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Atrial fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427903/atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-in-human-left-atrium-and-treatment-with-decitabine-reduces-atrial-tachyarrhythmias-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
R Doñate Puertas, E Meugnier, C Romestaing, C Rey, E Morel, J Lachuer, N Gadot, A Scridon, C Julien, F Tronc, B Chapuis, C Valla, A Janin, L Pirola, A Méjat, S Rome, P Chevalier
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. As the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology are largely unknown, this cardiac arrhythmia remains difficult to treat. To identify specific molecular actors involved in AF, we have performed a transcriptomic analysis on left atrium (LA) from patients with valvular heart disease with or without AF. We showed that 1627 genes had altered basal expression level in LA tissue of AF patients compared with the control group. The significantly enriched gene ontology biological process "anatomical structure morphogenesis" contained the highest number of genes in line with changes in structure that occur when the human heart remodels following AF development (ie, LA dilatation and interstitial fibrosis)...
March 30, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418895/gender-differences-in-fibrosis-remodeling-in-patients-with-long-standing-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Zhi Li, Zengwei Wang, Zongtao Yin, Yuji Zhang, Xiaodong Xue, Jinsong Han, Yan Zhu, Jian Zhang, Maximilian Y Emmert, Huishan Wang
The success rate of catheter ablation in atrial fibrillation (AF) is known to be lower in females than in males. However, while the exact mechanism for this phenomenon remains to be elucidated, tissue fibrosis may play an important role in this regard. It has been shown that fibrosis promotes AF and its recurrence, thereby substantially reducing the efficacy of catheter ablation in AF patients. Thus, we hypothesized that fibrosis may contribute to gender differences in the outcomes of AF catheter ablation.Here we systematically assessed pulmonary vein sleeves obtained from 166 patients with and without long-standing persistent-AF (LSP-AF) in order to identify gender-specific mechanistic differences in fibrosis remodeling of AF patients...
March 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412087/pregestational-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-induces-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-the-murine-embryo-through-cardiac-remodeling-and-fibrosis
#3
Xue Lin, Penghua Yang, E Albert Reece, Peixin Yang
BACKGROUND: Cardiac hypertrophy is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Experimental evidence has implied that pregnant women with T2DM and their children are at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous mouse model study has revealed that maternal T2DM induces structural heart defects in their offspring. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to determine whether maternal T2DM induces embryonic heart hypertrophy in a murine model of diabetic embryopathy...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402411/impact-of-acute-hypertension-transients-on-diastolic-function-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#4
Candelas Pérez Del Villar, Konstantinos Savvatis, Begoña López, Mario Kasner, Pablo Martinez-Legazpi, Raquel Yotti, Arantxa González, Javier Díez, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Carsten Tschöpe, Javier Bermejo
Aim: To address the mechanisms responsible for the increase in LV filling pressures induced by acute hypertension transients in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods and results: Multiple-beat pressure-volume loops were recorded during inferior vena cava occlusion in 39 HFpEF patients and 20 controls during handgrip and atrial pacing. We measured the contribution of relaxation, elastic recoil, and stiffness to instantaneous diastolic pressure using a novel processing method...
April 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402037/atrial-electrophysiological-and-molecular-remodelling-induced-by-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#5
Devika Channaveerappa, Jacob C Lux, Kelly L Wormwood, Timothy A Heintz, Meredith McLerie, Jacqueline A Treat, Hannah King, Donia Alnasser, Robert J Goodrow, Glenn Ballard, Robert Decker, Costel C Darie, Brian K Panama
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) affects 9-24% of the adult population. OSA is associated with atrial disease, including atrial enlargement, fibrosis and arrhythmias. Despite the link between OSA and cardiac disease, the molecular changes in the heart which occur with OSA remain elusive. To study OSA-induced cardiac changes, we utilized a recently developed rat model which closely recapitulates the characteristics of OSA. Male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 50-70 days, received surgically implanted tracheal balloons which were inflated to cause transient airway obstructions...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397812/upregulation-of-sestrins-protect-atriums-against-oxidative-damage-and-fibrosis-in-human-and-experimental-atrial-fibrillation
#6
Zengxiang Dong, Chaolan Lin, Yujiao Liu, Hongbo Jin, Hong Wu, Zhenjun Li, Liping Sun, Lu Zhang, Xi Hu, Yingying Wei, Chengcheng Wang, Wei Han
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is common in the elderly and Sestrins (Sesns) have been suggested to prevent age-related pathologies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Sesns in AF. Clinical data were collected and a small sample of atrial appendage and atrium was obtained from patients undergoing valve repairment. The expression of Sesn1, Sesn2, and Sesn3 was significantly higher in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (PmAF) than that in sinus rhythm (SR), and further greater in the left atrium than the right in PmAF patients...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395012/extensive-atrial-fibrosis-assessed-by-late-gadolinium-enhancement-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-associated-with-advanced-interatrial-block-electrocardiogram-pattern
#7
Eva María Benito, Antonio Bayés De Luna, Adrian Baranchuk, Lluis Mont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382425/characteristics-of-pr-interval-as-predictor-for-atrial-fibrillation-association-with-biomarkers-and-outcomes
#8
REVIEW
Katja Schumacher, Nikolaos Dagres, Gerhard Hindricks, Daniela Husser, Andreas Bollmann, Jelena Kornej
The PR interval may be considered as a simple and easily obtainable predictor for adverse events, including atrial fibrillation (AF), pacemaker implantation, and mortality. Interestingly, both high and low extremes of the PR duration are associated with AF risk. However, the results regarding PR prolongation as a risk factor for AF are inconsistent. Some studies have analyzed the impact of P duration (as a part of the PR interval) and demonstrated that the P-duration contributes to the length of PR interval and adverse outcomes...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381466/intracellular-angiotensin-ii-interacts-with-nuclear-angiotensin-receptors-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-and-regulates-rna-synthesis-cell-proliferation-and-collagen-secretion
#9
Artavazd Tadevosyan, Jiening Xiao, Sirirat Surinkaew, Patrice Naud, Clémence Merlen, Masahide Harada, Xiaoyan Qi, David Chatenet, Alain Fournier, Bruce G Allen, Stanley Nattel
BACKGROUND: Cardiac fibroblasts play important functional and pathophysiological roles. Intracellular ("intracrine") angiotensin-II (Ang-II) signaling regulates intercellular communication, excitability, and gene expression in cardiomyocytes; however, the existence and role of intracrine Ang-II signaling in cardiac fibroblasts is unstudied. Here, we evaluated the localization of Ang-II receptors on atrial fibroblast nuclei and associated intracrine effects of potential functional significance...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367863/ginsenoside-rb1-improves-cardiac-function-and-remodeling-in-heart-failure
#10
Xian Zheng, Shuai Wang, Xiaoming Zou, Yating Jing, Ronglai Yang, Siqi Li, Fengrong Wang
We investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on cardiac function and remodeling in heart failure (HF). Four weeks after HF induction, the rats were administrated with ginsenoside Rb1 (35 and 70 mg/kg) and losartan (4.5 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Losartan was used as a positive control. Cardiac function was assessed by measuring hemodynamic parameters. Histological changes were analyzed by HE and Masson's trichrome staining. Cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) levels were evaluated...
March 30, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344125/capadenoson-a-clinically-trialed-partial-adenosine-a1-receptor-agonist-can-stimulate-adenosine-a2b-receptor-biased-agonism
#11
Jo-Anne Baltos, Elizabeth A Vecchio, Matthew A Harris, Cheng Xue Qin, Rebecca H Ritchie, Arthur Christopoulos, Paul J White, Lauren T May
The adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR) has been identified as an important therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease, however in vitro and in vivo targeting has been limited by the paucity of pharmacological tools, particularly potent agonists. Interestingly, 2-((6-amino-3,5-dicyano-4-(4-(cyclopropylmethoxy)phenyl)-2-pyridinyl)thio)acetamide (BAY60-6583), a potent and subtype-selective A2BAR agonist, has the same core structure as 2-amino-6-[[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]methylsulfanyl]-4-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)phenyl]pyridine-3,5-dicarbonitril (capadenoson)...
March 23, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339804/intra-cardiac-and-peripheral-levels-of-biochemical-markers-of-fibrosis-in-patients-undergoing-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Gordon A Begg, Rashed Karim, Tobias Oesterlein, Lee N Graham, Andrew J Hogarth, Stephen P Page, Christopher B Pepper, Kawal Rhode, Gregory Y H Lip, Arun V Holden, Sven Plein, Muzahir H Tayebjee
Aims: Measurement of circulating biomarkers of fibrosis may have a role in selecting patients and treatment strategy for catheter ablation. Pro-collagen type III N-terminal pro-peptide (PIIINP), C-telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and galectin 3 (gal-3) have all been suggested as possible biomarkers for this indication, but studies assessing whether peripheral levels reflect intra-cardiac levels are scarce. Methods and results: We studied 93 patients undergoing ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) (n = 63) or non-paroxysmal AF (n = 30)...
February 27, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335740/mir-21-enhances-cardiac-fibrotic-remodeling-and-fibroblast-proliferation-via-cadm1-stat3-pathway
#13
Wei Cao, Peng Shi, Jian-Jun Ge
BACKGROUND: Cardiac fibrosis play a key role in the atrial fibrillation pathogenesis but the underlying potential molecular mechanism is still understood. However, potential mechanisms for miR-21 upregulation and its role in cardiac fibrosis remain unclear. The controls cell proliferation and processes fundamental to disease progression. METHODS: In this study, immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, cell transfection, cell cycle, cell proliferation and Western blot were used, respectively...
March 23, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323847/role-of-the-mapks-tgf-%C3%AE-1-traf6-signaling-pathway-in-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation
#14
Daoliang Zhang, Xiaoqing Chen, Qian Wang, Shaohui Wu, Yue Zheng, Xu Liu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between the MAPKs/TGF-β1/TRAF6 signaling pathway and atrial fibrosis in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and its role in atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery on the basis of our previous animal study of the MAPKs/TGF-β1/TRAF6 signaling pathway in atrial fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 57 patients with RHD without a history of AF consented to left atrial biopsy. Histopathology quantified the percentage of fibrosis, and real-time PCR and western blot assessed the mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β1, TRAF6, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320863/rac1-gtpase-regulates-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2-and-fibrotic-remodeling
#15
Daniel Lavall, Pia Schuster, Nadine Jacobs, Andrey Kazakov, Michael Böhm, Ulrich Laufs
The aim of the study was to characterize the role of Rac1 GTPase for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediated pro-fibrotic remodeling. Transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (RacET) develop an age-dependent phenotype with atrial dilatation, fibrosis and atrial fibrillation. Expression of MR was similar in RacET and wild-type (WT) mice. The expression of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) was age-dependently upregulated in the atria and the left ventricles of RacET mice on mRNA and protein level...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318874/metabolic-profile-provides-prognostic-value-better-than-galectin-3-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#16
Chao-Hung Wang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Min-Hui Liu, Li-Tang Kuo, Ming-Shi Shiao
BACKGROUND: Metabolic profiles have been shown to provide prognostic information in patients with heart failure (HF). Galectin-3 (Gal-3), indicating cardiac fibrosis, is a documented biomarker of prognosis in HF. It is unknown whether metabolic profiles provide prognostic value better than Gal-3. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study analyzed 212 hospitalized HF patients, measuring metabolic score (composed by butyrylcarnitine, dimethylarginine/arginine ratio, spermidine, and total essential amino acids) and Gal-3...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316992/a-combined-random-forests-and-active-contour-model-approach-for-fully-automatic-segmentation-of-the-left-atrium-in-volumetric-mri
#17
Chao Ma, Gongning Luo, Kuanquan Wang
Segmentation of the left atrium (LA) from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets is of great importance for image guided atrial fibrillation ablation, LA fibrosis quantification, and cardiac biophysical modelling. However, automated LA segmentation from cardiac MRI is challenging due to limited image resolution, considerable variability in anatomical structures across subjects, and dynamic motion of the heart. In this work, we propose a combined random forests (RFs) and active contour model (ACM) approach for fully automatic segmentation of the LA from cardiac volumetric MRI...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315199/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-beyond-coronary-artery-disease
#18
REVIEW
Revery P Barnes, John Charles A Lacson, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly afflicts people living with HIV (PLWH) in the contemporary era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most widely studied cardiovascular problem in PLWH; however, less is known about other clinically relevant subtypes of CVD such as heart failure (HF), cerebrovascular disease, sudden cardiac death, pericardial diseases, and pulmonary hypertension. This paper reviews evidence of other subtypes of CVD as emerging issues in the post-ART era...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296184/long-term-administration-of-pyridostigmine-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-inhibiting-calcineurin-signalling
#19
Yi Lu, Ming Zhao, Jin-Jun Liu, Xi He, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Long-Zhu Liu, Lei Sun, Li-Na Chen, Wei-Jin Zang
Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with autonomic imbalance, characterized by enhanced sympathetic activity and withdrawal of parasympathetic control. Increased parasympathetic function improves ventricular performance. However, whether pyridostigmine, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, can offset cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether pyridostigmine can ameliorate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying mechanisms...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296029/cd38-promotes-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#20
Xiao-Hui Guan, Xuan Hong, Ning Zhao, Xiao-Hong Liu, Yun-Fei Xiao, Ting-Tao Chen, Li-Bin Deng, Xiao-Lei Wang, Jian-Bin Wang, Guang-Ju Ji, Mingui Fu, Ke-Yu Deng, Hong-Bo Xin
Cardiac hypertrophy is an early hallmark during the clinical course of heart failure and regulated by various signalling pathways. Recently, we observed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts from CD38 knockout mice were significantly resistant to oxidative stress such as H2 O2 -induced injury and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury. In addition, we also found that CD38 knockout mice protected heart from ischaemia reperfusion injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. However, the role of CD38 in cardiac hypertrophy is not explored...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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