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Atrial fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091404/left-atrial-mechanical-function-and-aortic-stiffness-in-middle-aged-patients-with-the-first-episode-of-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Alev Kilicgedik, Suleyman Ç Efe, Ahmet S Gürbüz, Emrah Acar, Mehmet F Yılmaz, Aslan Erdoğan, Gökhan Kahveci, Ibrahim A Izgi, Cevat Kirma
BACKGROUND: In the early stages of atrial remodeling, aortic stiffness might be an indication of an atrial myopathy, in particular, atrial fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between left atrial (LA) mechanical function, assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, and aortic stiffness in middle-aged patients with the first episode of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: This prospective study included 34 consecutive patients with the first episode of AF, who were admitted to Kartal Koşuyolu Research and Training Hospital between May 2013 and October 2015, and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087602/novel-application-of-3d-contrast-enhanced-cmr-to-define-fibrotic-structure-of-the-human-sinoatrial-node-in-vivo
#2
Thomas A Csepe, Jichao Zhao, Lidiya V Sul, Yufeng Wang, Brian J Hansen, Ning Li, Anthony J Ignozzi, Anna Bratasz, Kimerly A Powell, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, John D Hummel, Orlando P Simonetti, Vadim V Fedorov
AIMS: The adult human sinoatrial node (SAN) has a specialized fibrotic intramural structure (35-55% fibrotic tissue) that provides mechanical and electrical protection from the surrounding atria. We hypothesize that late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) can be applied to define the fibrotic human SAN structure in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: LGE-CMR atrial scans of healthy volunteers (n olu, 23-52 y.o.) using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system with a spatial resolution of 1...
January 13, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079145/galectin-3-as-a-marker-of-interstitial-atrial-remodelling-involved-in-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Diana Hernández-Romero, Juan Antonio Vílchez, Álvaro Lahoz, Ana I Romero-Aniorte, Eva Jover, Arcadio García-Alberola, Rubén Jara-Rubio, Carlos M Martínez, Mariano Valdés, Francisco Marín
Remodelling in the atria could appear as a result of hypertension, diabetes or ischaemic heart disease. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a mediator of profibrotic pathways and a potential biomarker of cardiac remodelling. We prospectively recruited consecutive patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Preoperative Gal-3 levels were determined from serum samples, and the presence of fibrosis was assessed from atrial appendage tissue samples obtained during cardiac surgery. We included 100 patients with aortic valve or ischaemic heart diseases and 15 controls with permanent AF...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075624/use-of-preprocedural-mdct-for-cardiac-implantable-electric-device-lead-extraction-frequency-of-findings-that-change-management
#4
Wendy L Ehieli, Daniel T Boll, Daniele Marin, Robert Lewis, Jonathan P Piccini, Lynne M Hurwitz
OBJECTIVE: Five percent of cardiac implantable electric devices (CIEDs) are removed each year. Percutaneous extraction is preferred but can be complicated if the leads adhere to the vasculature or perforate. The goal of this study is to assess the frequency of findings on dedicated MDCT that alter preprocedural planning for percutaneous CIED extraction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients with CIEDs who underwent MDCT before percutaneous lead extraction were analyzed...
January 11, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064364/significance-of-right-atrial-tension-for-the-development-of-complications-in-patients-after-atriopulmonary-connection-fontan-procedure-potential-indicator-for-fontan-conversion
#5
Gaku Izumi, Hideaki Senzaki, Atsuhito Takeda, Hirokuni Yamazawa, Kohta Takei, Takuo Furukawa, Kei Inai, Tokuko Shinohara, Toshio Nakanishi
Elevated right atrial (RA) pressure and progressive RA dilation are thought to play pivotal roles in the development of late complications after atriopulmonary connection (APC) Fontan surgery. However, no clear cut-off value for RA pressure or RA volume has been determined for stratifying the risk of developing Fontan complications. We hypothesized that RA tension, which incorporates information about both RA pressure and volume, might help predict the risk of developing complications. We retrospectively studied 51 consecutive APC Fontan patients (median postoperative period 14 years)...
January 7, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062142/aldosterone-pathway-blockade-to-prevent-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
J Neefs, N W E van den Berg, J Limpens, W R Berger, S M Boekholdt, P Sanders, J R de Groot
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in therapeutic interventions AF remains a progressive and symptomatic disease. Therefore, novel therapeutic interventions targeting the underlying arrhythmogenic substrate for AF is needed. Atrial fibrosis is an important component of the arrhythmogenic substrate of AF and may be initiated by aldosterone binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor. We hypothesized that aldosterone pathway blockade with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) reduces atrial fibrosis, and thus AF...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057790/novel-risk-markers-and-risk-assessments-for-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Mark R Thomas, Gregory Y H Lip
The use of risk markers has transformed cardiovascular medicine, exemplified by the routine assessment of troponin, for both diagnosis and assessment of prognosis in patients with chest pain. Clinical risk factors form the basis for risk assessment of cardiovascular disease and the addition of biochemical, cellular, and imaging parameters offers further refinement. Identifying novel risk factors may allow greater risk stratification and a steady, but gradual progression toward precision medicine. Indeed, the generation of data in this area of research is explosive and when combined with new technologies and techniques provides the potential for more refined, targeted approaches to cardiovascular medicine...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054377/left-atrial-substrate-modification-targeting-low-voltage-areas-for-catheter-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Alessandro Blandino, Francesca Bianchi, Stefano Grossi, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Maria Rosa Conte, Luca Gaido, Fiorenzo Gaita, Marco Scaglione, Francesco Rametta
BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis aims to assess the impact of a voltage-guided substrate modification by targeting low-voltage area (LVA) in addition to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library and references reporting AF ablation and 'voltage* OR substrate* OR fibrosis OR fibrotic area* were screened and studies included if matching inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 5, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049526/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-protects-against-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-vascular-endothelial-cells-in-mice-anp-for-pulmonary-fibrosis
#9
Atsuko Okamoto, Takashi Nojiri, Kazuhisa Konishi, Takeshi Tokudome, Koichi Miura, Hiroshi Hosoda, Jun Hino, Mikiya Miyazato, Yohkoh Kyomoto, Kazuhisa Asai, Kazuto Hirata, Kenji Kangawa
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive dyspnea and worsening pulmonary function. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a heart-derived secretory peptide used clinically in Japan for the treatment of acute heart failure, exerts a wide range of protective effects on various organs, including the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and lungs. Its therapeutic properties are characterized by anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities mediated by the guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor...
January 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039211/long-term-follow-up-of-patients-with-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-and-severe-left-atrial-scarring-comparison-between-pulmonary-vein-antrum-isolation-only-or-pulmonary-vein-isolation-combined-with-either-scar-homogenization-or-trigger-ablation
#10
Sanghamitra Mohanty, Prasant Mohanty, Luigi Di Biase, Chintan Trivedi, Eli Hamilton Morris, Carola Gianni, Pasquale Santangeli, Rong Bai, Javier E Sanchez, Patrick Hranitzky, G Joseph Gallinghouse, Amin Al-Ahmad, Rodney P Horton, Richard Hongo, Salwa Beheiry, Claude S Elayi, Dhanunjaya Lakkireddy, Yaruva Madhu Reddy, Juan F Viles Gonzalez, J David Burkhardt, Andrea Natale
AIMS: Left atrial (LA) scarring, a consequence of cardiac fibrosis is a powerful predictor of procedure-outcome in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing catheter ablation. We sought to compare the long-term outcome in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) and severe LA scarring identified by 3D mapping, undergoing pulmonary vein isolation (PVAI) only or PVAI and the entire scar areas (scar homogenization) or PVAI+ ablation of the non-PV triggers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Totally, 177 consecutive patients with PAF and severe LA scarring were included...
December 29, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029581/right-atrial-appendage-aneurysms-in-veal-calves-and-beef-cattle-anatomopathological-investigations-and-aetiopathogenetic-hypotheses
#11
I Biasato, E Biasibetti, S Gili, G Bruatto, A Tarducci, F Guarda, M T Capucchio
OBJECTIVES: Right atrial aneurysms have been reported in bovine species, but a clear aetiopathogenesis has never been elucidated. ANIMALS: One thousand and seventy-nine veal calves (6-9 months old) and 313 beef cattle (10-24 months old) housed in intensive livestock farming systems and regularly slaughtered were included in the present study. METHODS: Hearts were externally examined and the identified right atrial aneurysms were submitted for gross and histopathological investigations...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011843/histological-evidence-of-inflammatory-reaction-associated-with-fibrosis-in-the-atrial-and-ventricular-walls-in-a-case-control-study-of-patients-with-history-of-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Lubov B Mitrofanova, Victoria Orshanskaya, Siew Yen Ho, Pyotr G Platonov
AIMS: Chronic inflammation in the atrial myocardium was shown to play an important role in the development of atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is not clear to what extent atrial inflammatory reaction associated with AF extends on the ventricular myocardium. Our aim was to assess the extent of fibrosis and lymphomononuclear infiltration in human ventricular myocardium and explore its association with AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Medical records from consecutive autopsies were checked for presence of AF...
December 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011842/modelling-methodology-of-atrial-fibrosis-affects-rotor-dynamics-and-electrograms
#13
Caroline H Roney, Jason D Bayer, Sohail Zahid, Marianna Meo, Patrick M J Boyle, Natalia A Trayanova, Michel Haïssaguerre, Rémi Dubois, Hubert Cochet, Edward J Vigmond
AIMS: Catheter ablation is an effective technique for terminating atrial arrhythmia. However, given a high atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence rate, optimal ablation strategies have yet to be defined. Computer modelling can be a powerful aid but modelling of fibrosis, a major factor associated with AF, is an open question. Several groups have proposed methodologies based on imaging data, but no comparison to determine which methodology best corroborates clinically observed reentrant behaviour has been performed...
December 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011841/towards-personalized-computational-modelling-of-the-fibrotic-substrate-for-atrial-arrhythmia
#14
Patrick M Boyle, Sohail Zahid, Natalia A Trayanova
: Atrial arrhythmias involving a fibrotic substrate are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In many cases, effective treatment of such rhythm disorders is severely hindered by a lack of mechanistic understanding relating features of fibrotic remodelling to dynamics of re-entrant arrhythmia. With the advent of clinical imaging modalities capable of resolving the unique fibrosis spatial pattern present in the atria of each individual patient, a promising new research trajectory has emerged in which personalized computational models are used to analyse mechanistic underpinnings of arrhythmia dynamics based on the distribution of fibrotic tissue...
December 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006695/role-of-atrial-endothelial-cells-in-the-development-of-atrial-fibrosis-and-fibrillation-in-response-to-pressure-overload
#15
Osamu Kume, Yasushi Teshima, Ichitaro Abe, Yuki Ikebe, Takahiro Oniki, Hidekazu Kondo, Shotaro Saito, Akira Fukui, Kunio Yufu, Masahiro Miura, Tatsuo Shimada, Naohiko Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-mediated inflammatory mechanisms have been shown to play a crucial role in atrial fibrosis induced by pressure overload. In the present study, we investigated whether left atrial endothelial cells would quickly respond structurally and functionally to pressure overload to trigger atrial fibrosis and fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent suprarenal abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or a sham operation...
December 15, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996023/feasibility-study-on-cardiac-arrhythmia-ablation-using-high-energy-heavy-ion-beams
#16
H Immo Lehmann, Christian Graeff, Palma Simoniello, Anna Constantinescu, Mitsuru Takami, Patrick Lugenbiel, Daniel Richter, Anna Eichhorn, Matthias Prall, Robert Kaderka, Fine Fiedler, Stephan Helmbrecht, Claudia Fournier, Nadine Erbeldinger, Ann-Kathrin Rahm, Rasmus Rivinius, Dierk Thomas, Hugo A Katus, Susan B Johnson, Kay D Parker, Jürgen Debus, Samuel J Asirvatham, Christoph Bert, Marco Durante, Douglas L Packer
High-energy ion beams are successfully used in cancer therapy and precisely deliver high doses of ionizing radiation to small deep-seated target volumes. A similar noninvasive treatment modality for cardiac arrhythmias was tested here. This study used high-energy carbon ions for ablation of cardiac tissue in pigs. Doses of 25, 40, and 55 Gy were applied in forced-breath-hold to the atrioventricular junction, left atrial pulmonary vein junction, and freewall left ventricle of intact animals. Procedural success was tracked by (1...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974408/interstitial-fibrosis-functional-status-and-outcomes-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-insights-from-a-prospective-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#17
Franz Duca, Andreas A Kammerlander, Caroline Zotter-Tufaro, Stefan Aschauer, Marianne L Schwaiger, Beatrice A Marzluf, Diana Bonderman, Julia Mascherbauer
BACKGROUND: Myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) accumulation is one of the key pathophysiologic features of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Our aims were to (1) measure ECV by cardiac magnetic resonance T1 mapping using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence, (2) validate MOLLI-ECV against histology, and (3) investigate the relationship between MOLLI-ECV and prognosis in HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred seventeen consecutive HFpEF patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, coronary angiography, and invasive hemodynamic assessments at baseline...
December 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956913/myxoma-immediately-above-the-junction-of-the-inferior-vena-cava-and-the-right-atrium-a-rare-cause-of-budd-chiari-syndrome
#18
Vahid Mohammad Karimi, Amir Anushiravani, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Massood Hosseinzadeh, Ali Reza Rasekhi, Mahmoud Zamirian, Amir Anushiravani
The Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare disorder caused by the obstruction of the hepatic veins or the inferior vena cava (IVC) at the suprahepatic level. This syndrome is developed by either hepatic vein thrombosis or mechanical venous obstruction and leads to centrilobular hepatic congestion with the subsequent development of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Intracardiac tumors have been rarely reported as a cause of the BCS. These tumors usually originate from the atrial septum. Very rarely, they arise either from the junction of the IVC and the right atrium or from the Eustachian valve...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940935/left-atrial-fibrosis-quantification-by-late-gadolinium-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-a-new-method-to-standardize-the-thresholds-for-reproducibility
#19
Eva M Benito, Alicia Carlosena-Remirez, Eduard Guasch, Susana Prat-González, Rosario J Perea, Rosa Figueras, Roger Borràs, David Andreu, Elena Arbelo, J Maria Tolosana, Felipe Bisbal, Josep Brugada, Antonio Berruezo, Lluis Mont
AIMS: Identification of left atrial (LA) fibrosis through late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) remains controversial due to the heterogeneity and lack of reproducibility of proposed methods. Our aim is to describe a normalized, reproducible, standardized method to evaluate LA fibrosis through LGE-CMR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Electrocardiogram- and respiratory-gated 3-Tesla LGE-CMR was performed in 10 healthy young volunteers and 30 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF): 10 with paroxysmal AF, 10 with persistent AF, and 10 with a previous AF ablation procedure...
December 8, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939890/lumican-null-mice-are-susceptible-to-aging-and-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-fibrosis
#20
Shao-Wei Chen, Ying-Chang Tung, Shih-Ming Jung, Yen Chu, Pyng-Jing Lin, Winston W-Y Kao, Pao-Hsien Chu
With aging and stress, the myocardium undergoes structural remodeling, often leading to fibrosis. The purpose of this study is to examine whether lumican, one of the class II small leucine-rich proteoglycans, has a protective role in cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. In attempts to elucidate the hypothesis that lumican may have a protective role in cardiac remodeling and fibrosis, we compared the cardiac phenotypes of young (3-month-old) and elder (6-month- and 12-month-old) lumican-null (Lum(-/-)) mice. Extra-cellular matrix remodeling and apoptosis are examined to determine the roles of lumican on age-dependent cardiac fibrosis induced by isoproterenol...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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