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Atrial fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245016/preferential-myofibroblast-differentiation-of-cardiac-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-in-the-presence-of-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Elisa Gambini, Gianluca Lorenzo Perrucci, Beatrice Bassetti, Gabriella Spaltro, Giulia Campostrini, Maria Chiara Lionetti, Alberto Pilozzi, Federico Martinelli, Andrea Faruggia, Dario DiFrancesco, Andrea Barbuti, Giulio Pompilio
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by electrical, contractile, and structural remodeling mediated by interstitial fibrosis. It has been shown that human cardiac mesenchymal progenitor cells (CMPCs) can be differentiated into endothelial, smooth muscle, and fibroblast cells. Here, we have investigated, for the first time, the contribution of CMPCs in the fibrotic process occurring in AF. As expected, right auricolae samples displayed significantly higher fibrosis in AF vs control (CTR) patients. In tissue samples of AF patients only, double staining for c-kit and the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was detected...
November 27, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233682/potential-role-of-mg53-in-the-regulation-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-induced-atrial-fibrosis-and-vulnerability-to-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Jingwen Guo, Fengpeng Jia, Yingjiu Jiang, Qiang Li, Yucheng Yang, Minghan Xiao, Hua Xiao
Atrial fibrosis plays a critical role in atrial fibrillation (AF) by the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad pathway. The disordered differentiation, proliferation, migration and collagen deposition of atrial fibroblasts play significant roles in atrial fibrosis. Mitsugumin (MG)53 is predominantly expressed in myocardium of rodents and has multiple biological functions. However, the role of MG53 in cardiac fibrosis remains unclear. This study provided clinical and experimental evidence for the involvement of MG53 in atrial fibrosis in humans and atrial fibrosis phenotype in cultured rat atrial fibroblasts...
December 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233648/left-atrial-dysfunction-in-light-chain-cardiac-amyloidosis-and-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-comparative-three-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiographic-analysis-from-the-magyar-path-study
#3
Dóra Földeák, Árpád Kormányos, Péter Domsik, Anita Kalapos, Györgyike Á Piros, Nóra Ambrus, Zénó Ajtay, Róbert Sepp, Zita Borbényi, Tamás Forster, Attila Nemes
INTRODUCTION: While cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a rare systemic disease characterized by extracellular deposition of protein-derived fibrils, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is histopathologically characterized by myocyte hypertrophy and disarray, interstitial fibrosis, and small intramural coronary arteriole dysplasia. The aim of the present study was to compare left atrial (LA) volumetric and functional characteristics between light-chain (AL) CA and HCM by three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE)...
December 9, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225878/erdheim-chester-disease-with-atrial-mass-and-perinephric-calcification
#4
Michel Villatoro-Villar, Matthew J Koster
Erdheim-Chester Disease is a multi-systemic condition characterized by non-Langerhans histiocytic infiltration. Cardiovascular involvement with pseudotumoral infiltration of the right atrium is present in approximately one-third of patients and may be asymptomatic. Although retroperitoneal fibrosis is common, perinephric dystrophic calcification has not been previously described.
December 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216985/eplerenone-reduces-atrial-fibrillation-burden-without-preventing-atrial%C3%A2-electrical-remodeling
#5
Yoshio Takemoto, Rafael J Ramirez, Kuljeet Kaur, Oscar Salvador-Montañés, Daniela Ponce-Balbuena, Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, Steven R Ennis, Guadalupe Guerrero-Serna, Omer Berenfeld, José Jalife
BACKGROUND: The aldosterone inhibitor eplerenone (EPL) has been shown to reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with systolic heart failure, but the mechanism is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that by reducing atrial dilation and fibrosis in the absence of heart failure, EPL also reduces AF burden and prevents AF perpetuation. METHODS: The authors conducted a randomized controlled study in 34 sheep that were atrially tachypaced (13 ± 1 week)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216983/atrial-infarction-and-ischemic-mitral-regurgitation-contribute-to-post-mi-remodeling-of-the-left-atrium
#6
Jaume Aguero, Carlos Galan-Arriola, Rodrigo Fernandez-Jimenez, Javier Sanchez-Gonzalez, Nina Ajmone, Victoria Delgado, Jorge Solis, Gonzalo J Lopez, Antonio de Molina-Iracheta, Roger J Hajjar, Jeroen J Bax, Valentin Fuster, Borja Ibáñez
BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) remodeling after an acute myocardial infarction (MI) is poorly characterized regarding its determinants or its effect on ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) development. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was: 1) to compare LA structural remodeling in experimental MI swine models recapitulating the effects of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, ischemic MR, and left atrial infarction (LAI); and 2) to analyze how LA remodeling influences ischemic MR development...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215718/involvement-of-smad3-pathway-in-atrial-fibrosis-induced-by-elevated-hydrostatic-pressure
#7
Wei Wei, Fang Rao, Fangzhou Liu, Yumei Xue, Chunyu Deng, Zhaoyu Wang, Jiening Zhu, Hui Yang, Xin Li, Mengzhen Zhang, Yongheng Fu, Wensi Zhu, Zhixin Shan, Shulin Wu
Hypertension is a main risk factor for atrial fibrillation, but the direct effects of hydrostatic pressure on the atrial fibrosis are still unknown. The present study investigated whether hydrostatic pressure is responsible for atrial fibrosis, and addressed a potential role of the Smad pathway in this pathology. Biochemical assays were used to study regulation and expression of fibrotic factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats, and in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) cultured under standard (0 mmHg) and elevated (20, 40 mmHg) hydrostatic pressure...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214421/interpreting-activation-mapping-of-atrial-fibrillation-a-hybrid-computational-physiological-study
#8
Francisco Sahli Costabal, Junaid A B Zaman, Ellen Kuhl, Sanjiv M Narayan
Atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disorder of the heart associated with a rapid and irregular beating of the upper chambers. Activation mapping remains the gold standard to diagnose and interpret atrial fibrillation. However, fibrillatory activation maps are highly sensitive to far-field effects, and often disagree with other optical mapping modalities. Here we show that computational modeling can identify spurious non-local components of atrial fibrillation electrograms and improve activation mapping...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206857/z-disc-protein-chapb-induces-cardiomyopathy-and-contractile-dysfunction-in-the-postnatal-heart
#9
Willemijn van Eldik, Brigit den Adel, Jantine Monshouwer-Kloots, Daniela Salvatori, Saskia Maas, Ingeborg van der Made, Esther E Creemers, Derk Frank, Norbert Frey, Nicky Boontje, Jolanda van der Velden, Paul Steendijk, Christine Mummery, Robert Passier, Abdelaziz Beqqali
AIMS: The Z-disc is a crucial structure of the sarcomere and is implicated in mechanosensation/transduction. Dysregulation of Z-disc proteins often result in cardiomyopathy. We have previously shown that the Z-disc protein Cytoskeletal Heart-enriched Actin-associated Protein (CHAP) is essential for cardiac and skeletal muscle development. Furthermore, the CHAP gene has been associated with atrial fibrillation in humans. Here, we studied the misregulated expression of CHAP isoforms in heart disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196099/dkk3-overexpression-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis-in-an-angiotensin-perfused-animal-model-by-regulating-the-adam17-ace2-and-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathways
#10
Chun-Gang Zhai, Ye-Yang Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tie, Ya Zhang, Wen-Qiang Chen, Xiao-Ping Ji, Yang Mao, Lei Qiao, Jing Cheng, Qing-Bo Xu, Cheng Zhang
AIMS: Cardiac pressure and humoral factors induce cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, which are characterized by increased stiffness, reduced contractility and altered perfusion. Angiotensin II (AngII) is well known to promote this pathology. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, which cleaves AngII and forms Ang-(1-7), exerts protective anti-hypertrophy and anti-fibrosis effects. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), a membrane-bound enzyme reported to cleave ACE2, may participate in the pathological process of AngII perfusion-induced heart damage...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191788/progressive-impairment-of-atrial-myocyte-function-during-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-heart-failure
#11
Florentina Pluteanu, Yulia Nikonova, Anna Holzapfel, Birgit Herzog, Anna Scherer, Judit Preisenberger, Jelena Plačkić, Katharina Scheer, Teodora Ivanova, Alicja Bukowska, Andreas Goette, Jens Kockskämper
Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) can cause left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). It is unclear, though, which factors may contribute to the transition from compensated LV hypertrophy to HF in HHD. We hypothesized that maladaptive atrial remodeling with impaired atrial myocyte function would occur in advanced HHD and may be associated with the emergence of HF. Experiments were performed on atrial myocytes and tissue from old (15-25months) normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with advanced HHD...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187823/voluntary-exercise-improves-cardiac-function-and-prevents-cardiac-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#12
Robin Deloux, Damien Vitiello, Nathalie Mougenot, Philippe Noirez, Zhenlin Li, Mathias Mericskay, Arnaud Ferry, Onnik Agbulut
Objective: Despite the indubitable beneficial effect of exercise to prevent of cardiovascular diseases, there is still a lack of studies investigating the impact of exercise in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigated the impact of voluntary exercise on cardiac function in a mouse model of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (αMHC-MerCreMer:Sf/Sf), induced by cardiac-specific inactivation of the Serum Response Factor. Materials and Methods: Seven days after tamoxifen injection, 20 αMHC-MerCreMer:Sf/Sf mice were assigned to sedentary (n = 8) and exercise (n = 12) groups...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187667/strategy-and-outcome-of-catheter-ablation-for-persistent-atrial-fibrillation%C3%A3-impact-of-progress-in-the-mapping-and-ablation-technologies
#13
Hideharu Okamatsu, Ken Okumura
Pulmonary vein (PV) antrum isolation (PVAI) is effective in treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) but is less so for persistent AF. A recent randomized study on the ablation strategies for persistent AF demonstrated that 2 common atrial substrate modifications, creation of linear lesions in the left atrium and ablation of complex fractionated electrogram sites, in addition to PVAI did not improve the outcome compared with stand-alone PVAI, suggesting the necessity of a more individualized, selective approach to persistent AF...
November 30, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185443/a-feline-hfpef-model-with-pulmonary-hypertension-and-compromised-pulmonary-function
#14
Markus Wallner, Deborah M Eaton, Remus M Berretta, Giulia Borghetti, Jichuan Wu, Sandy T Baker, Eric A Feldsott, Thomas E Sharp, Sadia Mohsin, Mark A Oyama, Dirk von Lewinski, Heiner Post, Marla R Wolfson, Steven R Houser
Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) represents a major public health problem. The causative mechanisms are multifactorial and there are no effective treatments for HFpEF, partially attributable to the lack of well-established HFpEF animal models. We established a feline HFpEF model induced by slow-progressive pressure overload. Male domestic short hair cats (n = 20), underwent either sham procedures (n = 8) or aortic constriction (n = 12) with a customized pre-shaped band. Pulmonary function, gas exchange, and invasive hemodynamics were measured at 4-months post-banding...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181725/association-between-left-atrial-phasic-conduit-function-and-early-atrial-fibrillation-recurrence-in-patients-undergoing-electrical-cardioversion
#15
Anna Degiovanni, Enrico Boggio, Eleonora Prenna, Chiara Sartori, Federica De Vecchi, Paolo N Marino
BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction promotes atrial fibrillation (AF) inducing left atrial (LA) remodeling, with chamber dilation and fibrosis. Predominance of LA phasic conduit (LAC) function should reflect not only chamber alterations but also underlying left ventricular (LV) filling impairment. Thus, LAC was tested as possible predictor of early AF relapse after electrical cardioversion (EC). METHODS: 96 consecutive patients, who underwent EC for persistent non-valvular AF, were prospectively enrolled...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159313/fibrosis-and-atrial-fibrillation-computerized-and-optical-mapping-a-view-into-the-human-atria-at-submillimeter-resolution
#16
Brian J Hansen, Jichao Zhao, Vadim V Fedorov
Recent studies strongly suggest that the majority of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with diagnosed or subclinical cardiac diseases have established or even pre-existing fibrotic structural remodeling, which may lead to conduction abnormalities and reentrant activity that sustain AF. As conventional treatments fail to treat AF in far too many cases, an urgent need exists to identify specific structural arrhythmogenic fibrosis patterns, which may maintain AF, in order to identify effective ablation targets for AF treatment...
June 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155936/age-sex-and-the-quantity-of-atrial-fibrosis-before-af-ablation-what-about-systematic-bias-and-confounding-factors
#17
Ugur Canpolat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155027/serum-level-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-is-associated-with-left-atrial-voltage-in-patients-with-chronic-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Shilu Zhao, Mingfang Li, Weizhu Ju, Lingyun Gu, Fengxiang Zhang, Hongwu Chen, Kai Gu, Bing Yang, Minglong Chen
BACKGROUND: Atrial tissue fibrosis can cause electrical or structural remodeling in patients with atrial fibrillation. Transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-β1) signaling acts as a central role in fibroblast activation. In this report, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum level of TGF-β1 and mean left atrial voltage in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (CAF). METHODS: A total of 16 consecutive adult patients with CAF who underwent catheter ablation were enrolled...
November 15, 2017: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131288/mechanisms-of-cardioembolic-stroke-revisited-atrial-cardiopathy
#19
Justyna Mączyńska, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Rafał Dąbrowski
There has been only moderate progress in our understanding of potential relation between atrial arrhythmia and stroke over years. Current approach is still based on a hypothesis that atrial contractile dysfunction due to fibrillation causes blood stasis, which accompanied by other factors acting together as Virchow's triad produces thrombus and embolism to the brain. In this review we would like to discuss a relatively new concept of atrial cardiopathy. It assumes that risk of thromboembolism is increased regardless of atrial rhythm, being largely driven by atrial tissue abnormalities, such as fibrosis, endothelial and myocytes dysfunction and atrial dilatation...
November 13, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119005/differences-in-left-ventricular-functional-adaptation-to-arterial-stiffness-and-neurohormonal-activation-in-patients-with-hypertension-a-study-with-two-dimensional-layer-specific-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#20
Darae Kim, Chi Young Shim, Geu-Ru Hong, Sungha Park, InJeong Cho, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Jong-Won Ha, Namsik Chung
Background: Arterial stiffness increases pressure load to the left ventricle (LV), leading to LV hypertrophy and subendocardial ischemia. Neurohormones stimulate myocardial fibrosis and LV dysfunction. We aimed to explore the associations of arterial stiffness and plasma aldosterone with multi-directional, layer-specific LV, and left atrial (LA) mechanical function in hypertensive patients. Methods: Layer-specific LV global longitudinal strain (GLS-trans, GLS-endo, GLS-epi), global circumferential strain (GCS-trans, GCS-endo, GCS-epi), LV torsional parameters, and LA global longitudinal strain (LA GLS) were analyzed by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in 195 hypertensive patients (110 men, mean age 55 years)...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
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