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Waqas Ahmed, Maria Razzaq
Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens responsible for brucellosis, an emerging zoonosis that results in abortion, sterility in host animals, and chronic relapsing fever in humans. The small noncoding RNA (sRNA) AbcR is a textbook example of a molecule acting on trans-encoded target mRNAs, a principal element of bacterial gene regulation required for wild-type virulence in α-proteobacteria. Here, we used bioinformatics and experimental validation to characterize the interaction between AbcR sRNA and target mRNA...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yen Thon Teoh, Sze Fui Hii, Stephen Graves, Robert Rees, John Stenos, Rebecca Justine Traub
BACKGROUND: Flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) caused by Rickettsia felis is an arthropod-borne zoonosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, primary species and genotype(s) of R. felis infecting fleas from dogs and cats. RESULTS: All fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis. All rickettsial DNA detected in fleas was identified as being 100% homologous to R. felis URRWXCal2, with positivity within tropical, subtropical and temperate regions noted at 6...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ana Margarida Alho, Clara Lima, Vito Colella, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Domenico Otranto, Luís Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Qatar is one of the wealthiest and fastest growing economies in the world, experiencing a rapid increase in human and pet populations. Given the paucity of data on prophylactic measures against endo- and ectoparasites of pets in Qatar, as well as on the owners' awareness of zoonotic diseases, a questionnaire was conducted. METHODS: From July to November 2017, 150 multiple-choice questionnaires were administered to dog and/or cat owners who attended two veterinary clinics in Doha...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Theerapon Sukmark, Nuttha Lumlertgul, Sadudee Peerapornratana, Kamol Khositrangsikun, Kriang Tungsanga, Visith Sitprija, Nattachai Srisawat
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is one of the most important zoonosis in the tropics. Currently, specific laboratory diagnostic test for leptospirosis such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or direct culture cannot be applied at the primary care setting especially in the resource- limited countries. Therefore, clinical presentation and laboratory examination are still the primary diagnostic tools for leptospirosis. OBJECTIVES: To detect clinical factors for predicting leptospirosis in suspected cases, and to create a clinical prediction score (THAI-LEPTO) that is practical and easy to use in general practice while awaiting laboratory results...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michelle de Paula Reis, Daniely Alves de Lima, Karoline Bach Pauli, Carlos Eduardo Linhares Andreotti, André Luiz Soares de Moraes, Daniela Dib Gonçalves, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Paulo Sérgio Alves Bueno, Flavio Augusto Vicente Seixas, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Currently, two drugs, pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, are used as a reference in the treatment of toxoplasmosis, but the resistance of Toxoplasma gondii appears as a relevant public health problem. In order to identify new drugs to toxoplasmosis treatment, we performed a molecular docking of raltitrexed to T. gondii thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) and also evaluated its efficacy in infected mice. Initially, raltitrexed was docked on the crystallographic structures of TS-DHFR from T...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
R J Orton, M Deason, P R Bessell, D M Green, R R Kao, L C M Salvador
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic zoonosis with major health and economic impact on the cattle industry. Despite extensive control measures in cattle and culling trials in wildlife, the reasons behind the expansion of areas with high incidence of bTB breakdowns in Great Britain remain unexplained. By balancing the importance of cattle movements and local transmission on the observed pattern of cattle outbreaks, we identify areas at elevated risk of infection from specific Mycobacterium bovis genotypes...
March 1, 2018: Epidemics
Kara N Durski, Andrea M McCollum, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Brett W Petersen, Mary G Reynolds, Sylvie Briand, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Asheena Khalakdina
The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Maroun M Sfeir
Brucellosis is a challenging zoonosis to diagnose and treat. The recent outbreaks of Brucella abortus RB51 in several states in the United States, including New Jersey and Texas, due to raw milk consumption has raised the concern of drug-resistant Brucella spp. This commentary highlights the importance of being on the lookout for this emerging infection.
March 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Li Huan-Zhang, Zang Xin-Zhong, Qian Men-Bao, Xue Jing-Bo, Zhou Chang-Hai, Chen Ying-Dan, Tian Tian, Cao Chun-Li, Li Shi-Zhu
Cysticercosis refers to a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of pork tapeworm Taenia solium . It is a parasitic zoonosis and listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the neglected tropical diseases. Cysticercosis is spreading all over the world through globalization and it mainly epidemic in developing countries. In the southwest and minority nationality areas of China, as a result of the low level of medical and health care, and the unchangeable diet custom, there are still many cases of cysticercosis, which is manifested as a local high prevalence...
February 27, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Aurélie Marquez, Zoheira Djelouadji, Virginie Lattard, Angéli Kodjo
Leptospirosis is a virulent zoonosis with a global distribution. Pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are responsible for this disease, and the primary animal reservoirs are rodentvvvs. Direct and indirect contact with infected urine constitutes the main route of transmission. Renal failure and advanced abortions are frequently observed in animals affected by leptospirosis, causing serious problems for farms. In humans, there is a high rate of mortality (10 percent), and farmers and persons in contact with water are frequently exposed...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Matthieu Bastien, Amelie Vaniscotte, Benoit Combes, Gerald Umhang, Estelle Germain, Valentin Gouley, Alice Pierlet, Thomas Quintaine, Marie-Amelie Forin-Wiart, Isabelle Villena, Dominique Aubert, Franck Boue, Marie-Lazarine Poulle
The faeces of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), and the domestic cat, Felis catus (Linnaeus), can be responsible for spreading eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) into the environment. The accidental ingestion of these eggs or oocysts, through consumption of raw fruits or vegetables grown in or in contact with contaminated soil, can lead to alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or toxoplasmosis in humans. The present study provides a quantitative assessment of the faecal deposition by foxes and cats in kitchen gardens where fruits and vegetables are grown and its consequences for zoonosis transmission...
March 8, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
Natalia Rodriguez-Valero, Helena Moza Moriñigo, Miguel J Martínez, Aida Peiró, Ines Oliveira, Marta Bodro, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Joaquim Gascon, Jose Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis worldwide, nevertheless is often poor recognized in non tropical settings. In Thailand is becoming an emerging disease and Chiang Mai could become a popular spot to acquire the disease amongst travelers. METHODS: We describe three cases of imported leptospirosis undifferentiated fever after travelling to Thailand during the summer of 2015 diagnosed at two Spanish hospitals. RESULTS: Our three patients probably acquired leptospirosis while swimming in freshwater around Chiang Mai, a Thailand's northern region with moderate incidence of leptopirosis...
March 8, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Xinmiao Rong, Meng Fan, Xiangdong Sun, Youming Wang, Huaiping Zhu
Echinococcosis has been recognized as one of the most important helminth zoonosis in China. Available models always consider dogs as the mainly definitive hosts. However, such models ignore the distinctions between domestic dogs and stray dogs. In this study, we propose a 10-dimensional dynamic model distinguishing stray dogs from domestic dogs to explore the special role of stray dogs and potential effects of disposing stray dogs on the transmission of Echinococcosis. The basic reproduction number R0 , which measures the impact of both domestic dogs and stray dogs on the transmission, is determined to characterize the transmission dynamics...
March 8, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Izabelle Silva Rehfeld, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato
Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions in the teats of dairy cows and the hands of milkers and is an important public health issue. Severe VACV-induced lesions in the teats and udder of cows and buffaloes could lead to mastitis and other secondary infections, thereby reducing productivity and resulting in economic losses to the dairy industry. In Brazil, BV re-emerged in the late 1990s and is now endemic in most of the Brazilian territory...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Mohamed El-Diasty, Gamal Wareth, Falk Melzer, Shawky Mustafa, Lisa D Sprague, Heinrich Neubauer
Brucellosis is a zoonosis occurring worldwide, with economic and public health impacts. Its diagnosis remains a challenge in endemic countries and basically relies on serology. The present study was carried out on two dairy cattle farms allegedly free from brucellosis, but with sporadic cases of abortion. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in uterine discharge of seronegative cows after abortion. In farm I, B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3 was cultured from two of five cows after abortion, while in farm II, B...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Yuchen Nan, Chunyan Wu, Qin Zhao, Yani Sun, Yan-Jin Zhang, En-Min Zhou
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E outbreaks worldwide. Since the discovery of HEV as a zoonotic agent, this virus has been isolated from a variety of hosts with an ever-expanding host range. Recently, a subunit HEV vaccine developed for the prevention of human disease was approved in China, but is not yet available to the rest of the world. Meanwhile, notable progress and knowledge has been made and revealed in recent years to better understand HEV biology and infection, including discoveries of quasi-enveloped HEV virions and of a new function of the HEV-ORF3 product...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
D Halleux, I Juriens, J Delwaide, F Frippiat, P Léonard, N Bletard, O Detry
Cystic echinococcosis or hydatidosis, is a zoonosis caused by larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus that can be encountered in Belgium in patients originating from endemic countries. The liver is the most commonly affected organ. In this paper, the authors describe the multidisciplinary management of this pathology based on the clinical case of a patient suffering from a 28 cm cystic echinococcosis treated by combination of albendazole and liver resection. Several treatment options are described in the literature although there is currently no clear consensus on the management of this condition...
February 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
Z Wen-Jun, H Xiu-Min, G Ya-Min
Echinococcosis is a severe zoonosis parasitic disease and mainly caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis . Because of the limitation of operation level, such as recurrence and death, the drug treatment is still the most important method in our country. Meanwhile, the annual number of drug treatments is far greater than surgical treatments. Drugs play a significant role in the preoperative reduction of lesions, reducing pain, extending the life of patients .This article reviews the status of animals treatment and clinical treatment of echinococcosis treated by the benzimidazole drugs and their new formulations, provides the basis for exploring the development direction of anti-echinococcosis drug treatment research...
June 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Lu Zhao, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Hengchang Sun, Xiaona Zhang, Lei He, Zeli Tang, Caiqin Wang, Yinjuan Wu, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Xinyi Zhou, Zhipeng Lin, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu, Yan Huang
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC), and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Qinghua Zhao, Jin Luo, Qin Zhang, Tianyan Leng, Lihua Yang
RATIONALE: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis caused by echinococcus larvae. Manifestations of the disease include a severe damage to the liver and lung. Damages to the mesentery, omentum, spleen, brain, heart, bone, thyroid, kidney, and uterus are rarely observed. Moreover, primary ovarian and retroperitoneal hydatid disease is extremely rare, and is easily ignored or misdiagnosed. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of CE in a 34-year-old female who presented with an adnexal mass detected by B-ultrasound...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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