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Francisco Matilla, Yael Velleman, Wendy Harrison, Mandy Nevel
INTRODUCTION: Neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have a significant impact on the livelihoods of the world's poorest populations, which often lack access to basic services. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes are included among the key strategies for achieving the World Health Organization's 2020 Roadmap for Implementation for control of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). There exists a lack of knowledge regarding the effect of animals on the effectiveness of WASH measures...
July 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
S Kahouli, H Naoui, J Uwingabiye, A Reggad, K Ennibi, M Bouchrik, B E Lmimouni
Tick-borne relapsing fever is a zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia, transmitted by hematophagous ticks. This life-threatening condition is still misdiagnosed. We report a case of tick-borne relapsing fever in a 54 year-old man in Morocco with a history of hiking, who was hospitalized for an isolated fever. On admission, the clinical examination showed no specific signs. The laboratory assessment showed inflammatory syndrome with disturbance of the liver function. The blood culture was sterile...
May 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
T Honda, H Iijima, J Tsuboi, K Uchida
Wildlife living around urbanized areas is often a cause of crucial issues such as zoonosis and wildlife-vehicle collisions. Despite this, residents hold positive views on the presence of urban wildlife primarily due to aesthetic reasons. This accepting attitude towards our coexistence with urban wildlife has made it difficult for wildlife managers to come to a consensus concerning the importance of human-urban wildlife conflicts. Although countermeasures such as lethal force and/or fencing are commonly used to control human-wildlife conflicts, these approaches are rarely applied in the case of urban wildlife...
July 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rebecca van Grootveld, Manu P Bilsen, Timo L Boelsums, Edou R Heddema, Geert H Groeneveld, Jairo Gooskens, Mark G J de Boer
We describe a case of community-acquired pneumonia due to Chlamydia caviae in a patient with no direct animal exposure, raising questions about the zoonotic reservoirs and potential transmission routes. Genotyping of Chamydia isolates that cause pneumonia should be performed for a precise diagnosis and to initiate adequate infection control measures.
July 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Leandro Encarnação Garcia, Erivelto Corrêa de Araújo Junior, Larissa Martins Melo, Jaqueline Poleto Bragato, Juliana Regina Peiró, Valéria Marçal Félix de Lima, Márcia Marinho, Daniel Robert Arnold, Flavia Lombardi Lopes
Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis, caused by Leptospira spp., that leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances, much is yet to be discovered about disease pathogenicity. The influence of epigenetic mechanisms, particularly RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of host immune response has been described following a variety of bacterial infections. The current study examined the microtranscriptome of macrophages J774A.1 following an 8h infection with virulent, attenuated and saprophyte strains of Leptospira...
July 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Angélica Pech-May, Janine M Ramsey, Raúl E González Ittig, Magali Giuliani, Pablo Berrozpe, María G Quintana, Oscar D Salomón
BACKGROUND: The Lutzomyia longipalpis complex has a wide but discontinuous distribution in Latin America, extending throughout the Neotropical realm between Mexico and northern Argentina and Uruguay. In the Americas, this sandfly is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the parasite responsible for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). The Lu. longipalpis complex consist of at least four sibling species, however, there is no current consensus on the number of haplogroups, or on their divergence...
July 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Magda Sindičić, Miljenko Bujanić, Iva Štimac, Franjo Martinković, Nikolina Tuškan, Marina Špehar, Dean Konjević
Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the world's most dangerous zoonosis and an emerging disease with growing incidence in humans. The disease has been reported in new areas and host species in the last two decades, and the primary hosts of the parasite - red fox, golden jackal and grey wolf - are expanding their distribution in Europe. Here we report the morphological and molecular identification of Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworms in one of 29 carcasses of adult golden jackals in Croatia, where the only previous report of the parasite was in red foxes in 2016...
September 25, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
Julie Cagliero, Sharon Y A M Villanueva, Mariko Matsui
Leptospirosis is a neglected tropical zoonosis caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira . Infected reservoir animals, typically mice and rats, are asymptomatic, carry the pathogen in their renal tubules, and shed pathogenic spirochetes in their urine, contaminating the environment. Humans are accidental hosts of pathogenic Leptospira . Most human infections are mild or asymptomatic. However, 10% of human leptospirosis cases develop into severe forms, including high leptospiremia, multi-organ injuries, and a dramatically increased mortality rate, which can relate to a sepsis-like phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Takayoshi Yamaguchi, Naomi Higa, Nobuhiko Okura, Arina Matsumoto, Idam Hermawan, Tetsu Yamashiro, Toshihiko Suzuki, Claudia Toma
BACKGROUND: Leptospira interrogans is a pathogenic, spirochetal bacterium that is responsible for leptospirosis, an emerging worldwide zoonosis. Leptospires colonize the renal proximal tubules and chronically infect the kidney. Live bacteria are excreted into urine, contaminating the environment. While it is well known that leptospires can persist in the kidneys without signs of disease for several months, the interactions of leptospires with the proximal renal epithelial tubule cells that allow the chronic renal colonization have not been elucidated yet...
July 4, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Luciane A Santos, Haritha Adhikarla, Xiting Yan, Zheng Wang, Derrick E Fouts, Joseph M Vinetz, Luiz C J Alcantara, Rudy A Hartskeerl, Marga G A Goris, Mathieu Picardeau, Mitermayer G Reis, Jeffrey P Townsend, Hongyu Zhao, Albert I Ko, Elsio A Wunder
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis, responsible for more than 1 million cases and 60,000 deaths every year. Among the 13 pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira , serovars belonging to L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae are considered to be the most virulent strains, and responsible for majority of the reported severe cases. Serovars Copenhageni and Icterohaemorrhagiae are major representatives of this serogroup and despite their public health relevance, little is known regarding the genetic differences between these two serovars...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Shib Shankar Saha, Akihiko Uda, Kenta Watanabe, Takashi Shimizu, Masahisa Watarai
Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by CDC-declared Tier 1 threat agent Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis subsp. novicida (F. novicida) is virulent in mice but non-pathogenic in immunocompetent humans and serves as a potential surrogate organism. In a recent study, we established a silkworm (Bombyx mori) model of infection for F. novicida. Francisella secretes its virulence factors through various mechanisms that modify the intracellular environment to ensure its replication and survival. To identify new pathogenic factors, we focused on the type I secretory system (T1SS) of Francisella...
June 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Masamitsu Noguchi, Shizuka Oshita, Naohisa Yamazoe, Mitsukazu Miyazaki, Yousuke C Takemura
Japanese spotted fever (JSF) is a zoonosis transmitted by ticks carrying the pathogen Rickettsia japonica . The classic triad of JSF symptoms is high fever, erythema, and tick bite eschar. About 200 people in Japan develop the disease every year. Japanese spotted fever is also a potentially fatal disease. At Minami-Ise Municipal Hospital in Japan, 55 patients were diagnosed with JSF from 2007 to 2015, which was equivalent to 4.3% of the total JSF cases in Japan. In this retrospective study, we examined the medical records of these 55 JSF cases...
July 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dongmei Peng, Feng Pang, Ruiyong Cao, Shu Zhu, Xiaojian Yang, Xin Nie, Zhenxing Zhang, Baobao Li, Haifeng Huang, Yaying Li, Guohua Li, Li Du, Fengyang Wang
Melioidosis is a severe and fatal tropical zoonosis, which is triggered by Burkholderia pseudomallei . To better understand the host's response to infection of B. pseudomallei , an RNA-Seq technology was used to confirm differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RAW264.7 cells infected with B. pseudomallei . In total, 4668 DEGs were identified across three time points (4, 8, and 11 hours after infection). Short Time-Series Expression Miner (STEM) analysis revealed the temporal gene expression profiles and identified seven significant patterns in a total of 26 profiles...
2018: BioMed Research International
Marta Elena Machado Alves, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Patrícia Bräunig, Felipe Lamberti Pivoto, Luís Antonio Sangioni, Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel
Cats and dogs are hosts of a large number of gastrointestinal parasites and can shed helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts in their feces. The close relationship between companion animals and humans intensifies human exposure to zoonosis caused by parasites. In this study, 177 fecal samples were collected: 128 from dogs and 49 from cats of both sexes and varied ages. One or more intestinal parasites were observed in 56.2% (72/128) of the dog fecal samples and in 53.0% (26/49) of the cat fecal samples. Parasitic monoinfection was present in 70...
June 29, 2018: Parasitology Research
Sanja Duvnjak, Ivana Račić, Silvio Špičić, Maja Zdelar-Tuk, Irena Reil, Željko Cvetnić
The most recent data on the incidence of brucellosis in Southeast Europe prove the persistence of this zoonosis in the area, regardless of constant efforts at controlling it as one of the most dangerous zoonoses. Forty-three Brucella melitensis strains were collected from cattle, sheep, goats and humans from Croatia as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina between 2009 and 2015. The strains were identified and genotyped in order to determine their epidemiological background. Standard biotyping methods and Bruce-ladder were used to identify the strains...
June 2018: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Inês B Marques, Natália Marto, Anabela Raimundo, Raquel Gil-Gouveia
Brucellosis, an endemic zoonosis in Portugal, is a multisystem disease, presenting with neurological manifestations in up to 25% of cases. Neurobrucellosis diagnostic criteria include evidence of central nervous system invasion, either by documenting increased blood-brain barrier permeability that normalizes after treatment or by Brucella isolation. We report 2 patients with systemic brucellosis presenting with neurological symptoms: A 28-year-old female with progressive hemiparesis associated with severe refractory thoracic and lumbar pain, whose spinal magnetic resonance imaging identified longitudinally extensive myelitis...
July 2018: Neurologist
Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos, Tatiana Rozental, Bibiana Nogueira Siqueira, Adonai Alvino Pessoa Júnior, Thays Euzebio Joaquim, Raphael Gomes da Silva, Carolina de Andrade Leite, Adriana Alvarez Arantes, Marisângela Ferreira da Cunha, Danielle Provençano Borghi
We report five cases of Q fever among cadets during a training program for Military Firefighters Academy in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This cluster confirms the significance of Coxiella burnetii as an infectious agent in Brazil, where the occurrence of this zoonosis is poorly documented and highlights the potential risk for Q fever transmission in rural areas or farms with infected animals.
June 25, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Patrícia P Corsetti, Leonardo A de Almeida, André Nicolau Aquime Gonçalves, Marco Túlio R Gomes, Erika S Guimarães, João T Marques, Sergio C Oliveira
Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes a worldwide zoonosis termed brucellosis, which is characterized as a debilitating infection with serious clinical manifestations leading to severe complications. In spite of great advances in studies involving host- B. abortus interactions, there are many gaps related to B. abortus modulation of the host immune response through regulatory mechanisms. Here, we deep sequenced small RNAs from bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with B...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jane E Hodgkinson, Krystyna Cwiklinski, Nicola Beesley, Catherine Hartley, Katherine Allen, Diana J L Williams
BACKGROUND: Fasciola hepatica is of worldwide significance, impacting on the health, welfare and productivity of livestock and regarded by WHO as a re-emerging zoonosis. Triclabendazole (TCBZ), the drug of choice for controlling acute fasciolosis in livestock, is also the drug used to treat human infections. However TCBZ-resistance is now considered a major threat to the effective control of F. hepatica. It has yet to be demonstrated whether F. hepatica undergoes a genetic clonal expansion in the snail intermediate host, Galba truncatula, and to what extent amplification of genotypes within the snail facilitates accumulation of drug resistant parasites...
June 26, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Alena Žákovská, Jan Janeček, Helena Nejezchlebová, Hana Lya Kučerová
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The existence of a blood group preference for ticks is a problem widely discussed among the lay public but often neglected by the scientific community. The <i>Ixodes ricinus</i> tick transmits serious zoonotic diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick encephalitis, or anaplasmosis. The preventive strategies include vaccination (if available) and individual measures including the use of repellents and avoidance of risk areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since this topic is relatively neglected in the scientific literature, a simple <i>in vitro</i> method was used...
June 20, 2018: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
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