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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924760/p-wave-dispersion-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, José Grindler, Acácio Fernandes-Cardoso, Adrian Baranchuk
P-wave dispersion (PWD, Pd or Pdis) is a noninvasive electrocardiographic (ECG) marker for atrial remodeling and predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF). PWD is defined as the difference between the widest and the narrowest P-wave duration recorded from the 12 ECG leads. Increased P-wave duration and PWD reflect prolongation of intraatrial and interatrial conduction time with lack of a well-coordinated conduction system within the atrial muscles, with inhomogeneous, asynchronic, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effect mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with the CG + GG genotype IL-6 -634C/G polymorphism [1] and discontinuous propagation of sinus impulses mainly between the left and right atria, interstitial/extracellular fibroblast activation and collagen deposition with fibrosis (via TGF-β) in atrial tissue, insufficient blood supply, significant not isotropic myoelectric activity, and thin wall thickness and consequent expansion tendency all well-known electrophysiological characteristics in patients with atrial arrhythmias and especially paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) [2]...
July 2016: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917818/galectin-3-a-biochemical-marker-to-detect-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Yusuf Selcoki, H İbrahim Aydin, Tugrul H Celik, Ahmet Isleyen, Ali Erayman, M Bora Demircelik, Hilmi Demirin, Aydin Kosus, Beyhan Eryonucu
PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of arrhythmia. AF leads to electrical remodelling and fibrosis of the atria; however, the mechanism(s) remain poorly understood. Galectin-3 is a potential mediator of cardiac fibrosis. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between serum galectin-3 levels and paroxysmal AF. METHODS: Forty-six patients with paroxysmal AF and preserved left ventricular systolic function, and 38 age- and gender-matched control subjects, were involved in the study...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904843/cardiac-surgery-in-africa-a-thirty-five-year-experience-on-open-heart-surgery-in-cote-d-ivoire
#3
Koffi Herve Yangni-Angate, Christophe Meneas, Florent Diby, Manga Diomande, Anicet Adoubi, Yves Tanauh
BACKGROUND: Few centers for open heart surgery (OHS) are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of OHS results is also noted. By reporting our African experience on OHS, the aim of this study was to fill the gap. METHODS: It is a retrospective study on 2,612 patients who were subject to an OHS between 1978 and 2013. Data were collected from demographical, clinical, investigative studies, surgical and outcomes parameters. RESULTS: There were 1,475 cases of rheumatic heart diseases (RHD), 126 endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF), 741 congenital heart diseases (CHDs) and 270 various affections...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903390/-current-status-of-antiarrhythmic-drug-use-and-safety-assessment-in-chinese-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#4
R He, X Du, S W Liu, L J Sun, Y Li, H Zeng, Y Y Li, C Sun, Y Zhang, C S Ma, W Gao
Objective: To investigate the current status of antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) use in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation(AF) and assess the safety of AADs in this patient cohort. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2013, a total of 4 008 AF patients treated with AADs was enrolled in this study and patients were followed up for 24 months. Detailed information of prescribed drug, the causes of drug discontinuation and side effects were recorded. Results: Amiodarone was prescribed to 64.3%(2 579 cases) and propafenone to 31...
November 24, 2016: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884008/left-ventricular-plication-reduces-wall-stress-and-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#5
Hidetsugu Asai, Yasushige Shingu, Tomoji Yamakawa, Haruki Niwano, Satoru Wakasa, Tomonori Ooka, Hiroki Kato, Tsuyoshi Tachibana, Yoshiro Matsui
BACKGROUND: The indications of left-ventricular plication (LVP) are controversial, although several studies have reported favorable outcomes in heart failure patients. The aim of this study was to assess left-ventricular (LV) wall stress and myocardial remodeling after LVP in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Sixteen rats underwent LVP by excluding the LV anterior wall scar 4 weeks after ligation of the left anterior descending artery. After 4 weeks, LV wall stress was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography and an LV catheter...
November 25, 2016: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875475/scar-based-catheter-ablation-for-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#6
Pablo B Nery, Rebecca Thornhill, Girish M Nair, Elena Pena, Calum J Redpath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Percutaneous catheter ablation can be an effective treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. However, catheter ablation for the treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation is associated with success rates of 45-50% at 1 year. To address the challenge of ablating patients with persistent atrial fibrillation, several approaches have been proposed. Atrial scar-based catheter ablation is a promising strategy for ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875022/a-comparison-of-left-and-right-atrial-fibroblasts-reveals-different-collagen-production-activity-and-stress-induced-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-in-rats
#7
Cheng-Chih Chung, Yu-Hsun Kao, Chih-Jung Yao, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yi-Jen Chen
AIM: Atrial fibrosis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). The left atrium (LA) experiences greater fibrosis than the right atrium (RA) during HF. It is not clear whether LA cardiac fibroblasts contain distinctive activities that predispose LA to fibrosis. METHODS: LA and RA fibrosis were evaluated in healthy and isoproterenol induced HF Sprague-Dawley rats. Rat LA and RA primary isolated fibroblasts were subjected to proliferation assay, oxidative stress assay, cell migration analysis, collagen measurement, cytokine array and western blot...
November 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872050/experimental-systems-and-computational-approaches-to-understanding-the-microrna-mediated-reparative-potential-of-cardiac-progenitor-cell-derived-exosomes-from-pediatric-patients
#8
Udit Agarwal, Alex George, Srishti Bhutani, Shohini Ghosh-Choudhary, Josh T Maxwell, Milton E Brown, Yash Mehta, Manu O Platt, Yaxuan Liang, Susmita Sahoo, Michael E Davis
RATIONALE: Studies have demonstrated that exosomes can repair cardiac tissue post myocardial infarction (MI) and recapitulate the benefits of cellular therapy. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the role of donor age and hypoxia of human pediatric cardiac progenitor cell (CPC)-derived exosomes, in a rat model of ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human CPCs from the right atrial appendages from children of different ages undergoing cardiac surgery for congenital heart defects were isolated and cultured under hypoxic or normoxic conditions...
November 21, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830772/diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-management-of-exercise-induced-arrhythmias
#9
REVIEW
Eduard Guasch, Lluís Mont
The cardiovascular benefits of physical activity are indisputable. Nevertheless, growing evidence suggests that both atrial fibrillation and right ventricular arrhythmia can be caused by intense exercise in some individuals. Exercise-induced atrial fibrillation is most commonly diagnosed in middle-aged, otherwise healthy men who have been engaged in endurance training for >10 years, and is mediated by atrial dilatation, parasympathetic enhancement, and possibly atrial fibrosis. Cardiac ablation is evolving as a first-line tool for athletes with exercise-induced arrhythmia who are eager to remain active...
November 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826248/slow-conduction-in-the-border-zones-of-patchy-fibrosis-stabilizes-the-drivers-for-atrial-fibrillation-insights-from-multi-scale-human-atrial-modeling
#10
Ross Morgan, Michael A Colman, Henry Chubb, Gunnar Seemann, Oleg V Aslanidi
Introduction: The genesis of atrial fibrillation (AF) and success of AF ablation therapy have been strongly linked with atrial fibrosis. Increasing evidence suggests that patient-specific distributions of fibrosis may determine the locations of electrical drivers (rotors) sustaining AF, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aims to elucidate a missing mechanistic link between patient-specific fibrosis distributions and AF drivers. Methods: 3D atrial models integrated human atrial geometry, rule-based fiber orientation, region-specific electrophysiology, and AF-induced ionic remodeling...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818786/trpm7-is-down-regulated-in-both-left-atria-and-left-ventricle-of-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy-patients-and-highly-related-to-changes-in-ventricular-function
#11
Ana Ortega, Esther Roselló-Lletí, Estefanía Tarazón, Carolina Gil-Cayuela, Francisca Lago, Jose-Ramón González-Juanatey, Luis Martinez-Dolz, Manuel Portolés, Miguel Rivera
AIMS: The kinase ion channel transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is considered a modulator of cardiac fibrosis progression; nevertheless, we lack of studies analysing its role in human ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Our objective was to analyse the expression of genes encoding cardiac ion channels in human ICM, focusing on the alterations in mRNA levels of TRPM7 and its relationship with changes in the ventricular function. METHODS AND RESULTS: RNA-sequencing was carried out in 13 left ventricular (LV) samples of patients with ICM compared with a control group (n = 10)...
September 2016: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817748/dark-blood-late-enhancement-imaging
#12
Peter Kellman, Hui Xue, Laura J Olivieri, Russell R Cross, Elena K Grant, Marianna Fontana, Martin Ugander, James C Moon, Michael S Hansen
BACKGROUND: Bright blood late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging typically achieves excellent contrast between infarcted and normal myocardium. However, the contrast between the myocardial infarction (MI) and the blood pool is frequently suboptimal. A large fraction of infarctions caused by coronary artery disease are sub-endocardial and thus adjacent to the blood pool. It is not infrequent that sub-endocardial MIs are difficult to detect or clearly delineate. METHODS: In this present work, an inversion recovery (IR) T2 preparation was combined with single shot steady state free precession imaging and respiratory motion corrected averaging to achieve dark blood LGE images with good signal to noise ratio while maintaining the desired spatial and temporal resolution...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811208/application-of-biomarkers-for-risk-stratification-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#13
REVIEW
Ziad Hijazi, Jonas Oldgren, Agneta Siegbahn, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several strategies have been proposed for prediction of outcomes and individualization of treatments to better balance the benefits of stroke prevention and risks of bleeding during anticoagulation. CONTENT: The availability of analytically more specific and sensitive methods to measure circulating biomarkers of cellular and organ stress and dysfunction has led to testing of their utility in several cardiovascular conditions...
November 3, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780555/relation-of-left-atrial-size-to-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-aged-%C3%A2-22%C3%A2-years
#14
Douglas Y Mah, Divya Shakti, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Steven D Colan, Mark E Alexander, Dominic J Abrams, David W Brown
Left atrial (LA) dilation has been shown to be associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the adult population, with some studies indicating that larger LAs are more prone to AF recurrence. The relation of LA size to AF in the pediatric and young adult population has not been investigated. In this study, all pediatric patients (aged ≤22 years) who presented to Boston Children's Hospital from January 2002 to December 2012 with AF were reviewed. Patients with significant congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies, proven channelopathies, previous cardiac surgery, end-stage renal disease, or severe lung disease/cystic fibrosis were excluded...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766317/myocardial-architecture-and-patient-variability-in-clinical-patterns-of-atrial-fibrillation
#15
Kishan A Manani, Kim Christensen, Nicholas S Peters
Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4-5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF...
October 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758811/left-atrial-remodeling-and-atrioventricular-coupling-in-a-canine-model-of-early-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#16
Rosita Zakeri, Gilles Moulay, Qiang Chai, Ozgur Ogut, Saad Hussain, Hiroyuki Takahama, Tong Lu, Xiao-Li Wang, Wolfgang A Linke, Hon-Chi Lee, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) compliance and contractility influence left ventricular stroke volume. We hypothesized that diminished LA compliance and contractile function occur early during the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and impair overall cardiac performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, left ventricular and LA pressure-volume studies, and tissue analyses were performed in a model of early HFpEF (elderly dogs, renal wrap-induced hypertension, exogenous aldosterone; n=9) and young control dogs (sham surgery; n=13)...
October 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754006/js-ish-esh-2-update-on-the-detection-and-follow-up-of-early-hypertensive-heart-disease
#17
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741021/left-atrial-performance-in-the-course-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-relation-to-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis
#18
Johannes T Kowallick, Miguel Silva Vieira, Shelby Kutty, Joachim Lotz, Gerd Hasenfu, Amedeo Chiribiri, Andreas Schuster
OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with left atrial (LA) functional abnormalities. The determinants and the degree of LA dysfunction in the course of HCM are not fully understood. We aimed to characterize LA mechanics in HCM, according to the extent of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-three HCM patients and 23 age- and sex-matched controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)...
October 12, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729358/multimodality-cardiac-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-left-atrial-function-and-the-association-with-atrial-arrhythmias
#19
Flemming Javier Olsen, Litten Bertelsen, Martina Chantal de Knegt, Thomas Emil Christensen, Niels Vejlstrup, Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Jan Skov Jensen, Tor Biering-Sørensen
Several cardiac imaging modalities are able to visualize the left atrium (LA) and, therefore, allow for quantification of both structural and functional properties of this cardiac chamber. In echocardiography, only the maximal LA volume is included in the assessment of diastolic function at the current moment. Numerous studies, however, have shown that functional measures may be superior to the maximal LA volume in several aspects and to possess clinical value even in the absence of structural abnormalities...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707827/improved-exercise-tolerance-in-patients-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-by-spironolactone-on-myocardial-fibrosis-in-atrial-fibrillation-rationale-and-design-of-the-impress-af-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Eduard Shantsila, Ronnie Haynes, Melanie Calvert, James Fisher, Paulus Kirchhof, Paramjit S Gill, Gregory Y H Lip
INTRODUCTION: Patients with atrial fibrillation frequently suffer from heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. At present there is no proven therapy to improve physical capacity and quality of life in participants with permanent atrial fibrillation with preserved left ventricular contractility. OBJECTIVE: The single-centre IMproved exercise tolerance In heart failure With PReserved Ejection fraction by Spironolactone On myocardial fibrosiS In Atrial Fibrillation (IMPRESS-AF) trial aims to establish whether treatment with spironolactone as compared with placebo improves exercise tolerance (cardiopulmonary exercise testing), quality of life and diastolic function in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation...
October 5, 2016: BMJ Open
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