nonlinear absorbers over conventional linear surface wave absorbers in both bandwidth and attenuation...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Zhen Gao, Zhuoyuan Wang, Baile Zhang
It has been recently reported that the unit cell of wire media metamaterials can be tailored locally to shape the flow of electromagnetic waves at deep-subwavelength scales [Nat. Phys.9, 55 (2013)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys2480]. However, such bulk structures have a thickness of at least the order of wavelength, thus hindering their applications in the on-chip compact plasmonic integrated circuits. Here, based upon a Sievenpiper "mushroom" array [IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 2059 (1999)IETMAB0018-948010...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
K Khan, E Jovanovski, H V T Ho, A C R Marques, A Zurbau, S B Mejia, J L Sievenpiper, V Vuksan
AIMS: Dietary fiber intake, especially viscous soluble fiber, has been established as a means to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Whether this is true for blood pressure remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate the effects of viscous soluble fiber supplementation on blood pressure and quantify the effect of individual fibers. DATA SYNTHESIS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched...
October 7, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Vanessa Ha, Effie Viguiliouk, Cyril W C Kendall, Bashyam Balachandran, David J A Jenkins, Peter A Kavsak, John L Sievenpiper
BACKGROUND: Markers of subclinical cardiac injury are elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared to healthy individuals. Low glycemic index (LGI) diets may improve both diabetes and cardiovascular risk but their effects on cardiac injury and fibrosis have not been previously studied. To test the effect of a LGI diet on markers of subclinical cardiac injury and fibrosis, we assessed the effect of a LGI compared with a high-cereal fibre diet on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and galectin-3 in otherwise healthy individuals with T2DM in an exploratory analysis of a completed randomized trial...
December 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
Dia'aaldin J Bisharat, Daniel F Sievenpiper
We present a new electromagnetic mode that forms at the interface between two planar surfaces laid side by side in free space, effectively guiding energy along an infinitesimal, one-dimensional line. It is shown that this mode occurs when the boundaries have complementary surface impedances, and it is possible to control the mode confinement by altering their values correspondingly. The mode exhibits singular field enhancement, broad bandwidth, direction-dependent polarization, and robustness to certain defects...
September 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Christopher P F Marinangeli, Samara Foisy, Anna K Shoveller, Cara Porter, Kathy Musa-Veloso, John L Sievenpiper, David J A Jenkins
The need for protein-rich plant-based foods continues as dietary guidelines emphasize their contribution to healthy dietary patterns that prevent chronic disease and promote environmental sustainability. However, the Canadian Food and Drug Regulations provide a regulatory framework that can prevent Canadian consumers from identifying protein-rich plant-based foods. In Canada, protein nutrient content claims are based on the protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein rating method, which is based on a rat growth bioassay...
August 23, 2017: Nutrients
John L Sievenpiper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Elena Jovanovski, Dandan Li, Hoang Vi Thanh Ho, Vladimir Djedovic, Any de Castro Ruiz Marques, Esra Shishtar, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Russell J de Souza, Lea Duvnjak, Vladimir Vuksan
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) have been shown to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk and improve insulin responsiveness in T2DM subjects, but whether the plant sources of omega-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid [ALA]) have an effect on glycemic control requires further investigation. METHODS: The parameters of interest were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FBI), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fructosamine, and glycated albumin...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christine S Tsilas, Russell J de Souza, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Arash Mirrahimi, Adrian I Cozma, Viranda H Jayalath, Vanessa Ha, Reem Tawfik, Marco Di Buono, Alexandra L Jenkins, Lawrence A Leiter, Thomas M S Wolever, Joseph Beyene, Tauseef Khan, Cyril W C Kendall, David J A Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with type 2 diabetes. To assess whether this association holds for the fructose-containing sugars they contain, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through June 2016). We included prospective cohort studies that assessed the relation of fructose-containing sugars with incident type 2 diabetes. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data and assessed risk of bias...
May 23, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Hoang Vi Thanh Ho, Elena Jovanovski, Andreea Zurbau, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Fei Au-Yeung, Alexandra L Jenkins, Lea Duvnjak, Lawrence Leiter, Vladimir Vuksan
Background: Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggests the consumption of konjac glucomannan (KJM), a viscous soluble fiber, for improving LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It has also been suggested that the cholesterol-lowering potential of KJM may be greater than that of other fibers. However, trials have been relatively scarce and limited in sample size and duration, and the effect estimates have been inconsistent. The effect of KJM on new lipid targets of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is also unknown...
May 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Stephanie R Earnshaw, Cheryl L McDade, YiFang Chu, Lisa E Fleige, John L Sievenpiper
PURPOSE: Oat β-glucan reduces cholesterol levels and thus reduces the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, its economic impact has not been well studied. We examined the economic impact of daily intake of ≥3 g of oat β-glucan in primary prevention of CHD in patients receiving statins or no pharmacologic treatment. METHODS: A decision model was developed to compare costs and outcomes associated with lowering cholesterol levels with no pharmacologic treatment and normal diet, no pharmacologic treatment plus ≥3 g/d of oat β-glucan, and statin therapy plus ≥3 g/d of oat β-glucan...
April 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
Laura Chiavaroli, Arash Mirrahimi, Christopher Ireland, Sandra Mitchell, Sandhya Sahye-Pudaruth, Judy Coveney, Omodele Olowoyeye, Darshna Patel, Russell J de Souza, Livia S A Augustin, Balachandran Bashyam, Sathish Chandra Pichika, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Stephanie K Nishi, Lawrence A Leiter, Robert G Josse, Gail E McKeown-Eyssen, Alan R Moody, Cyril W C Kendall, John L Sievenpiper, David J A Jenkins
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) by carotid ultrasound (CUS), a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, in those with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 325 participants from three randomised controlled trials collected in the same way. SETTING: Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 325 participants with type 2 diabetes, taking oral antidiabetic agents, with an HbA1c between 6...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Open
Effie Viguiliouk, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Cyril W C Kendall, John L Sievenpiper
Obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) present important unmet prevention and treatment challenges. Dietary pulses are sustainable, affordable, and nutrient-dense foods that have shown a wide range of health benefits in the prevention and management of these conditions. Despite these findings, recommendations for pulse intake continue to vary across chronic disease guidelines, and intake levels continue to remain low. Here, we summarize findings from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses assessing the relationship between dietary pulse consumption and cardiometabolic health and assess the overall strength of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
V Vuksan, A L Jenkins, C Brissette, L Choleva, E Jovanovski, A L Gibbs, R P Bazinet, F Au-Yeung, A Zurbau, H V T Ho, L Duvnjak, J L Sievenpiper, R G Josse, A Hanna
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Preliminary findings indicate that consumption of Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.), an ancient seed, improves management of type 2 diabetes and suppresses appetite. The aim of this study was to assesse the effect of Salba-chia on body weight, visceral obesity and obesity-related risk factors in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel groups involved 77 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c : 6...
February 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
James M Rippe, John L Sievenpiper, Kim-Anne Lê, John S White, Roger Clemens, Theodore J Angelopoulos
Dramatic increases in obesity and diabetes have occurred worldwide over the past 30 years. Some investigators have suggested that these increases may be due, in part, to increased added sugars consumption. Several scientific organizations, including the World Health Organization, the Scientific Advisory Council on Nutrition, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee 2015, and the American Heart Association, have recommended significant restrictions on upper limits of sugars consumption. In this review, the scientific evidence related to sugars consumption and its putative link to various chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome is examined...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
John L Sievenpiper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Tauseef A Khan, John L Sievenpiper
Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates...
November 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Ebrahim Forati, Tyler J Dill, Andrea R Tao, Dan Sievenpiper
The vast majority of modern microelectronic devices rely on carriers within semiconductors due to their integrability. Therefore, the performance of these devices is limited due to natural semiconductor properties such as band gap and electron velocity. Replacing the semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices with a gas or vacuum channel may scale their speed, wavelength and power beyond what is available today. However, liberating electrons into gas/vacuum in a practical microelectronic device is quite challenging...
November 4, 2016: Nature Communications
H V T Ho, J L Sievenpiper, A Zurbau, S Blanco Mejia, E Jovanovski, F Au-Yeung, A L Jenkins, V Vuksan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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