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Hoang V T Ho, John L Sievenpiper, Andreea Zurbau, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Elena Jovanovski, Fei Au-Yeung, Alexandra L Jenkins, Vladimir Vuksan
Oats are a rich source of β-glucan, a viscous, soluble fibre recognised for its cholesterol-lowering properties, and are associated with reduced risk of CVD. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) investigating the cholesterol-lowering potential of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for the risk reduction of CVD. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. We included RCT of ≥3 weeks of follow-up, assessing the effect of diets enriched with oat β-glucan compared with controlled diets on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol or apoB...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Todd J Anderson, Jean Grégoire, Glen J Pearson, Arden R Barry, Patrick Couture, Martin Dawes, Gordon A Francis, Jacques Genest, Steven Grover, Milan Gupta, Robert A Hegele, David C Lau, Lawrence A Leiter, Eva Lonn, G B John Mancini, Ruth McPherson, Daniel Ngui, Paul Poirier, John L Sievenpiper, James A Stone, George Thanassoulis, Richard Ward
Since the publication of the 2012 guidelines new literature has emerged to inform decision-making. The 2016 guidelines primary panel selected a number of clinically relevant questions and has produced updated recommendations, on the basis of important new findings. In subjects with clinical atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm, most subjects with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, and those with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 5 mmol/L, statin therapy is recommended. For all others, there is an emphasis on risk assessment linked to lipid determination to optimize decision-making...
July 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Joseph Jamnik, Sara Rehman, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Russell J de Souza, Tauseef A Khan, Lawrence A Leiter, Thomas M S Wolever, Cyril W C Kendall, David J A Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout has increased in recent decades. The role of dietary fructose in the development of these conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association fructose consumption with incident gout and hyperuricemia. DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched (through September 2015). We included prospective cohort studies that assessed fructose consumption and incident gout or hyperuricemia...
October 3, 2016: BMJ Open
Hiroki Wakatsuchi, Fei Gao, Satoshi Yagitani, Daniel F Sievenpiper
Conventional materials vary their electromagnetic properties in response to the frequency of an incoming wave, but these responses generally remain unchanged at the same frequency unless nonlinearity is involved. Waveform-selective metasurfaces, recently developed by integrating several circuit elements with planar subwavelength periodic structures, allowed us to distinguish different waves even at the same frequency depending on how long the waves continued, namely, on their pulse widths. These materials were thus expected to give us an additional degree of freedom to control electromagnetic waves...
2016: Scientific Reports
John L Sievenpiper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Laura Chiavaroli, Arash Mirrahimi, Christopher Ireland, Sandra Mitchell, Sandhya Sahye-Pudaruth, Judy Coveney, Omodele Olowoyeye, Tishan Maraj, Darshna Patel, Russell J de Souza, Livia S A Augustin, Balachandran Bashyam, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Stephanie K Nishi, Lawrence A Leiter, Robert G Josse, Gail McKeown-Eyssen, Alan R Moody, Alan R Berger, Cyril W C Kendall, John L Sievenpiper, David J A Jenkins
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) produces macrovascular and microvascular damage, significantly increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), renal failure and blindness. As rates of T2DM rise, the need for effective dietary and other lifestyle changes to improve diabetes management become more urgent. Low-glycaemic index (GI) diets may improve glycaemic control in diabetes in the short term; however, there is a lack of evidence on the long-term adherence to low-GI diets, as well as on the association with surrogate markers of CVD beyond traditional risk factors...
2016: BMJ Open
H V T Ho, J L Sievenpiper, A Zurbau, S B Mejia, E Jovanovski, F Au-Yeung, A L Jenkins, V Vuksan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There has been recent interest in barley as a therapeutic food owing to its high content of beta-glucan (β-glucan), a viscous soluble fiber recognized for its cholesterol-lowering properties. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the cholesterol-lowering potential of barley β-glucan on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction...
June 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A M Komishon, E Shishtar, V Ha, J L Sievenpiper, R J de Souza, E Jovanovski, H V T Ho, L S Duvnjak, V Vuksan
Pre-clinical evidence indicates the potential for ginseng to reduce cardiovascular disease risk and acutely aid in blood pressure (BP) control. Clinical evidence evaluating repeated ginseng exposure, however, is controversial, triggering consumer and clinician concern. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess whether ginseng has an effect on BP. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and CINAHL were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials ⩾4 weeks that compared the effect of ginseng on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and/or mean arterial (MAP) BPs to control...
October 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
Shana J Kim, Russell J de Souza, Vivian L Choo, Vanessa Ha, Adrian I Cozma, Laura Chiavaroli, Arash Mirrahimi, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Marco Di Buono, Adam M Bernstein, Lawrence A Leiter, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Vladimir Vuksan, Joseph Beyene, Cyril Wc Kendall, David Ja Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for developing several diseases, and although dietary pulses (nonoil seeds of legumes such as beans, lentils, chickpeas, and dry peas) are well positioned to aid in weight control, the effects of dietary pulses on weight loss are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We summarized and quantified the effects of dietary pulse consumption on body weight, waist circumference, and body fat by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials...
May 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ebrahim Forati, Shiva Piltan, Aobo Li, Dan Sievenpiper
A high power (~ 1W) continuous wave (CW) laser was focused on argon microplasma generated in the microgap between two electrodes with submillimeter diameters. Dependence of breakdown (V(BD)) and quench (V(Q)) voltages of microplasma to the laser power, wavelength, and spot location were studied as the gap size and pressure varied. It was observed that the laser-plasma interaction can only occur thermally through the electrodes. Also, the thermal effect of the laser was noticeable at relatively higher pressures (> 10Torr), and in most cases led to a decrease in V(BD), proportional to the pressure...
January 25, 2016: Optics Express
Effie Viguiliouk, Sarah E Stewart, Viranda H Jayalath, Alena Praneet Ng, Arash Mirrahimi, Russell J de Souza, Anthony J Hanley, Richard P Bazinet, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Lawrence A Leiter, Robert G Josse, Cyril W C Kendall, David J A Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
UNLABELLED: Previous research on the effect of replacing sources of animal protein with plant protein on glycemic control has been inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of this replacement on glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through 26 August 2015. We included RCTs ≥ 3-weeks comparing the effect of replacing animal with plant protein on HbA1c, fasting glucose (FG), and fasting insulin (FI)...
December 2015: Nutrients
D J A Jenkins, P J Jones, J Frohlich, B Lamarche, C Ireland, S K Nishi, K Srichaikul, P Galange, C Pellini, D Faulkner, R J de Souza, J L Sievenpiper, A Mirrahimi, V H Jayalath, L S Augustin, B Bashyam, L A Leiter, R Josse, P Couture, V Ramprasath, C W C Kendall
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Compared to a DASH-type diet, an intensively applied dietary portfolio reduced diastolic blood pressure at 24 weeks as a secondary outcome in a previous study. Due to the importance of strategies to reduce blood pressure, we performed an exploratory analysis pooling data from intensively and routinely applied portfolio treatments from the same study to assess the effect over time on systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and the relation to sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and portfolio components...
December 2015: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Laura Chiavaroli, Russell J de Souza, Vanessa Ha, Adrian I Cozma, Arash Mirrahimi, David D Wang, Matthew Yu, Amanda J Carleton, Marco Di Buono, Alexandra L Jenkins, Lawrence A Leiter, Thomas M S Wolever, Joseph Beyene, Cyril W C Kendall, David J A Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
BACKGROUND: Debate over the role of fructose in mediating cardiovascular risk remains active. To update the evidence on the effect of fructose on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular disease (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL]-C, apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]), and metabolic syndrome (triglycerides and HDL-C), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched through July 7, 2015 for controlled feeding trials with follow-up ≥7 days, which investigated the effect of oral fructose compared to a control carbohydrate on lipids (LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and HDL-C) in participants of all health backgrounds...
September 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
Viranda H Jayalath, Russell J de Souza, Vanessa Ha, Arash Mirrahimi, Sonia Blanco-Mejia, Marco Di Buono, Alexandra L Jenkins, Lawrence A Leiter, Thomas Ms Wolever, Joseph Beyene, Cyril Wc Kendall, David Ja Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
BACKGROUND: The role of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) that contain free or bound fructose in the pathogenesis of hypertension remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantify the association between fructose-containing SSBs and risk of hypertension. DESIGN: MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane registry were searched from conception through 11 November 2014...
October 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
T M S Wolever, J L Giddens, J L Sievenpiper
OBJECTIVES: Low glycaemic index (GI) foods are recommended to improve glycaemic control in diabetes; however, Health Canada considers that GI food labeling would be misleading and unhelpful, in part, because selected studies suggest that GI values are inaccurate due to an effect of ethnicity. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the GI of foods when measured in Caucasians versus non-Caucasians. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases for relevant articles...
2015: Nutrition & Diabetes
L S A Augustin, C W C Kendall, D J A Jenkins, W C Willett, A Astrup, A W Barclay, I Björck, J C Brand-Miller, F Brighenti, A E Buyken, A Ceriello, C La Vecchia, G Livesey, S Liu, G Riccardi, S W Rizkalla, J L Sievenpiper, A Trichopoulou, T M S Wolever, S Baer-Sinnott, A Poli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The positive and negative health effects of dietary carbohydrates are of interest to both researchers and consumers. METHODS: International experts on carbohydrate research held a scientific summit in Stresa, Italy, in June 2013 to discuss controversies surrounding the utility of the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response (GR). RESULTS: The outcome was a scientific consensus statement which recognized the importance of postprandial glycemia in overall health, and the GI as a valid and reproducible method of classifying carbohydrate foods for this purpose...
September 2015: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Vivian L Choo, John L Sievenpiper
BACKGROUND: Select trials of fructose overfeeding have been used to implicate fructose as a driver of cardiometabolic risk. OBJECTIVE: We examined temporal trends of fructose dose in human controlled feeding trials of fructose and cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: We combined studies from eight meta-analyses on fructose and cardiometabolic risk to assess the average fructose dose used in these trials. Two types of trials were identified: (1) substitution trials, in which energy from fructose was exchanged with equal energy from other carbohydrates and (2) addition trials, in which energy from fructose supplemented a diet compared to the diet alone...
2015: Frontiers in Nutrition
Hiroki Wakatsuchi, Daisuke Anzai, Jeremiah J Rushton, Fei Gao, Sanghoon Kim, Daniel F Sievenpiper
Electromagnetic properties depend on the composition of materials, i.e. either angstrom scales of molecules or, for metamaterials, subwavelength periodic structures. Each material behaves differently in accordance with the frequency of an incoming electromagnetic wave due to the frequency dispersion or the resonance of the periodic structures. This indicates that if the frequency is fixed, the material always responds in the same manner unless it has nonlinearity. However, such nonlinearity is controlled by the magnitude of the incoming wave or other bias...
2015: Scientific Reports
T M S Wolever, J L Sievenpiper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
L Chiavaroli, A Mirrahimi, J L Sievenpiper, D J A Jenkins, P B Darling
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health concern associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, morbidity and mortality. Current CKD practice guidelines overlook dietary fiber, which is chronically low in the renal diet. However, increasing dietary fiber has been proposed to ameliorate the progress of CKD. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of dietary fiber intake on serum urea and creatinine as classical markers of renal health in individuals with CKD...
July 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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