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neuropsychological testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811256/cognitive-estimation-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-and-posterior-lesions
#1
Lisa Cipolotti, Sarah E MacPherson, Sara Gharooni, Natasja van-Harskamp, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Parashkev Nachev
The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is a widely used test to investigate estimation abilities requiring complex processes such as reasoning, the development and application of appropriate strategies, response plausibility checking as well as general knowledge and numeracy (e.g., Shallice and Evans, 1978; MacPherson et al., 2014). Thus far, it remains unknown whether the CET is both sensitive and specific to frontal lobe dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques may not represent a useful methodology for answering this question since the complex processes involved are likely to be associated with a large network of brain regions, some of which are not functionally necessary to successfully carry out the CET...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810593/carotid-atherosclerosis-promotes-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-three-year-prospective-study
#2
Jing Xiang
Although cerebrovascular diseases have been considered as risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia, the associations between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been fully examined and remain controversial. The aim of this three-year prospective study was to investigate whether arotid artery atherosclerosis accelerates cognitive impairment in AD patients. The association of carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) with prospective trajectories of cognitive function was assessed among 521 patients with light to moderate AD, and 437 AD patients were followed up annually for 3 years...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810286/-driving-ability-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Carsten Buhmann, Jan Vesper, Henriette Oelsner
About 60 % of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and about 50 % of PD patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in possession of a driving license are active car-drivers. Parkinson patients, however, often display physical and/or psychological weaknesses that can lead to loss of or reduced driving ability. Driving capability can also be affected by Parkinson medication. The attending physician is therefore obliged to advise his patients regarding their ability to be in command of a vehicle. This however can prove difficult in practice...
August 15, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807493/homocysteine-and-cognitive-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Nicole Licking, Charles Murchison, Brenna Cholerton, Cyrus P Zabetian, Shu-Ching Hu, Thomas J Montine, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Kathryn A Chung, Karen Edwards, James B Leverenz, Joseph F Quinn
INTRODUCTION: Increased plasma homocysteine (HC) is a risk factor for dementia in the general population. Levodopa therapy causes increased plasma HC, but it remains unclear whether elevated plasma HC is associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The study population includes all participants in the Pacific Northwest Udall Center (PANUC) Clinical cohort at the time of the study, consisting of 294 individuals with PD who had a standardized neuropsychological assessment and plasma collection for HC measurement...
August 9, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807191/cognitive-and-motor-performance-in-congolese-children-with-konzo-during-4-years-of-follow-up-a-longitudinal-analysis
#5
Michael J Boivin, Daniel Okitundu, Bumoko Makila-Mabe, Marie-Therese Sombo, Dieudonne Mumba, Alla Sikorskii, Banea Mayambu, Desire Tshala-Katumbay
BACKGROUND: Konzo is an irreversible upper-motor neuron disorder affecting children dependent on bitter cassava for food. The neurocognitive ability of children with konzo over time has yet to be fully documented. METHODS: We did a longitudinal study in a konzo outbreak zone continuously affected by konzo since 1990, in the district of Kahemba, southern Bandundu Province, Congo. We enrolled children with a record of neurological diagnosis of konzo in Kahemba town...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#6
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802628/physical-activity-domains-and-cognitive-function-over-three-years-in-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints-secondary-analysis-from-the-mapt-trial
#7
Philipe de Souto Barreto, Sandrine Andrieu, Yves Rolland, Bruno Vellas
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the associations of physical activity (PA) domains (i.e., PA in leisure-time (LTPA), for housework (HPA), or for gardening (GPA)) with cognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaints (no-dementia) and to investigate if those associations were dependent on the status of apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), omega-3 levels and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: Observational prospective secondary analysis using longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801973/cognitive-functioning-in-children-with-self-limited-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Steven Wickens, Stephen C Bowden, Wendyl D'Souza
OBJECTIVE: It is now well appreciated that benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS, or more recently, ECTS) is associated with a range of cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Despite our improved understanding of cognitive functioning in ECTS, there have been to date no efforts to quantitatively synthesize the available literature within a comprehensive cognitive framework. METHODS: The present systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines...
August 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800514/the-relationship-between-executive-functions-and-fluid-intelligence-in-euthymic-bipolar-disorder-patients
#9
Belén Goitia, Facundo Manes, Teresa Torralva, Mariano Sigman, John Duncan, Marcelo Cetkovich, María Roca
Distinct cognitive deficits have been described in Bipolar disorder (BD), including executive impairments, commonly attributed to frontal dysfunction. However, recent attention has been paid to the heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in this population, suggesting that the executive deficits observed in BD might be due to a loss in fluid intelligence (g). Following our previous line of investigation in multiple neurological and psychiatric conditions we aimed at determining the role of g in frontal deficits in BD...
August 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798677/measurement-of-the-perception-of-control-during-continuous-movement-using-electroencephalography
#10
Wen Wen, Atsushi Yamashita, Hajime Asama
"Sense of control" refers to the subjective feeling of control over external events. Numerous neuropsychological studies have investigated the neural basis of the sense of control during action performance; however, most previous studies have focused on responses to a single discrete action outcome rather than real-time processing of action-outcome sequences. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether certain patterns of brain activation are associated with the perceived control during continuous movement...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798299/diabetes-mellitus-is-associated-with-more-severe-brain-spontaneous-activity-impairment-and-gray-matter-loss-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#11
Yun Fei Wang, Xiang Kong, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang
Recent studies showed many cirrhosis patients may have diabetes mellitus (DM), however, the effect of DM on brain in cirrhotic patients is unclear. This study included 34 cirrhosis patients (17 with DM, 17 without DM) and 17 age-, sex-matched healthy controls. MRI examination and neuropsychological tests were performed. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and voxel-based morphometry algorithms were used to obtain fALFF values and gray matter volume, which were compared and correlated with clinical variables...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797312/self-perceived-difficulties-in-everyday-function-precede-cognitive-decline-among-older-adults-in-the-active-study
#12
Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, Tania Giovannetti, Brennan R Payne, Michael Marsiske, George W Rebok, K Warner Schaie, Kelsey R Thomas, Sherry L Willis, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Frederick Unverzagt, Alden L Gross
OBJECTIVES: Careful characterization of how functional decline co-evolves with cognitive decline in older adults has yet to be well described. Most models of neurodegenerative disease postulate that cognitive decline predates and potentially leads to declines in everyday functional abilities; however, there is mounting evidence that subtle decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) may be detectable in older individuals who are still cognitively normal. METHODS: The present study examines how the relationship between change in cognition and change in IADLs are best characterized among older adults who participated in the ACTIVE trial...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797021/personalized-risk-index-for-neurocognitive-decline-among-people-with-well-controlled-hiv-infection
#13
Tracy Yuen, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Lesley K Fellows, Ronald J Ellis, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Nancy Mayo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the predictors of neurocognitive decline in HIV+ individuals with good virological control. Identification of modifiable risk factors would allow targeted interventions to reduce the risk of decline in higher risk individuals. The objective of this study was to develop a risk index to predict neurocognitive decline over 3 years in aviremic HIV+ individuals. METHODS: As part of the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study, HIV+ adults completed clinical evaluation and neuropsychological tests every 6 months...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796748/diffusion-basis-spectral-imaging-detects-ongoing-brain-inflammation-in-virologically-well-controlled-hiv-patients
#14
Jeremy F Strain, Tricia H Burdo, Sheng-Kwei Song, Peng Sun, Omar El-Ghazzawy, Brittany Nelson, Elizabeth Westerhaus, Laurie Baker, Florin Vaida, Beau M Ances
Inflammation occurs after HIV infection and persists despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), measures HIV associated white matter changes, but can be confounded by inflammation. Currently, the influence of inflammation on white matter integrity in well-controlled HIV+ patients remains unknown. We used diffusion basis spectral imaging (DBSI) derived cellularity to isolate restricted water diffusion associated with inflammation separated from the anisotropic diffusion associated with axonal integrity...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793933/can-cognitive-assessment-really-discriminate-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-and-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-at-initial-clinical-presentation
#15
Sophia Reul, Hubertus Lohmann, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Duning, Andreas Johnen
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological testing is considered crucial for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed specific dysfunctions in the two dementia syndromes. However, a significant overlap of cognitive impairments exists in early disease stages. We questioned whether a standard neuropsychological assessment at initial clinical presentation can delineate patients with AD versus bvFTD...
August 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792973/the-effects-of-normal-aging-on-multiple-aspects-of-financial-decision-making
#16
Dorien F Bangma, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts
OBJECTIVES: Financial decision-making (FDM) is crucial for independent living. Due to cognitive decline that accompanies normal aging, older adults might have difficulties in some aspects of FDM. However, an improved knowledge, personal experience and affective decision-making, which are also related to normal aging, may lead to a stable or even improved age-related performance in some other aspects of FDM. Therefore, the present explorative study examines the effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of FDM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791662/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-improves-cognitive-performance-and-functional-connectivity-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-individuals
#17
Yuchuan Zhuang, Xing Qiu, Lu Wang, Qing Ma, Mark Mapstone, Amneris Luque, Miriam Weber, Madalina Tivarus, Eric Miller, Roberto C Arduino, Jianhui Zhong, Giovanni Schifitto
Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cognitive performance and functional and structural connectivity and their relationship to plasma levels of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Seventeen ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals (baseline mean CD4 cell count, 479 ± 48 cells/mm(3)) were age matched with 17 HIV-uninfected individuals. All subjects underwent a detailed neurocognitive and functional assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. HIV-infected subjects were scanned before starting cART and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790971/recurrent-epileptic-auras-as-a-presenting-symptom-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Rani A Sarkis, Kim C Willment, Seth A Gale, Barbara A Dworetzky
Seizures are a common co-morbidity during the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a subset of patients may be one of the presenting symptoms. In this case series, we highlight three patients with recurrent medically refractory epileptic auras whose work up ultimately lead to the diagnosis of AD. All three patients underwent prolonged EEG, serial neuropsychological testing, FDG-PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers, and MRI. CSF biomarkers were particularly helpful in two cases. These cases highlight the importance of having a high index of suspicion for AD in new onset "idiopathic" epilepsy in the elderly...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790808/copd-patients-self-reported-adherence-psychosocial-factors-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-pulmonary-rehabilitation
#19
Antonia Pierobon, Elisa Sini Bottelli, Laura Ranzini, Claudio Bruschi, Roberto Maestri, Giorgio Bertolotti, Marinella Sommaruga, Valeria Torlaschi, Simona Callegari, Anna Giardini
In addition to clinical comorbidities, psychological and neuropsychological problems are frequent in COPD and may affect pulmonary rehabilitation delivery and outcome. The aims of the study were to describe a COPD population in a rehabilitative setting as regards the patients depressive symptoms, anxiety, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and self-reported adherence and to analyze their relationships; to compare the COPD sample MCI scores with normative data; and to investigate which factors might predict adherence to prescribed physical exercise...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783930/the-relationship-between-the-snap-25-polymorphism-and-omission-errors-in-korean-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Eunjoo Kim, Dong-Ho Song, Nam-Wook Kim, In-Jung Sohn, Keun-Ah Cheon
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) genotype and performance on the continuous performance test (CPT) in Korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Eighty-seven children with ADHD (mean age, 9.23±1.99 years) participated in this study. Omission errors, commission errors, reaction time, and reaction time variability on the CPT were analyzed. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3746544 (1065 T>G) of SNAP-25 was genotyped to examine the association with CPT performance...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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