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Atrial fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339804/intra-cardiac-and-peripheral-levels-of-biochemical-markers-of-fibrosis-in-patients-undergoing-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Gordon A Begg, Rashed Karim, Tobias Oesterlein, Lee N Graham, Andrew J Hogarth, Stephen P Page, Christopher B Pepper, Kawal Rhode, Gregory Y H Lip, Arun V Holden, Sven Plein, Muzahir H Tayebjee
Aims: Measurement of circulating biomarkers of fibrosis may have a role in selecting patients and treatment strategy for catheter ablation. Pro-collagen type III N-terminal pro-peptide (PIIINP), C-telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and galectin 3 (gal-3) have all been suggested as possible biomarkers for this indication, but studies assessing whether peripheral levels reflect intra-cardiac levels are scarce. Methods and results: We studied 93 patients undergoing ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) (n = 63) or non-paroxysmal AF (n = 30)...
February 27, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335740/mir-21-enhances-cardiac-fibrotic-remodeling-and-fibroblast-proliferation-via-cadm1-stat3-pathway
#2
Wei Cao, Peng Shi, Jian-Jun Ge
BACKGROUND: Cardiac fibrosis play a key role in the atrial fibrillation pathogenesis but the underlying potential molecular mechanism is still understood. However, potential mechanisms for miR-21 upregulation and its role in cardiac fibrosis remain unclear. The controls cell proliferation and processes fundamental to disease progression. METHODS: In this study, immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, cell transfection, cell cycle, cell proliferation and Western blot were used, respectively...
March 23, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323847/role-of-the-mapks-tgf-%C3%AE-1-traf6-signaling-pathway-in-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Daoliang Zhang, Xiaoqing Chen, Qian Wang, Shaohui Wu, Yue Zheng, Xu Liu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between the MAPKs/TGF-β1/TRAF6 signaling pathway and atrial fibrosis in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and its role in atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery on the basis of our previous animal study of the MAPKs/TGF-β1/TRAF6 signaling pathway in atrial fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 57 patients with RHD without a history of AF consented to left atrial biopsy. Histopathology quantified the percentage of fibrosis, and real-time PCR and western blot assessed the mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β1, TRAF6, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320863/rac1-gtpase-regulates-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2-and-fibrotic-remodeling
#4
Daniel Lavall, Pia Schuster, Nadine Jacobs, Andrey Kazakov, Michael Böhm, Ulrich Laufs
The aim of the study was to characterize the role of Rac1 GTPase for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediated pro-fibrotic remodeling. Transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (RacET) develop an age-dependent phenotype with atrial dilatation, fibrosis and atrial fibrillation. Expression of MR was similar in RacET and wild-type (WT) mice. The expression of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) was age-dependently upregulated in the atria and the left ventricles of RacET mice on mRNA and protein level...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318874/metabolic-profile-provides-prognostic-value-better-than-galectin-3-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#5
Chao-Hung Wang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Min-Hui Liu, Li-Tang Kuo, Ming-Shi Shiao
BACKGROUND: Metabolic profiles have been shown to provide prognostic information in patients with heart failure (HF). Galectin-3 (Gal-3), indicating cardiac fibrosis, is a documented biomarker of prognosis in HF. It is unknown whether metabolic profiles provide prognostic value better than Gal-3. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study analyzed 212 hospitalized HF patients, measuring metabolic score (composed by butyrylcarnitine, dimethylarginine/arginine ratio, spermidine, and total essential amino acids) and Gal-3...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316992/a-combined-random-forests-and-active-contour-model-approach-for-fully-automatic-segmentation-of-the-left-atrium-in-volumetric-mri
#6
Chao Ma, Gongning Luo, Kuanquan Wang
Segmentation of the left atrium (LA) from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets is of great importance for image guided atrial fibrillation ablation, LA fibrosis quantification, and cardiac biophysical modelling. However, automated LA segmentation from cardiac MRI is challenging due to limited image resolution, considerable variability in anatomical structures across subjects, and dynamic motion of the heart. In this work, we propose a combined random forests (RFs) and active contour model (ACM) approach for fully automatic segmentation of the LA from cardiac volumetric MRI...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315199/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-beyond-coronary-artery-disease
#7
REVIEW
Revery P Barnes, John Charles A Lacson, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly afflicts people living with HIV (PLWH) in the contemporary era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most widely studied cardiovascular problem in PLWH; however, less is known about other clinically relevant subtypes of CVD such as heart failure (HF), cerebrovascular disease, sudden cardiac death, pericardial diseases, and pulmonary hypertension. This paper reviews evidence of other subtypes of CVD as emerging issues in the post-ART era...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296184/long-term-administration-of-pyridostigmine-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-inhibiting-calcineurin-signalling
#8
Yi Lu, Ming Zhao, Jin-Jun Liu, Xi He, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Long-Zhu Liu, Lei Sun, Li-Na Chen, Wei-Jin Zang
Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with autonomic imbalance, characterized by enhanced sympathetic activity and withdrawal of parasympathetic control. Increased parasympathetic function improves ventricular performance. However, whether pyridostigmine, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, can offset cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether pyridostigmine can ameliorate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying mechanisms...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296029/cd38-promotes-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#9
Xiao-Hui Guan, Xuan Hong, Ning Zhao, Xiao-Hong Liu, Yun-Fei Xiao, Ting-Tao Chen, Li-Bin Deng, Xiao-Lei Wang, Jian-Bin Wang, Guang-Ju Ji, Mingui Fu, Ke-Yu Deng, Hong-Bo Xin
Cardiac hypertrophy is an early hallmark during the clinical course of heart failure and regulated by various signalling pathways. Recently, we observed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts from CD38 knockout mice were significantly resistant to oxidative stress such as H2 O2 -induced injury and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury. In addition, we also found that CD38 knockout mice protected heart from ischaemia reperfusion injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. However, the role of CD38 in cardiac hypertrophy is not explored...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291708/transvenous-electrical-cardioversion-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-two-dogs
#10
S W Jung, D K Newhard, K Harrelson
Atrial fibrillation is characterized by uncoordinated electrical activation of the atria that leads to the loss of atrial mechanical function and atrial fibrosis as a substrate promoting maintenance of rhythm abnormality. Transvenous electrical cardioversion has not been previously reported in the dog. The authors demonstrate the use of this technique for successful cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in two dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.
March 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290846/-galectin-3-in-patients-with-paroxysmal-and-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-and-metabolic-syndrome
#11
V A A, E L Zaslavskaya, A V Soboleva, E I Baranova, O V Listopad, S E Nifontov, A O Nrady, E V Shlyakhto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum galectin 3 and to determine the potential clinical value of this parameter in patients with atrial fibrillation - AF (paroxysmal and persistent) and metabolic syndrome (MS). DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined 100 patients with MS (50 with paroxysmal or persistent AF and 50 without arrhythmia) and 50 healthy persons. Serum galectin 3 measured by ELISA method, ECHO cardiography was performed to all examined persons. RESULTS: Galectin 3 in patients with MS and AF was higher, than in patients with MS without arrhythmia and much more higher than galectin 3 in healthy persons 0,72 (0,44;1,36), 0,44 (0,42;1,22) and 0,32 (0,28;0,42) ng/ml (<0,01)...
June 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290548/atrial-structure-function-and-arrhythmogenesis-in-aged-and-frail-mice
#12
Hailey J Jansen, Motahareh Moghtadaei, Martin Mackasey, Sara A Rafferty, Oleg Bogachev, John L Sapp, Susan E Howlett, Robert A Rose
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is prevalent in aging populations; however not all individuals age at the same rate. Instead, individuals of the same chronological age can vary in health status from fit to frail. Our objective was to determine the impacts of age and frailty on atrial function and arrhythmogenesis in mice using a frailty index (FI). Aged mice were more frail and demonstrated longer lasting AF compared to young mice. Consistent with this, aged mice showed longer P wave duration and PR intervals; however, both parameters showed substantial variability suggesting differences in health status among mice of similar chronological age...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289072/downregulation-of-mir-15a-b-accelerates-fibrotic-remodelling-in-the-type-2-diabetic-human-and-mouse-heart
#13
Shruti Rawal, Pujika Emani Munasinghe, Prashanth Thevakar, Jason Kar Sheng Lew, Gregory T Jones, Michael Ja Willams, Philip Davis, Richard W Bunton, Ivor F Galvin, Patrick Manning, Regis R Lamberts, Rajesh G Katare
AIM: Myocardial fibrosis is a well established cause of increased myocardial stiffness and subsequent diastolic dysfunction in the diabetic heart. The molecular regulators that drive the process of fibrotic events in the diabetic heart are still unknown. We determined the role of the microRNA (miR)-15 family in fibrotic remodelling of the diabetic heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Right atrial appendage (RAA) and left ventricular (LV) biopsy tissues collected from diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery showed significant downregulation of miR-15a and -15b...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288202/presence-of-atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-liver-stiffness-in-an-elderly-finnish-population
#14
Aki Juhani Käräjämäki, Olli Kettunen, Samuli Lepojärvi, Olli-Pekka Koivurova, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Heikki Huikuri, Olavi Ukkola
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver injury from different etiologies drives liver fibrosis. However, little is known about the associated factors, systemic factors in particular. Recently, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atrial fibrillation have been shown to be associated with each other. Thereby, we aimed to study the association between atrial fibrillation and liver stiffness. STUDY: Extensive clinical measurements including echocardiography of the heart, transient elastography (TE) of the liver and the presence of atrial fibrillation were determined in elderly Finnish study subjects (n = 76, mean age 73 years) from OPERA (Oulu Project Elucidating the Risk of Atherosclerosis) study cohort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284503/renal-denervation-regulates-the-atrial-arrhythmogenic-substrates-through-reverse-structural-remodeling-in-heart-failure-rabbit-model
#15
Shinya Yamada, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Hui Chou, Wei-Lun Lin, Shih-Lin Chang, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) causes atrial remodeling and increases the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Renal denervation (RDN) has been shown to decrease the development of AF. This study aimed to identify the effects of RDN on the atrial arrhythmogenic substrates in HF. METHODS: Rabbits were classified into four groups: control (n=9), RDN (n=10), HF (n=6) and HF-RDN (n=9). Surgical and chemical RDN was approached through bilateral retroperitoneal flank incisions in RDN and HF-RDN...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282592/development-of-an-automaton-model-of-rotational-activity-driving-atrial-fibrillation
#16
E J Ciaccio, A B Biviano, E Y Wan, N S Peters, H Garan
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is difficult to treat effectively, owing to uncertainty in where to best ablate to eliminate arrhythmogenic substrate. A model providing insight into the electrical activation events would be useful to guide catheter ablation strategy. Method A two-dimensional, 576×576 node automaton was developed to simulate atrial electrical activity. The substrate field was altered by the presence of differing refractory period at varying locations. Fibrosis was added in the form of short, randomly positioned lines of conduction block...
March 2, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274110/the-role-of-myocardial-fibrosis-in-determining-the-success-rate-of-ablation-for-the-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Subothini Selvendran, Nikhil Aggarwal, Justin Li, Gary Tse, Vassilios S Vassiliou
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and with an aging population its prevalence will increase. In addition to appropriate anticoagulation to reduce the thromboembolic risk, there has been an increasing need for a personalised approach in identifying which patients are likely to benefit more from atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. This review will discuss the role of myocardial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation, its mechanistic role, association with biomarkers and how this could potentially be of use in the development of a risk score identifying the success of maintaining sinus rhythm following an electrophysiological ablation...
March 7, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271726/molecular-mechanisms-of-atrial-fibrosis-implications-for-the-clinic
#18
Shivshankar Thanigaimani, Dennis H Lau, Thomas Agbaedeng, Adrian D Elliott, Rajiv Mahajan, Prashanthan Sanders
Recent research has unravelled an increasing list of cardiac conditions and risk factors that may be responsible for the abnormal underlying atrial substrate that predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial fibrosis has been demonstrated as the pivotal structural abnormality underpinning conduction disturbances that promote AF in different disease models. Despite the advancement in our discoveries of the molecular mechanisms involved in the profibrotic milieu, targeted therapeutics against atrial fibrosis remain lacking...
March 8, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267962/relation-of-prolonged-p-wave-duration-to-risk-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-the-general-population-from-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#19
Ankit Maheshwari, Faye L Norby, Elsayed Z Soliman, M Chadi Alraies, Selcuk Adabag, Wesley T O'Neal, Alvaro Alonso, Lin Y Chen
Prolonged P-wave duration, a marker of left atrial abnormality, is associated with myocardial fibrosis, atrial fibrillation, and all-cause death. It is not known if prolonged P-wave duration is associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the general population. We aimed to evaluate whether prolonged P-wave duration is independently associated with SCD risk in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, a community-based prospective cohort study. We included 15,321 participants in our analysis (age 54.2 ± 5...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267896/treatment-of-supraventricular-tachycardia-in-a-horse
#20
Dorothy D Whelchel, Brett S Tennent-Brown, Amanda E Coleman, Gregg S Rapoport, Uriel Blas-Machado, Herbert W Maisenbacher, Brenton C Credille, Steeve Giguère
OBJECTIVE: To describe the treatment of persistent supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in a young horse in endurance training. CASE SUMMARY: A 6-year-old Arab gelding in endurance training presented for a dysrhythmia and decreased performance. SVT was diagnosed and conversion to a normal sinus rhythm was achieved following administration of a constant rate infusion of amiodarone. However, reversion to SVT occurred shortly after initiation of ridden exercise. A second attempt to convert the dysrhythmia with amiodarone failed, but normal sinus rhythm was achieved with transvenous electrical cardioversion (TVEC)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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